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There is no clear definition for the term ‘super-spreader’ or ‘super-spreading event’. The World Health Organization refers to a super-spreader as a patient (or an event) that may transmit infection to a larger number of individuals than is usual by one individual (or event). In the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) situation, a super-spreading event was defined as the transmission of SA...
The situation involving the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve. There is recent evidence suggesting the potential for coronavirus transmission through droplets and perhaps fecal shedding1,2 posing potential risks during endoscopy and colonoscopy to other patients, endoscopy personnel and ourselves. We provide below important information as well as recommendations to consider in your insti...
Journal of Neurological Sciences;
May 26th, 2020 - Parkinson's disease (PD) patients develop levodopa induced dyskinesia with disease progression from sensitization of central pathways. Pain pathways are also impacted with suggestions dyskinetic patients may process pain differently.
The antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the middle and later stage of the COVID-19. Antibody detection may play an important role in the diagnosis of COVID-19 as complement approach for viral nucleid acid assays.
The New England Journal of Medicine;
Previous studies have demonstrated that IgG and neutralizing antibodies against coronavirus associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) may persist, in spite of a decline in titer, for 2 years in patients who have recovered from SARS.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is issuing warning letters to firms for selling fraudulent products with claims to prevent, treat, mitigate, diagnose or cure coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We are actively monitoring for any firms marketing products with fraudulent COVID-19 prevention and treatment claims. The FDA is exercising its authority to protect consumers from firms selling un...
In contrast, we consider that colchicine can be a good therapeutic option because of several effects in the immunology system involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Colchicine has effects on the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and monocytes and on the intracellular transportation of vesicles such as endosomes and exosomes.
https://www.scripps.edu/_files/pdfs/news-and-events/The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1.pdf
SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolates encoding a D614G mutation in the viral spike (S) protein predominate over time in locales where it is found, implying that this change enhances viral transmission. We therefore compared the functional properties of the S proteins with aspartic acid (SD614) and glycine (SG614) at residue 614. We observed that retroviruses pseudotyped with SG614 infect...
A tiny genetic mutation in the SARS coronavirus 2 variant circulating throughout Europe and the United States significantly increases the virus’ ability to infect cells, lab experiments performed at Scripps Research show.
Geriatrician Sharon Inouye on the need to combat delirium in COVID-19 patients
We report the neurologic features in an observational series of 58 of 64 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital because of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Covid-19. The patients received similar evaluations by intensivists in two intensive care units (ICUs) in Strasbourg, France, between March 3 and April 3, 2020.
To a startling degree, many coronavirus patients are reporting similar experiences. Called hospital delirium, the phenomenon has previously been seen mostly in a subset of older patients, some of whom already had dementia, and in recent years, hospitals adopted measures to reduce it.
Delirium incidence, duration and severity in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to COVID-19 is not known.
Journal of Movement Disorders;
We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9)...
Frontiers in Neurology;
Nov 20th, 2019 - The forefront treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is Levodopa. When patients are treated with Levodopa cerebral blood flow is increased while cerebral metabolic rate is decreased in key subcortical regions including the putamen. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in patients with Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).
Jul 2nd, 2020 - The phase III HERO trial (Abstract 5602) investigated the results of relugolix, an orally bioavailable GnRH receptor antagonist, for patients with advanced prostate cancer. Treatment with relugolix resulted in superiority over leuprolide in achieving sustained testosterone suppression. Additionally, treatment was associated with faster testosterone recovery and decreased major adverse cardiovas...
Jul 1st, 2020 - CAR T-cell therapy with BCMA-targeting idecabtagene-vicleucel (ide-cel) has emerged to be a game-changer as shown by this first pivotal phase II trial of CAR T-cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). Ide-cel is a first-in-class BCMA-directed CAR T-cell therapy, with 4-1BB costimulatory domain and CD3Z T-cell activation domain.
Jul 1st, 2020 - Donafenib, a deuterated derivative of sorafenib, was tested against sorafenib in the frontline setting in hepatitis B– associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a large, multi-institutional study in China (Abstract 4506).
