Gastroenterology Hadjiliadis D, Khoruts A et. al.
Dec 31st, 2017 - Improved therapy has substantially increased survival of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). But the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults with CF is 5-10 times greater compared to the general population, and 25-30 times greater in CF patients after an organ transplantation. To address this risk, the CF Foundation convened a multi-stakeholder task force to develop CRC screening recommendatio...
Circulation Soar J et al
Nov 16th, 2019 - The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed, published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the third annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. It addresses the m...
Circulation Panchal AR et al
Nov 16th, 2019 - The fundamentals of cardiac resuscitation include the immediate provision of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation combined with rapid defibrillation (as appropriate). These mainstays of therapy set the groundwork for other possible interventions such as medications, advanced airways, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and post–cardiac arrest care, including targeted temperature...
Oct 23rd, 2019 - Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: MLNT), a commercial-stage company focused on the development and commercialization of novel antibiotics to treat serious bacterial infections, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved BAXDELA® (delafloxacin) for the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by designated susceptible b...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Dransfield, M. et. al.
Oct 19th, 2019 - Observational studies suggest that beta-blockers may reduce the risk of exacerbations and death in patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these findings have not been confirmed in randomized trials.
American Family Physician;
Oct 14th, 2019 - The incidence of pulmonary complications following major surgery is estimated to be 1% to 23%, with the risk varying based on patient factors and the type of surgery.1 Postoperative pulmonary complications include pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, atelectasis, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, bronchospasm, aspiration, respiratory failure, and acute respiratory di...
Sep 15th, 2019 - BACKGROUND: Donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine are popular cholinesterase inhibitors used to manage the symptoms of Alzheimer disease and other dementias; regulatory agencies in several countries warn about a possible risk of rhabdomyolysis with donepezil, based on information from case reports. Our goal was to investigate the 30-day risk of admission to hospital with rhabdomyolysis associ...
Anesthesiology Putzu, A. et. al.
Jun 26th, 2019 - Background: Sepsis and septic shock are severe inflammatory conditions related to high morbidity and mortality. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized trials to assess whether extracorporeal blood purification reduces mortality in this setting. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for pertinent studies up to January 2019. We included randomized controlled tr...
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Threapleton, C. et. al.
May 23rd, 2019 - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; including chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by shortness of breath, cough and recurrent exacerbations. Long‐term antibiotic use may reduce both bacterial load and inflammation in the airways. Studies have shown a reduction of exacerbations with antibiotics in comparison to placebo in people with COPD, ...
Apr 7th, 2019 - The quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) tool performs poorly in comparison to Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) as a diagnostic tool for Emergency Department (ED) patients who may have sepsis or septic shock. However, qSOFA is a good prognostic indicator in ED patients diagnosed with sepsis or septic shock.
Mar 31st, 2019 - Circassia Pharmaceuticals plc (“Circassia” or “the Company”; LSE: CIR), a specialty pharmaceutical company focused on respiratory disease, today announces the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Duaklir® for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Duaklir® is a fixed-dose combination of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) aclidinium bro...
Mar 14th, 2019 - Drowning can be silent and quick, and it kills nearly 1,000 children every year. To refocus the attention of parents and physicians on one of the leading causes of death among children, the American Academy of Pediatrics is publishing updated recommendations on water safety.
Mar 14th, 2019 - Drowning is a leading cause of injury-related death in children. In 2017, drowning claimed the lives of almost 1000 US children younger than 20 years. A number of strategies are available to prevent these tragedies. As educators and advocates, pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of drowning.
Battisti, A. et. al.
Mar 11th, 2019 - Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damage is due to shear or overstretching of tissues. As a gas-filled space expands or contracts, it can cause damage to the local tissue. Occasionally, tears in tissue can allow gas to enter the body through the initial trauma site. This causes potenti...
Kosten, T. et. al.
Jan 30th, 2019 - The opioid crisis has taken an immense toll in the United States. On average, five lives are lost to an opioid overdose every hour of the day; estimated costs associated with opioid misuse exceed $500 billion annually. Illicit opioid discontinuation is the first step in the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), and transition to an opioid agonist may initiate treatment. However, discontinuati...
Reuben, A. et. al.
Jan 22nd, 2019 - Question: Is childhood lead exposure associated with the risk of mental illness or difficult personality traits in adulthood? Findings: In this longitudinal cohort study of 579 New Zealand children followed up for more than 30 years, greater lead exposure in childhood was significantly associated with greater psychopathology across the life course and with difficult personality traits in adulth...
