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About 42 results

ALLMedicine™ Ammonia Toxicity Center - Research & Reviews

Ammonia toxicity and its prevention in inherited defects of the urea cycle.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01054.x
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism; Walker V

Jun 17th, 2009 - The urea cycle is the final pathway for removal of surplus nitrogen from the body, and the major route in humans for detoxification of ammonia. The full complement of enzymes is expressed only in liver. Inherited deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes lead to hyperammonaemia, which causes brain damage. Severe defects present with hyperammonaemic crises in neonates. Equally devastating episodes may ...

Ammonia induces RNA oxidation in cultured astrocytes and brain in vivo.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.22345
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.); Görg B, Qvartskhava N et. al.

May 28th, 2008 - Oxidative stress plays a major role in cerebral ammonia toxicity and the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). As shown in this study, ammonia induces a rapid RNA oxidation in cultured rat astrocytes, vital mouse brain slices, and rat brain in vivo. Ammonia-induced RNA oxidation in cultured astrocytes is reversible and sensitive to MK-801, 1,2-Bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraace...

Oxidative stress markers in the brain of patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalop...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395472
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.); Görg B, Qvartskhava N et. al.

Jun 28th, 2010 - Cell culture studies and animal models point to an important role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the pathogenesis of cerebral ammonia toxicity. However, it is unknown whether oxidative/nitrosative stress in the brain is also characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in humans. We therefore analyzed post mortem cortical brain tissue samples from patients with cirrhosis dying with or with...

Interaction of oxidative stress, astrocyte swelling and cerebral ammonia toxicity.
https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0b013e328333b829
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care; Häussinger D, Görg B

Nov 11th, 2009 - Description of the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cerebral ammonia toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy. Ammonia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, which manifests as a neuropsychiatric syndrome accompanying acute and chronic liver failure. One consequence of ammonia action on the brain is astrocyte swelling, which triggers the generation of oxidativ...

Microglia activation in hepatic encephalopathy in rats and humans.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.24326
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.); Zemtsova I, Görg B et. al.

Mar 31st, 2011 - Astrocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and ammonia toxicity, whereas little is known about microglia and neuroinflammation under these conditions. We therefore studied the effects of ammonia on rat microglia in vitro and in vivo and analyzed markers of neuroinflammation in post mortem brain tissue from patients with cirrhosis with and without HE and...

Hyperammonemia in review: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-1838-5
Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany); Auron A, Brophy PD

Mar 24th, 2011 - Ammonia is an important source of nitrogen and is required for amino acid synthesis. It is also necessary for normal acid-base balance. When present in high concentrations, ammonia is toxic. Endogenous ammonia intoxication can occur when there is impaired capacity of the body to excrete nitrogenous waste, as seen with congenital enzymatic deficiencies. A variety of environmental causes and medi...

Liquid Swine Manure Can Kill Verticillium dahliae Microsclerotia in Soil by Volatile Fa...
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-95-0028
Phytopathology Conn KL, Tenuta M et. al.

Oct 23rd, 2008 - ABSTRACT In previous studies, liquid swine manure (LSM) was sometimes shown to reduce Verticillium wilt of potato caused by Verticillium dahliae. We also observed that microsclerotia of this fungus died within 1 day, or between 3 and 6 weeks, after addition of LSM to some acid soils and within 1 week in some alkaline soils. In this study, we demonstrated that a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture...

Fatal ammonia toxicity in an adult due to an undiagnosed urea cycle defect: under-recog...
https://doi.org/10.1258/acb.2010.009250
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry; Thurlow VR, Asafu-Adjaye M et. al.

Apr 21st, 2010 - There is a lack of awareness of acutely presenting inborn errors of metabolism in adults, of which the X-linked urea cycle defect ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is an example, many comparatively mild mutations having been identified. In male hemizygotes clinical manifestations and age at presentation vary and depend on the mutation. In female heterozygotes the clinical spectrum dep...

Transcriptomic evidence of adaptive tolerance to high environmental ammonia in mudskipp...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2018.09.001
Genomics You X, Chen J et. al.

Sep 27th, 2018 - Mudskippers are typical amphibious fishes and possess various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during exposure to environmental ammonia. The present study aimed to provide transcriptomic evidence through profiling the gill and liver transcriptomes of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris (BP) and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus (PM), which were subjected to treatment with high environmental ammo...

Deriving site-specific water quality criteria for ammonia from national versus internat...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.12.078
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety; Liu Z, Tai P et. al.

Jan 18th, 2019 - A key question to be asked when developing regional water quality criteria with scarce toxicity data is whether such data need to be locally derived. To address this, ammonia toxicity data from local aquatic species in the Liao River were compared against data from species native and non-native to China, based on comparisons of the overall trends of species sensitivity distributions and derived...

Ammonia toxicity to the brain.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10545-012-9546-2
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease; Braissant O, McLin VA et. al.