Jul 2nd, 2020 - DESKTOP III (Abstract 6000) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized phase III study of > 400 patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer that demonstrated a clinically meaningful 7.7 month improvement in median overall survival with secondary cytoreductive surgery (53.7 months) compared with no surgery (46 months).
Jul 2nd, 2020 - Head and neck cancers account for approximately 4% of all cancers in the United States1 and are the eighth most common cancer affecting men in the United States.2 The diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) carries a poor prognosis, with an overall survival (OS) of approximately 1 year.
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology;
Feb 6th, 2020 - To investigate whether the burden of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is associated with the risk of developing levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).
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Individuals with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) are at very high risk of cardiovascular disease, which is associated with poor outcomes from coronavirus infections. COVID-19 puts strain on healthcare systems and may impair access to routine FH services. On behalf of the International Lipid Expert Panel (ILEP) and the European FH Patient Network (FH Europe), we present brief recommendations...
Early data from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic disease causing 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed that the affected subjects were typically men aged 40–60 years with several comorbidities; in particular, 25% of subjects with COVID-19 treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) had a history of cardiovascular diseases . In this context, young subject...
Early data from Wuhan, China, show that patients with COVID‐19 are typically male, aged 40 to 60 years, and about one‐third have comorbidities. Moreover, of 138 COVID‐19 patients hospitalized in Wuhan and treated in an intensive care unit (ICU), 25% had cardiovascular disease and 58% hypertension; the respective figures for non‐ICU‐treated COVID‐19 patients were10% and 22% . Based on these e...
Lungs from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown typical signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), formation of hyaline membrane mainly composed of fibrin and ‘ground-glass’ opacity. Previously, we showed plasminogen itself is a key regulator in fibrin degradation, wound healing and infection.
Currently, a novel coronavirus named “SARS-CoV-2” is spreading rapidly across the world, causing a public health crisis, economic losses, and panic. Fecal–oral transmission is a common transmission route for many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Blocking the path of fecal–oral transmission, which occurs commonly in toilet usage, is of fundamental importance in suppressing the spread of viruses. H...
We present severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time RT-PCR results of all respiratory and faecal samples from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China, throughout the course of their illness and obligated quarantine period.
Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in late December 2019, in Wuhan, China. There are over 1,800,000 confirmed cases worldwide.1 The pathological process of severe COVID-19 pneumonia is an inflammation reaction characterized by the destruction of the deep airway and alveolar.2 It is currently considered that lung injury is not only associated with the direct virus-induced da...
There is no proven specific pharmacological treatment for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of corticosteroids in ARDS remains controversial. We aimed to assess the effects of dexamethasone in ARDS, which might change pulmonary and systemic inflammation and result in a decrease in duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality.
Elevated D-dimer is a predictor of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients and heparin use during in-hospital stay has been associated with decreased mortality. COVID19 patient autopsies have revealed thrombi in the microvasculature, suggesting intravascular coagulation as a prominent feature of organ failure in these patients. Interestingly, in COVID19, pulmonary compliance is preserved ...
This is the first monthly update alert for a living review on the epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infections in health care workers (HCWs) (1). Searches were updated from 24 April 2020 to 24 May 2020, using the same search strategies as the original review, and we identified 1125 citations. Applying the same inclusion criteria, we identified 37 additional studies for this updat...
Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) poses an important occupational health risk to health workers (HWs) that has attracted global scrutiny. To date, several thousand HWs globally have been reported as infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus that causes the disease. It is therefore a public health priority for policymakers to understand risk factors for this vulne...
The treatment of motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially a trade-off between adequate relief of motor symptoms and prevention and control of motor complications, particularly levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Progression of PD is paralleled by a progressive difficulty in achieving the balance. Functional neurosurgical procedures provide sustained relief of LID in carefu...