Kancherla, V.,et al
Dec 18th, 2018 - In this position statement, the Teratology Society acknowledges the value of accurate measurement of total prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the population to support prevention, and advocates for rigorous surveillance world‐wide. NTDs, include anencephaly and spina bifida and are some of the more common types of structural birth defects affecting pregnancies worldwide.
Puopolo, Karen M.
Nov 30th, 2018 - Early-onset sepsis (EOS) remains a serious and often fatal illness among infants born preterm, particularly among newborn infants of the lowest gestational age. Currently, most preterm infants with very low birth weight are treated empirically with antibiotics for risk of EOS, often for prolonged periods, in the absence of a culture-confirmed infection.
Nov 17th, 2018 - Cholera is a well-known disease caused by intestinal infection with the toxin-producing bacteria Vibrio cholerae. This potentially fatal diarrheal disease results in large volumes of watery stool, causing rapid dehydration that can progress to hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis.
Nov 14th, 2018 - Bacteremia in the strictest sense refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as conducting oral hygiene and after minor medical procedures. In a healthy person, these clinically benign infections are transient and cause no further sequelae. However, when immune response mechanisms fail or become overwhelmed, bacteremia becomes a blo...
Nov 13th, 2018 - Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol, paracetamol, APAP) toxicity is common primarily because the medication is so readily available and there is a perception that it is very safe. More than 60 million Americans consume acetaminophen on a weekly basis. Acetaminophen is used in many products in combination with other preparations, especially with opioids and diphenhydramine. Many people are ...
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Lewis, S. et. al.
Aug 2nd, 2018 - Critically ill people may lose fluid because of serious conditions, infections (e.g. sepsis), trauma, or burns, and need additional fluids urgently to prevent dehydration or kidney failure. Colloid or crystalloid solutions may be used for this purpose. Crystalloids have small molecules, are cheap, easy to use, and provide immediate fluid resuscitation, but may increase oedema. Colloids have lar...
May 28th, 2018 - Cardiac arrest effectiveness trials have traditionally reported outcomes that focus on survival. A lack of consistency in outcome reporting between trials limits the opportunities to pool results for meta-analysis.
Apr 30th, 2018 - In 2016, synthetic opioids (primarily illegal fentanyl) passed prescription opioids as the most common drugs involved in overdose deaths in the United States.
Apr 25th, 2018 - Despite significant advances in the field of resuscitation science, important knowledge gaps persist. Current guidelines for resuscitation are based on the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, which includes treatment recommendations supported by th.
Apr 22nd, 2018 - Rotavirus disease is characterized by vomiting and watery diarrhea for 3 to 8 days. Fever and abdominal pain also frequently occur. Additional symptoms include loss of appetite and dehydration.
Apr 22nd, 2018 - Cardiac arrest occurs at a higher rate in children with heart disease than in healthy children. Pediatric basic life support and advanced life support guidelines focus on delivering high-quality resuscitation in children with normal hearts.
Malley, G. et. al.
Mar 1st, 2018 - Amphetamines are sympathomimetic drugs with CNS stimulant and euphoriant properties whose toxic adverse effects include delirium, hypertension, seizures, and hyperthermia (which can cause rhabdomyolysis and renal failure). Toxicity is managed with supportive care, including IV benzodiazepines (for agitation, hypertension, and seizures) and cooling techniques (for hyperthermia). There is no ster...
Jan 31st, 2018 - Sepsis is a clinical syndrome of life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated response to infection. In septic shock, there is critical reduction in tissue perfusion; acute failure of multiple organs, including the lungs, kidneys, and liver, can occur. Common causes in immunocompetent patients include many different species of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Immunocompr...
Dec 11th, 2017 - Often overlooked and more difficult to identify than many other life-threatening conditions, sepsis causes one-third to one-half of all deaths in U. S.
Theresa M. Olasveengen
Nov 5th, 2017 - This is the first of an annual series of International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations summary articles that will include the cardiopulmonary resuscitation science reviewed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation in the previous year. The review this year includes 5 basic life support and 1 pedia.
Monica E. Kleinman
Nov 5th, 2017 - The American Heart Association recommendations for adult basic life support incorporate the most recently published evidence and serve as the basis for education and training for laypeople and healthcare providers who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Fred M. Kusumoto
Sep 13th, 2017 - The statement focuses on identifying the presence of lead malfunction, deciding on whether to abandon or to extract a lead that is no longer clinically necessary or at higher risk for failure, offering guidance on whether a cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is involved in an infectious process, providing recommendations on when lead extraction should be considered, and discuss.