Oct 30th, 2012 - Hyperammonemia can be caused by various acquired or inherited disorders such as urea cycle defects. The brain is much more susceptible to the deleterious effects of ammonium in childhood than in adulthood. Hyperammonemia provokes irreversible damage to the developing central nervous system: cortical atrophy, ventricular enlargement and demyelination lead to cognitive impairment, seizures and ce...

Locomotor impairment and cerebrocortical oxidative stress in portal vein ligated rats i...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2010.06.035
Journal of Hepatology; Brück J, Görg B et. al.

Nov 18th, 2010 - Oxidative/nitrosative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and ammonia toxicity. The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the impact of portal vein ligation on cerebrocortical oxidative stress and its relation to locomotor activity. Cerebral protein tyrosine nitration, RNA oxidation, locomotor activity, and microglia activation were studie...

High Concentrations of Atmospheric Ammonia Induce Alterations in the Hepatic Proteome o...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4406733
PloS One; Zhang J, Li C et. al.

Apr 22nd, 2015 - With the development of the poultry industry, ammonia, as a main contaminant in the air, is causing increasing problems with broiler health. To date, most studies of ammonia toxicity have focused on the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract in mammals. However, few detailed studies have been conducted on the hepatic response to ammonia toxicity in poultry. The molecular mechanisms that ...

Maggot Therapy for Elephantiasis Nostras Verrucosa Reveals New Applications and New Com...
https://doi.org/10.1177/1534734614536036
The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds; Borst GM, Goettler CE et. al.

May 27th, 2014 - Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) is a rare dermatologic condition caused by chronic nonfilarial lymphedema. The treatment for ENV is challenging and based solely on case reports. We report novel therapy for ENV with maggot debridement therapy (MDT), an effective wound therapy that has gained popularity with the rise of antimicrobial resistance. MDT, in combination with tangential surgical ...

CNTF protects oligodendrocytes from ammonia toxicity: intracellular signaling pathways ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2008.09.025
Neurobiology of Disease; Cagnon L, Braissant O

Nov 10th, 2008 - In pediatric patients, hyperammonemia can provoke irreversible damages to developing CNS like cortical atrophy, ventricular enlargement, demyelination or gray and white matter hypodensities which are concordant with alterations of neurons and oligodendrocytes. Cerebral injury triggers endogenous protective mechanisms that can prevent or limit brain damage. Understanding these mechanisms may lea...

Roles of Glutamate and Glutamine Transport in Ammonia Neurotoxicity: State of the Art a...
https://doi.org/10.2174/1871520618666171219124427
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets; Dabrowska K, Skowronska K et. al.

Dec 19th, 2017 - Excessive accumulation of ammonia in the brain is a causative factor of an array of neurological manifestations of hyperammonemic encephalopathies ("hyperammonemias", HA) among which hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major epidemiologic and therapeutic challenge. While ammonia neurotoxicity is symptomatically and mechanistically very complex, there is a consensus with regard to the leading role ...

Ammonia toxicity to the freshwater planarian Polycelis felina: contrasting effects of c...
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0129-8
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology; Alonso Á, Camargo JA

Jan 21st, 2015 - Aquatic animals can be exposed to fluctuating concentrations of toxicants. In fact, for some toxicants (i.e., pesticides, ammonia), discontinuous exposure is more environmentally relevant than constant exposure. Responses of aquatic animals to each type of exposure may be different. However, despite the high ecological relevance of behaviour, there is still scarce information on the effects of ...

Resveratrol prevents ammonia toxicity in astroglial cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3528750
PloS One; Bobermin LD, Quincozes-Santos A et. al.

Jan 3rd, 2013 - Ammonia is implicated as a neurotoxin in brain metabolic disorders associated with hyperammonemia. Acute ammonia toxicity can be mediated by an excitotoxic mechanism, oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) production. Astrocytes interact with neurons, providing metabolic support and protecting against oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Astrocytes also convert excess ammonia and glutamate into...

Interaction between cytokines and ammonia in the mitochondrial permeability transition ...
https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22708
Journal of Neuroscience Research; Alvarez VM, Rama Rao KV et. al.

Jul 12th, 2011 - Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is the major neurological complication occurring in patients with acute and chronic liver failure. Elevated levels of blood and brain ammonia are characteristic of HE, and astrocytes are the primary target of ammonia toxicity. In addition to ammonia, recent studies suggest that inflammation and associated cytokines (CKs) also contribute to the pathogenesis of HE. It ...

The bile duct ligated rat: A relevant model to study muscle mass loss in cirrhosis.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11011-016-9937-4
Metabolic Brain Disease; Bosoi CR, Oliveira MM et. al.

Dec 16th, 2016 - Muscle mass loss and hepatic encephalopathy (complex neuropsychiatric disorder) are serious complications of chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) which impact negatively on clinical outcome and quality of life and increase mortality. Liver disease leads to hyperammonemia and ammonia toxicity is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. However, the effects of amm...