The precise pathogenesis or neural correlates underlying levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) remains poorly understood. There is growing evidence of the involvement of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study evaluated the role of motor cerebellar connectivity in determining vulnerability to LID.
The seasonal cycle of respiratory viral diseases has been widely recognized for thousands of years, as annual epidemics of the common cold and influenza disease hit the human population like clockwork in the winter season in temperate regions. Moreover, epidemics caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 occur during ...
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society;
CVD is a major burden on the health system in the UK. On average, diets are not aligned with current dietary recommendations, including those for salt, saturated fat, fibre, fruit and vegetables. Obesity prevalence is high and the majority of the population is consuming more energy than required. Addressing these issues would reduce the burden of CVD and help reduce inequalities in health. Ther...
As the biomedical community races to disentangle the unknowns associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus responsible for causing coronavirus disease, the link between diminished immune function and individuals with obesity raises important questions about the possibility for greater viral pathogenicity in this population. Increased adiposity may undermine the pul...
Physical activity (PA) has strong relevance for limiting the harms to human health and well-being due to the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Active muscles produce chemicals that improve immune functioning, which in turn reduces the extent of infections, and decreases inflammation, and these are the main causes of the lung damage from SARS-CoV-2 infection. PA is a powerful preventive and therapeutic interv...
The SARS-CoV-2-caused COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a devastating threat to human society in terms of health, economy, and lifestyle. Although the virus usually first invades and infects the lung and respiratory track tissue, in extreme cases, almost all major organs in the body are now known to be negatively impacted often leading to severe systemic failure in some people. Unfortunately, t...
Coronavirus (CoV) is a virus infectious disease with a considerable spectrum of clinical presentations. Symptoms ranged from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia that may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and several clinical complications. Neurologic symptoms related to CoV have been described recently in the literature. The relationship between SARS-Co...
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large positive stranded enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause enteric and respiratory diseases in humans and in animals. Most human CoVs have recently attracted global attention to their lethal potential and great infectious capacity. A highly pathogenic CoV, called COVID-19 or SARS‐CoV2, dramatically emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. This new CoV has cause...
During the recent weeks, anosmia without nasal or other symptoms has been recognized as an alarming sign of early-stage COVID-19 . This might indicate that SARS-CoV-2, when entering the body via the nose, may be neurotropic, have affinity for the olfactory epithelium and advance along the olfactory nerve into the CNS, causing early-stage CNS infection. This route is a known shortcut for infl...
The contribution of neurological symptomatology to morbidity and mortality after infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus (SARS CoV II), is ill-defined. We hereby present a case of a 57-year old male patient, in excellent physical condition, who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), with respiratory distress duo to SARS CoV II-induced bilateral pneumonia....
We assessed the prevalence and impact of COVID-19 among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients across Europe by leveraging participant data collected as part of the ongoing EU IMI2 RADAR-CNS major programme aimed at finding new ways of monitoring neurological disorders using wearable devices and smartphone technology. In the present study, 399 patients of RADAR-MS have been included (mean age 43.9 ye...
With the growing number of COVID-19 cases in recent times, the varied range of presentations is progressively becoming an addressing issue among clinicians. A significant set of patients with extra pulmonary symptoms has been reported worldwide. Neurological involvement in the form of altered mental status, loss of consciousness in considerable amounts has drawn attention of physicians all a...
Neurological manifestations can occur during coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Several pathogenic mechanisms have been hypothesized, without conclusive results. In this study, we evaluated the most frequent neurological symptoms in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and also investigated the possible relationship between plasmatic inflammatory indices and olfactory disorders (ODs) and...
Eighteen active substances, including 17 organosulfur compounds found in garlic essential oil (T), were identified by GC−MS analysis. For the first time, using the molecular docking technique, we report the inhibitory effect of the considered compounds on the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein in the human body that leads to a crucial foundation about coronavirus ...
Despite continuous advances in the medical world, obesity continues to remain a major worldwide health hazard with adult mortality as high as 2.8 million per year. The majority of chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are largely related to obesity which is usually a product of unhealthy lifestyle and poor dietary habits. Appropriately tailored diet regimens for weight...