Jadwiga A. Wedzicha
Sep 8th, 2017 - Prevention of exacerbations is a key objective in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. There are patients with COPD that are prone to suffer from recurrent exacerbations and they experience a more severe impairment in health status.
Michael J. Moss
Aug 23rd, 2017 - Fentanyl and its analogs are potent opioid receptor agonists, but the risk of clinically significant exposure to emergency responders is extremely low. To date, we have not seen reports of emergency responders developing signs or symptoms consistent with opioid toxicity from incidental contact with opioids.
Aug 1st, 2017 - Understanding the patient population within the surgeon’s geographic practice area is important to determine which patients may potentially seek increased opioid prescriptions versus those who choose not to use narcotic pain management due to social, spiritual, or religious beliefs.
Jun 14th, 2017 - Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is widely used in the acute care setting for acute respiratory failure (ARF) across a variety of aetiologies. This document provides European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society recommendations for the clinical application of NIV based on the most current literature.
May 31st, 2017 - OBJECTIVES: The American College of Critical Care Medicine provided 2002 and 2007 guidelines for hemodynamic support of newborn and pediatric septic shock. Provide the 2014 update of the 2007 American College of Critical Care Medicine "Clinical Guidelines for Hemodynamic Support of Neonates and Children with Septic Shock.
May 9th, 2017 - This is a summary of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline, “Reducing brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. ".
Apr 30th, 2017 - The panel formulated and provided the rationale for recommendations on selected ventilatory interventions for adult patients with ARDS. Clinicians managing patients with ARDS should personalize decisions for their patients, particularly regarding the conditional recommendations in this guideline.
Apr 18th, 2017 - Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth, is a relatively common condition that can present acutely or chronically and has a variety of different causes. Xerostomia, or hypo salivation, is often caused by several temporary and chronic conditions that lead to salivary gland hypofunction. Temporary causes include, most commonly, the short-term use of certain medications, infections, and dehydration.
Apr 5th, 2017 - Over the last 30 to 40 years, improvements in technology, as well as changing clinical practice regarding the appropriateness of long-term ventilation in patients with “non-curable” disorders, have resulted in increasing numbers of children surviving what were previously considered fatal conditions. This has come but at the expense of requiring ongoing, long-term prolonged mechanical ventilatio.
Michael E. Winters, Robert Sherwin
Mar 16th, 2017 - Crystalloid solutions remain the resuscitative fluid of choice for patients with sepsis and septic shock. Balanced crystalloid solutions may improve patient-centered outcomes and should be considered as an alternative to 0.
Jadwiga A. Wedzicha
Mar 14th, 2017 - The chronic and progressive course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often punctuated by “exacerbations”, defined clinically as episodes of increasing respiratory symptoms, particularly dyspnoea, cough and sputum production, and increased sputum purulence. COPD exacerbations have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients with COPD, accelerate disease progression, and.
Dec 31st, 2016 - The guideline panel provided recommendations for inspiratory pressure augmentation during an initial SBT, protocols minimizing sedation, and preventative NIV, in relation to ventilator liberation.
Michael G. Holland, David Cawthon
Nov 30th, 2016 - Lead poisoning causes adverse health effects in adults and children in a dose-dependent fashion. Workplace lead exposures below the current permissible exposure limit (PEL) that result in blood lead levels (BLLs) much lower than those permitted by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) can cause adverse health effects.
Gregory A. Schmidt
Oct 19th, 2016 - The panel provides recommendations regarding liberation from mechanical ventilation. The details regarding the evidence and rationale for each recommendation are presented in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine and Chest.
Timothy D. Girard
Oct 19th, 2016 - The American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians recommendations are intended to support healthcare professionals in their decisions related to liberating critically ill adults from mechanical ventilation.
American Society of Addiction Medicine
Oct 7th, 2016 - Naloxone is a mu-opioid antagonist with well-established safety and efficacy that can reverse opioid overdose and prevent fatalities. Naloxone treatment of opioid overdose has been in use in hospital settings for decades.
Brian L. Graham
Jul 23rd, 2016 - This document provides an update to the European Respiratory Society (ERS)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) technical standards for single-breath carbon monoxide uptake in the lung that was last updated in 2005. Although both DLCO (diffusing capacity) and TLCO (transfer factor) are valid terms to describe the uptake of carbon monoxide in the lung, the term DLCO is used in this document.