Model-based Cost-Effectiveness Analyses Comparing Combinations of Urate Lowering Therapy and Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Newly Diagnosed Gout Patients
Celine van de Laar, Martijn A.H. Oude Voshaar, Carly Janssen et. al.

Nov 13th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of various combinations of urate lowering therapy (ULT) and anti-inflammatory treatment in the management of newly diagnosed gout patients, from the Dutch societal perspective.  Methods: The Anakinra versus Treatment as usual in the Treatment of ACute Gout (ATTACG) study was the  primary data source for  this study.  Since only patients with ...

From a Potential Solution to Part of the Problem: Analysis of Spending and Price Trends for Brand-Name and Generic Colchicine and Other Gout Medications
Natalie McCormick, Zachary Wallace, Chio Yokose et. al.

Nov 13th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Gout affects >4 million US adults aged ≥ 65 years, but little is known about the scale and drivers of public spending on gout medications, including colchicine.  Used for decades, its price rose drastically after one brand-name form (Colcrys) was granted market exclusivity from 2011-2014, as part of the FDA Unapproved Drugs Initiative. We quantified changes in total spending...

CCN3 Regulates Macrophage Function in MSU-induced Inflammation
Lihua Duan, Jie Chen 1 and Jixin Zhong, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Gout is the most common metabolic disease in which monosodium urate (MSU) crystals form and deposit in the joints and soft tissues of patients. While several lines of evidence support the importance of MSU-induced macrophage activation in the inflammatory response in gout, the mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies implicate CCN3 matricellular signaling protein as emergin...

Mononuclear Leukocyte DNA Methylome Imprinting of Networked Signaling and Immunity Regulatory Pathways in Gout
Zengmiao Wang, Ying Zhao, Amanda Phipps-Green et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Gout encompasses acute arthritis flares mediated by innate autoinflammatory responses to urate crystals, chronic granulomatous tophi, and synovitis promoting bone erosion and soft tissue damage. Here, we probed gout mediators in the circulating mononuclear leukocyte (PBMC) DNA methylome. Methods: PBMC DNA converted by Na+ bisulfite modification was hybridized to Illumina Inf...

Association of a Gout Polygenic Risk Score with Disease Severity Phenotypes Amongst Caucasian Gout Patients in Three Independent Cohorts
Nicholas Sumpter, Tony Merriman, Richard Reynolds et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on gout-associated genetic variants is associated with gout disease severity phenotypes such as age at onset, presence of tophi and flare frequency. Methods: A genome wide association study (GWAS) for gout was performed on all genotyped SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in approximately 500,000 ind...

Do Serum Urate-associated Genetic Variants Differentially Contribute to Gout Risk According to Body Mass Index? Analysis of the UK Biobank
Vicky Tai, Ravi Narang, Greg Gamble et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Both serum urate-associated genetic variants and body mass index (BMI) are associated with gout risk. The aim of this study was to systematically examine whether serum urate-associated genetic variants differ in their influence on gout risk according to BMI, and to test for interactions between these genetic variants and BMI. Methods: This research was conducted using the UK...

Association of Gout with Vitamin D: A Population-Based Study
Jinan Al-Naqeeb, Mohammed Saeed, Beata Dye 3 and Mark Jeranko et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Prior research showed conflicting results about the association of vitamin D with gout. We aimed in this study to quantify vitamin D levels in patients with and without gout using nationally representative data. Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative sample of the non-institutionalized population in the United St...

Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gout, and Osteoarthritis: A Retrospective Study Using the National Inpatient Sample from 2002-2016
Rouhin Sen, Sarah Aurit, Luay Sarsam et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Inflammation is a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The proposed etiology centers around accelerated atherosclerosis involving various cytokines in the TNF and IL families. As a result, chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA and gout are thought of as risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. There is limited data on comprehensive ...

Asymptomatic Monosodium Urate Crystal Deposition Associates with Increased Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes
Gabriela Sandoval-Plata, Kevin Morgan, Tamar Guetta-Baranes et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Persistent hyperuricaemia is a prerequisite for gout. However, only 10% of people with hyperuricaemia develop symptomatic gout, whereas 25-35% have asymptomatic monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposits. Whether these asymptomatic deposits are truly inert, or exert a sub-clinical pro-inflammatory effect is unknown. Since the immune response in gout is mediated primarily by the...

Assessing the Sensitivity to Change of the OMERACT Ultrasound Structural Gout Lesions During Urate-Lowering Therapy
Sara Nysom Christiansen, Mikkel Østergaard, Ole Slot et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity to change of ultrasound (US) structural gout lesions, as defined by the OMERACT US group, in gout patients during urate lowering therapy. Methods: US examination (28 joints, 26 tendons) was performed in patients with microscopically verified gout, who initiated or increased urate lowering therapy. Joints and tendons were evaluated by US for the OM...

