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Osmolex ER (amantadine) extended-release tablets
https://www.osmolex.com/

Learn about OSMOLEX ER, which is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and for the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions in adult patients.Osmolex ER is contraindicated in patients with end-stage renal disease.

Pain and dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease may share common pathophysiological mechanisms – An fMRI study
https://www.jns-journal.com/article/S0022-510X(20)30242-2/pdf
Journal of Neurological Sciences;

May 27th, 2020 - Parkinson's disease (PD) patients develop levodopa induced dyskinesia with disease progression from sensitization of central pathways. Pain pathways are also impacted with suggestions dyskinetic patients may process pain differently.

White matter hyperintensities and risk of levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/acn3.50991
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology;

Feb 7th, 2020 - To investigate whether the burden of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is associated with the risk of developing levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism Dissociation in the Putamen Is Predictive of Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease Patients
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2019.01217/full
Frontiers in Neurology;

Nov 21st, 2019 - The forefront treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is Levodopa. When patients are treated with Levodopa cerebral blood flow is increased while cerebral metabolic rate is decreased in key subcortical regions including the putamen. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in patients with Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).

Prevalence of Dyskinesia and OFF by 30-Minute Intervals Through the Day and Assessment of Daily Episodes of Dyskinesia and OFF: Novel Analyses of Diary Data from Gocovri Pivotal Trials
https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-parkinsons-disease/jpd181565
Journal of Parkinson's Disease;

Jul 30th, 2019 - Evaluate prevalence of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF through the day, assessed by 30-minute intervals, as well as the mean number and duration of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF episodes, transitions between PD states, and effects of Gocovri® (amantadine) extended release capsules on these episodes.

Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: clinical features, incidence, and risk factors
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00702-018-1900-6
Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies;

Jul 3rd, 2018 - Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have been controlled with levodopa for many years; however, motor complications consisting of wearing off of medication effect and dyskinesias tend to occur within a few years of starting levodopa. Motor complications can begin a few months after taking levodopa, with the average time to onset estimated to be 6.5 years. Dyskinesias can be troublesome and require ...

Practice guideline update recommendations summary: Disorders of consciousness Report of the ...
http://n.neurology.org/content/early/2018/08/08/WNL.0000000000005926
Joseph T. Giacino

May 22nd, 2018 - Clinicians should identify and treat confounding conditions, optimize arousal, and perform serial standardized assessments to improve diagnostic accuracy in adults and children with prolonged DoC (Level B). Clinicians should counsel families that for adults, MCS (vs vegetative state [VS]/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome [UWS]) and traumatic (vs nontraumatic) etiology are associated with more f.

Pooled Analysis of Phase 3 studies of ADS-5102 (amantadine hydrochloride) extended release capsules for Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia: A detailed review of UDysRS Results (S56.003)
https://n.neurology.org/content/88/16_Supplement/S56.003
Neurology

Apr 17th, 2017 - Data from two Phase 3 clinical studies investigating the efficacy and safety of ADS-5102 in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) were pooled to summarize results for the shared primary endpoint, Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) and its sub-components.

Presynaptic mechanisms of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: the findings, the debate, and the therapeutic implications
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2014.00242/full
Frontiers in Neurology;

Dec 15th, 2014 - The dopamine (DA) precursor l-DOPA has been the most effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) for over 40 years. However, the response to this treatment changes with disease progression, and most patients develop dyskinesias (abnormal involuntary movements) and motor fluctuations within a few years of l-DOPA therapy.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors for Parkinson's Disease Therapy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703788/
Parkinson's Disease;

May 29th, 2013 - Excessive glutamatergic signalling within the basal ganglia is implicated in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) and inthe emergence of dyskinesia associated with long-term treatment with L-DOPA. There is considerable research focus on the discovery and development of compounds that modulate glutamatergic signalling via glutamate receptors, as treatments for PD and L-DOPA-induced dyskin...

