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Prevalence of Dyskinesia and OFF by 30-Minute Intervals Through the Day and Assessment of Daily Episodes of Dyskinesia and OFF: Novel Analyses of Diary Data from Gocovri Pivotal Trials
https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-parkinsons-disease/jpd181565
Journal of Parkinson's Disease;

Jul 29th, 2019 - Evaluate prevalence of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF through the day, assessed by 30-minute intervals, as well as the mean number and duration of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF episodes, transitions between PD states, and effects of Gocovri® (amantadine) extended release capsules on these episodes.

Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: clinical features, incidence, and risk factors
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00702-018-1900-6
Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies;

Jul 2nd, 2018 - Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have been controlled with levodopa for many years; however, motor complications consisting of wearing off of medication effect and dyskinesias tend to occur within a few years of starting levodopa. Motor complications can begin a few months after taking levodopa, with the average time to onset estimated to be 6.5 years. Dyskinesias can be troublesome and require ...

Impairments in Activities of Daily Living in Parkinson's Disease: Implications for Management
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14530586/
NeuroRehabilitation

Sep 9th, 2003 - Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive impairment in motor and cognitive functioning. A review of past research shows that individuals experience not only physical discomfort brought on by the illness, but also considerable psychological distress. Increased dependency on a caregiver due to impairments in activities of daily living (e.g., walking, eating, dress...

Presynaptic mechanisms of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: the findings, the debate, and the therapeutic implications
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2014.00242/full
Frontiers in Neurology;

Dec 14th, 2014 - The dopamine (DA) precursor l-DOPA has been the most effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) for over 40 years. However, the response to this treatment changes with disease progression, and most patients develop dyskinesias (abnormal involuntary movements) and motor fluctuations within a few years of l-DOPA therapy.

Pooled Analysis of Phase 3 studies of ADS-5102 (amantadine hydrochloride) extended release capsules for Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia: A detailed review of UDysRS Results (S56.003)
https://n.neurology.org/content/88/16_Supplement/S56.003
Neurology

Apr 16th, 2017 - Data from two Phase 3 clinical studies investigating the efficacy and safety of ADS-5102 in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) were pooled to summarize results for the shared primary endpoint, Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) and its sub-components.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors for Parkinson's Disease Therapy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703788/
Parkinson's Disease;

May 28th, 2013 - Excessive glutamatergic signalling within the basal ganglia is implicated in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) and inthe emergence of dyskinesia associated with long-term treatment with L-DOPA. There is considerable research focus on the discovery and development of compounds that modulate glutamatergic signalling via glutamate receptors, as treatments for PD and L-DOPA-induced dyskin...

The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale: Presentation and clinimetric profile
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mds.22341
Movement Disorders;

Nov 20th, 2008 - We developed and tested a rating scale aimed to capture the essential features of dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several scales assess selected attributes of PD‐dyskinesias, no comprehensive rating tool exists. Available rating scales were evaluated by the investigators and patient focus groups.

Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: clinical features, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600052/
Postgraduate Medical Journal;

Jun 4th, 2007 - Levodopa is the most effective drug for treating Parkinson's disease. However, long‐term use of levodopa is often complicated by significantly disabling fluctuations and dyskinesias negating its beneficial effects. Younger age of Parkinson's disease onset, disease severity, and high levodopa dose increase the risk of development of levodopa‐induced dyskinesias (LID). The underlying mechanisms f...

Advances in understanding l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959438808000068?via=ihub
Current Opinion in Neurobiology;

Mar 3rd, 2008 - The crucial role of dopamine (DA) in movement control is illustrated by the spectrum of motor disorders caused by either a deficiency or a hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission in the basal ganglia. The degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons in Parkinson's disease causes poverty and slowness of movement. These symptoms are greatly improved by pharmacological DA replacement with l-3,4-dih...

The levodopa wearing-off phenomenon in Parkinson’s disease: pharmacokinetic considerations
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1517/14656566.7.10.1399?src=recsys&journalCode=ieop20
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy;

Jun 28th, 2006 - Levodopa is the most efficacious treatment in the management of Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, chronic use of traditional levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor formulations is associated with the development of complications, such as wearing-off and dyskinesia. In an attempt to avoid these complications, some physicians delay the introduction of levodopa or employ levodopa-sparing strategi...

Optimizing levodopa therapy for Parkinson’s disease with levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone: implications from a clinical and patient perspective
https://www.dovepress.com/optimizing-levodopa-therapy-for-parkinsonrsquos-disease-with-levodopac-peer-reviewed-article-NDT
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment;

Feb 7th, 2008 - After 40 years of clinical experience, levodopa remains the gold standard treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) despite the recent emergence of a host of new therapies. Some physicians are cautious when prescribing levodopa because of its association with motor complications. Evidence now suggests that levodopa-associated complications are a result of deep troughs in delivery of levodopa to th...

The Concept of Prodromal Parkinson’s Disease
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4927924/
Journal of Parkinson's Disease;

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently clinically defined by a set of cardinal motor features centred on the presence of bradykinesia and at least one additional motor symptom out of tremor, rigidity or postural instability. However, converging evidence from clinical, neuropathological, and imaging research suggests initiation of PD-specific pathology prior to appearance of these classical motor...

Premotor Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5636732/
Neuroscience Bulletin;

Typical Parkinsonian symptoms consist of bradykinesia plus rigidity and/or resting tremor. Some time later postural instability occurs. Pre-motor symptoms such as hyposmia, constipation, REM sleep behavior disorder and depression may antecede these motor symptoms for years. It would be ideal, if we had a biomarker which would allow to predict who with one or two of these pre-motor symptoms will...

Clinical Features of Parkinson’s Disease: The Evolution of Critical Symptoms
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/9/5/103/htm
Biology

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multi-attribute neurodegenerative disorder combining motor and nonmotor symptoms without well-defined diagnostic clinical markers. The presence of primary motor features (bradykinesia, rest tremor, rigidity and loss of postural reflexes) are the most characteristic signs of PD that are also utilized to identify patients in current clinical practice. The successful ...

Pharmacokinetics of ADS-5102 (Amantadine) Extended Release Capsules Administered Once Daily at Bedtime for the Treatment of Dyskinesia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325984/
Clinical Pharmacokinetics;

Preclinical and clinical studies suggest amantadine immediate-release (IR) may reduce dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease (PD), although higher doses are associated with increased CNS adverse events (AEs). ADS-5102 is an extended release amantadine capsule formulation, designed for once-daily dosing at bedtime (qhs) to provide high concentrations upon waking and throughout the day, with lower con...

The clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jnc.13691
Journal of Neurochemistry;

In this review, the clinical features of Parkinson's disease, both motor and non‐motor, are described in the context of the progression of the disease. Also briefly discussed are the major treatment strategies and their complications.

Imaging in Parkinson’s disease
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280219/
Clinical Medicine;

The clinical presentation of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is heterogeneous and overlaps with other conditions, including the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and essential tremor. Imaging of the brain in patients with parkinsonism has the ability to increase the accuracy of differential diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single ...