Time-trends in Opioid Use Hospitalizations in Common Musculoskeletal Conditions: Gout, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Fibromyalgia, and Low Back Pain
Jasvinder Singh1 and John Cleveland, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Rates of opioid abuse and associated mortality is a problem of epidemic proportion in the U.S. To our knowledge, limited data are available on opioid use disorder (OUD)-related hospitalizations in people with common musculoskeletal diseases Methods: We used the U.S. National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from 1998-2014 to examine the rates of OUD hospitalizations without opioi...

The Relationship Between Gout and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes: A Health Data Linkage Study of 1 Million New Zealanders Using Population-level Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Equations
Ken Cai, Billy Wu, Suneela Mehta et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Some studies have reported that gout is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Furthermore, urate-lowering therapy such as allopurinol may be associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recently, population-level cardiovascular risk prediction equations for health planning have been developed and validated using linked health data in New Zeal...

Factors in Achieving Serum Uric Acid Target and the Occurrence of Gouty Arthritis: A Cross-sectional Study Based on Japanese Health Insurance Claim Data
Ruriko Koto, Akihiro Nakajima, Hideki Horiuchi 1 and Hisashi Yamanaka et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: The number of gout attacks can be reduced by achieving and maintaining serum uric acid (sUA) at or below 6.0 mg/dL, a level uniformly recommended by international guidelines. However, although urate-lowering therapy (ULT) can reliably achieve such reductions, many gout patients fail to reach their sUA target, and such patients tend to experience recurring gouty arthritis in ...

A Burden of Missense Genetic Variants in Urate Secretory Genes Is Associated with Inadequate Response to Allopurinol in People with Gout
Niamh Fanning, Ruth Topless, Christopher Frampton et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Current understanding of why the urate lowering effect of allopurinol varies among individuals with gout is limited. The rs2231142 (Q141K) variant of ABCG2 is associated with inadequate response to allopurinol. The goal of this research was to identify variations in genes grouped by function and how they affect allopurinol response. Methods: The exomes of 77 people with gout...

Assessing the Risk of Gout with Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitors: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Michael Fralick, Sarah Chen, Elisabetta Patorno 3 and Seoyoung C. Kim et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Hyperuricemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with an increased risk of gout. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the newest class of medications for adults with diabetes mellitus, promote glycosuria and also lower serum uric acid levels through urinary excretion. The objective of our study was to assess the risk of gout a...

Epidemiology of Gout in South Korea with the National Health Insurance Corporation Database
Jinsu Park, Jung-Soo Song, Minjin Kang 3 and Chan Hee Lee et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis that results from chronic elevation of uric acid levels above the saturation point for monosodium urate crystal formation. However, data on gout incidence, prevalence and management, are sparse, especially in Korean populations. We reevaluated the recent prevalence and incidence of gout in Korean people after our previous study ...

Risk of Non-vertebral Fracture in Gout Compared to Rheumatoid Arthritis
Soo-Kyung Cho, Jun Liu 2 and Seoyoung C. Kim, Hanyang University Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis, characterized by hyperuricemia leading to crystallization of uric acid in joints. Proinflammatory cytokines have been known as an increasing factor for osteoporotic fractures, and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are considered to be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. However, association betw...

The First Phase 2a Proof-of-Concept Study of a Selective NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibitor, Dapansutrile™ (OLT1177™), in Acute Gout
Tim Jansen, Viola Kluck, Matthijs Janssen et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Acute gout is a severe debilitating type of arthritis that is treated in the acute phase with potent anti-inflammatory drugs. To date, prednisolone, colchicine and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the standard of care despite serious side effects of chronic use, especially in the elderly population. In addition, interleukin (IL)-1 biologics (e.g., canakinumab/ril...

Population Impact Attributable to Modifiable Risk Factors for Hyperuricemia and the Fallacy of the Variance Explained
Natalie McCormick, Na Lu, Sharan Rai et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: In a seminal BMJ paper (Prior 1986), the Tokelau Island migrant study for gout and hyperuricemia concluded preventive strategies to modify body mass, diet and patterns of alcohol use were needed to prevent gout in this migrant population living in urban New Zealand (9 times higher risk of gout vs. their non-immigrant counterparts).  This and other multiple layers of epidemio...

Pharmacoepidemiology of Gout Treatment in Office-based Outpatient Care from 2009- 2016
Yu Pei Chock, Joseph Ross, Lisa Suter 2 and Taeho Greg Rhee et. al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - Background/Purpose: Studies show that gout treatment remains suboptimal in the United States (US). Despite clear benefits for urate-lowering therapy (ULT) for chronic gout, surveyed physicians in the US are less likely to continue prescribing ULT after the first prescription. Prophylactic therapy was also infrequently prescribed concurrently with initial ULT. Our study investigates rates and tr...