The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale: Presentation and clinimetric profile
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mds.22341
Movement Disorders;

Nov 21st, 2008 - We developed and tested a rating scale aimed to capture the essential features of dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several scales assess selected attributes of PD‐dyskinesias, no comprehensive rating tool exists. Available rating scales were evaluated by the investigators and patient focus groups.

Advances in understanding l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959438808000068?via=ihub
Current Opinion in Neurobiology;

Mar 4th, 2008 - The crucial role of dopamine (DA) in movement control is illustrated by the spectrum of motor disorders caused by either a deficiency or a hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission in the basal ganglia. The degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons in Parkinson's disease causes poverty and slowness of movement. These symptoms are greatly improved by pharmacological DA replacement with l-3,4-dih...

Optimizing levodopa therapy for Parkinson’s disease with levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone: implications from a clinical and patient perspective
https://www.dovepress.com/optimizing-levodopa-therapy-for-parkinsonrsquos-disease-with-levodopac-peer-reviewed-article-NDT
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment;

Feb 8th, 2008 - After 40 years of clinical experience, levodopa remains the gold standard treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) despite the recent emergence of a host of new therapies. Some physicians are cautious when prescribing levodopa because of its association with motor complications. Evidence now suggests that levodopa-associated complications are a result of deep troughs in delivery of levodopa to th...

Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: clinical features, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600052/
Postgraduate Medical Journal;

Jun 5th, 2007 - Levodopa is the most effective drug for treating Parkinson's disease. However, long‐term use of levodopa is often complicated by significantly disabling fluctuations and dyskinesias negating its beneficial effects. Younger age of Parkinson's disease onset, disease severity, and high levodopa dose increase the risk of development of levodopa‐induced dyskinesias (LID). The underlying mechanisms f...

The levodopa wearing-off phenomenon in Parkinson’s disease: pharmacokinetic considerations
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1517/14656566.7.10.1399?src=recsys&journalCode=ieop20
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy;

Jun 29th, 2006 - Levodopa is the most efficacious treatment in the management of Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, chronic use of traditional levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor formulations is associated with the development of complications, such as wearing-off and dyskinesia. In an attempt to avoid these complications, some physicians delay the introduction of levodopa or employ levodopa-sparing strategi...

Impairments in Activities of Daily Living in Parkinson's Disease: Implications for Management
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14530586/
NeuroRehabilitation

Sep 10th, 2003 - Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive impairment in motor and cognitive functioning. A review of past research shows that individuals experience not only physical discomfort brought on by the illness, but also considerable psychological distress. Increased dependency on a caregiver due to impairments in activities of daily living (e.g., walking, eating, dress...

Safety and efficacy of amantadine, modafinil, and methylphenidate for fatigue in multip...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772747
The Lancet. Neurology; Nourbakhsh B, Revirajan N et. al.

Nov 27th, 2020 - Methylphenidate, modafinil, and amantadine are commonly prescribed medications for alleviating fatigue in multiple sclerosis; however, the evidence supporting their efficacy is sparse and conflicting. Our goal was to compare the efficacy of these three medications with each other and placebo in patients with multiple sclerosis fatigue. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, four-sequence, four...

ADS-5102 (Amantadine) Extended-Release Capsules for Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson Disease (EASE LID Study)
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/fullarticle/2630682
JAMA Neurology;

Are 274-mg ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended-release capsules safe and effective for the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson disease?

Amantadine for Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias: A 1-Year Follow-up Study
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/fullarticle/775600
JAMA Neurology;

In a recent acute study, amantadine was found to have antidyskinetic effect against levodopa-induced motor complications in patients with Parkinson disease. The longevity of this effect was not addressed but is of interest in light of the controversy in the literature regarding the duration of amantadine's well-established antiparkinsonian action.

Vision-based assessment of parkinsonism and levodopa-induced dyskinesia with pose estimation
https://jneuroengrehab.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12984-018-0446-z
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation;

Despite the effectiveness of levodopa for treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), prolonged usage leads to development of motor complications, most notably levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Persons with PD and their physicians must regularly modify treatment regimens and timing for optimal relief of symptoms. While standardized clinical rating scales exist for assessing the severity of PD sympt...