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Pain and dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease may share common pathophysiological mechanisms – An fMRI study
https://www.jns-journal.com/article/S0022-510X(20)30242-2/pdf
Journal of Neurological Sciences;

May 26th, 2020 - Parkinson's disease (PD) patients develop levodopa induced dyskinesia with disease progression from sensitization of central pathways. Pain pathways are also impacted with suggestions dyskinetic patients may process pain differently.

Association between Olfactory Deficit and Motor and Cognitive Function in Parkinson’s Disease
https://www.e-jmd.org/upload/jmd-19082.pdf
Journal of Movement Disorders;

We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9)...

Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism Dissociation in the Putamen Is Predictive of Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease Patients
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2019.01217/full
Frontiers in Neurology;

Nov 20th, 2019 - The forefront treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is Levodopa. When patients are treated with Levodopa cerebral blood flow is increased while cerebral metabolic rate is decreased in key subcortical regions including the putamen. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in patients with Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).

White matter hyperintensities and risk of levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/acn3.50991
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology;

Feb 6th, 2020 - To investigate whether the burden of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is associated with the risk of developing levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

The impact of levodopa therapy-induced complications on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients in Singapore
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593098/

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of levodopa therapy-induced complications on the quality of life (QoL) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients in Singapore over a 1-year follow-up period. 274 PD patients were prospectively recruited, of which 78 patients completed the follow-up. Patients were evaluated on: (1) motor symptoms, (2) non-motor symptoms, (3) levodopa therapy-i...

Surgical Treatment of Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5586111/

The treatment of motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially a trade-off between adequate relief of motor symptoms and prevention and control of motor complications, particularly levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Progression of PD is paralleled by a progressive difficulty in achieving the balance. Functional neurosurgical procedures provide sustained relief of LID in carefu...

Cerebellar Connectivity in Parkinson's Disease With Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31643140/

The precise pathogenesis or neural correlates underlying levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) remains poorly understood. There is growing evidence of the involvement of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study evaluated the role of motor cerebellar connectivity in determining vulnerability to LID.

Prominent Oromandibular Dystonia as Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mdc3.12759
Movement Disorders;

Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) is a recognized motor response complication affecting 30% to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease on chronic levodopa (l‐dopa) therapy.1, 2 It is typically choreiform, and involves all parts of the body, especially the head and neck. Besides chorea, rarer types of LIDs include myoclonic dyskinesia, ocular dyskinesia, and respiratory dyskinesia.1 Oromandibul...

Flow-metabolism dissociation in the pathogenesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5033758/

Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is the most common, disruptive complication of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pharmacotherapy, yet despite decades of research, the changes in regional brain function underlying LID remain largely unknown. We previously found that the cerebral vasomotor and metabolic responses to levodopa are dissociated in PD subjects. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether levodopa-med...

Synaptic Plasticity and Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia: Electrophysiological and Structural Abnormalities
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29492662/
Journal of Neural Transmission;

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the midbrain. The gold-standard therapy for PD is the restoration of dopamine (DA) levels through the chronic administration of the DA precursor levodopa (L-DOPA). Although levodopa therapy is the main therapeutic approach for PD, its use is limited by the develo...

Is cannabidiol the ideal drug to treat non-motor Parkinson’s disease symptoms?
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00406-019-00982-6
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience;

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rest tremor, postural disturbances, and rigidity. PD is also characterized by non-motor symptoms such as sleep disturbances, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety. The pharmacological treatment for these symptoms is limited in ...

Levodopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements correlate with altered permeability of the blood-brain-barrier in the basal ganglia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700135/
Scientific Reports;

Chronic levodopa treatment leads to the appearance of dyskinesia in the majority of Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurovascular dysregulation in putaminal and pallidal regions is thought to be an underlying feature of this complication of treatment. We used microPET to study unilaterally lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine rats that developed levodopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) after ...

Safety and tolerability of IRL790 in Parkinson’s disease with levodopa-induced dyskinesia—a phase 1b trial
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283839/
NPJ Parkinson's Disease;

IRL790 is a novel compound with psychomotor stabilizing properties primarily targeting the dopamine D3 receptor. IRL790 is developed as an experimental treatment for levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), impulse control disorder, and psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The primary objective was to investigate the safety and tolerability of IRL790 in PD patients with LID in a randomized controll...

Neural substrates and potential treatments for levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease
https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/revneuro/27/7/article-p729.xml
Reviews in the Neurosciences;

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder that involves the gradual loss of motor function. Symptoms are observed initially in the extremities, such as hands and arms, while advanced stages of the disease can effect blinking, swallowing, speaking, and breathing. PD is a neurodegenerative disease, with dopaminergic neuronal loss occurring in the substantia nigra pars compacta, thus ...

Dysfunctional inhibitory control in Parkinson’s disease patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00415-018-8945-1
Journal of Neurology;

Chronic dopamine replacement therapies in Parkinson’s disease can induce side effects, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesias and impulse control disorders. A dysfunction of inhibitory brain networks has been related to both disorders; however, there is no clear behavioral evidence supporting this hypothesis. We aimed to determine whether PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias show feature...

The serotonergic system in Parkinson’s patients with dyskinesia: evidence from imaging studies
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060863/

The purpose of review is to review the current status of positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging of serotonergic system in Parkinson’s patients who experience levodopa-induced (LIDs) and graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs). PET imaging studies have shown that Parkinson’s disease is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Parkinson’s patients who exp...

Sensory Tricks for Cervical Levodopa‐induced Dyskinesia in Patients with Parkinson's Disease
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407061/

Choreiform or dystonic movement in the craniocervical region can occur as levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID). “Sensory tricks” are various alleviating maneuvers for the relief of abnormal postures in patients who have idiopathic focal dystonia, particularly those who have cervical dystonia. The authors report on three men with Parkinson's disease who had been receiving levodopa for more than 3 y...

Dopamine Transporter Density in de novo Parkinson's Disease Does Not Relate to the Development of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901354/

In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the onset of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) is difficult to predict. This study examines whether dopamine transporter (DAT)-specific SPECT imaging in de novo PD relates to later development of LIDs.

Prevalence of Dyskinesia and OFF by 30-Minute Intervals Through the Day and Assessment of Daily Episodes of Dyskinesia and OFF: Novel Analyses of Diary Data from Gocovri Pivotal Trials
https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-parkinsons-disease/jpd181565
Journal of Parkinson's Disease;

Jul 29th, 2019 - Evaluate prevalence of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF through the day, assessed by 30-minute intervals, as well as the mean number and duration of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF episodes, transitions between PD states, and effects of Gocovri® (amantadine) extended release capsules on these episodes.