E25Bio has designed lateral flow rapid detection tests for fever viruses that can deliver results as little as five minutes and up to 15. Our tests are being designed to work immediately with no moving parts, no machinery, and provide a visual readout. We aim to change the way we diagnose disease and help prevent pandemics.
Jun 24th, 2020 - There used to be a paucity of options for managing advanced renal cell cancer (RCC) with a high toxicity profile including traditional chemotherapy, interferon, and interleukins. With the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in 2007 followed by immunotherapy over the past few years, a paradigm shift emerged in managing this increasingly prevalent disease with its associated high morbidit...
Jun 23rd, 2020 - For patients with stage IV metastatic breast cancer and an intact primary tumor (ITP), the early initiation of locoregional treatment (LRT) was not associated with longer survival or improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared with systemic therapy alone, according to a phase III clinical trial (Abstract LBA2). These findings appear to add to a robust evidence base that sugg...
Jun 23rd, 2020 - The report on ADAURA during the ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program Plenary Session surprised many, first because the initial data readout for the phase III trial was not planned until 2022 and second because of the strength of the disclosed data (Abstract LBA5). Early unblinding of the results revealed an 83% reduction in the risk of disease recurrence or death with use of adjuvant osimertinib c...
Jun 23rd, 2020 - Long-awaited results from the randomized, phase III KEYNOTE-177 trial provide strong support for using single-agent pembrolizumab instead of a chemotherapy-based regimen in patients newly diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) featuring high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) or deficient mismatch repair (dMMR; Abstract LBA4).
Jun 23rd, 2020 - Awaited results of the ENDURANCE trial showed equivalency between a regimen of carfilzomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) and bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) as an initial therapy for patients with standard- or intermediate-risk multiple myeloma (Abstract LBA3). KRd failed to improve progression-free survival compared with VRd, according to data presented by Shaji K...
Jun 24th, 2020 - The ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program featured a variety of important and innovative breast cancer research. The following are some of the studies with potential to significantly impact clinical practice and patient outcomes, as selected by ASCO Daily News Expert Panel member Arielle Heeke, MD, of the Levine Cancer Institute.
Jun 24th, 2020 - Although the ASCO Annual Meeting felt much different this year given the virtual format, the quality of research presented at the meeting was undiminished, particularly in the field of lung cancer. ASCO Daily News Expert Panel member Jared Weiss, MD, of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, reviewed the most influential lung cancer research presented during the ASCO20 Virtual Sci...
Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) is a recognized motor response complication affecting 30% to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease on chronic levodopa (l‐dopa) therapy.1, 2 It is typically choreiform, and involves all parts of the body, especially the head and neck. Besides chorea, rarer types of LIDs include myoclonic dyskinesia, ocular dyskinesia, and respiratory dyskinesia.1 Oromandibul...
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is the most common, disruptive complication of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pharmacotherapy, yet despite decades of research, the changes in regional brain function underlying LID remain largely unknown. We previously found that the cerebral vasomotor and metabolic responses to levodopa are dissociated in PD subjects. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether levodopa-med...
Journal of Neural Transmission;
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the midbrain. The gold-standard therapy for PD is the restoration of dopamine (DA) levels through the chronic administration of the DA precursor levodopa (L-DOPA). Although levodopa therapy is the main therapeutic approach for PD, its use is limited by the develo...
Eating sea lettuce or injecting disinfectant won’t prevent you from getting COVID-19. Holding your breath for ten seconds is not a test for SARS-CoV-2. And Russian President Vladimir Putin did not release 500 lions in Moscow to persuade the city’s residents to stay indoors as part of the efforts to fight the pandemic. The rapid global spread of COVID-19 has been accompanied by what the World He...
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated clinical syndrome COVID-19 are causing overwhelming morbidity and mortality around the globe, disproportionately affecting New York City. A comprehensive, integrative autopsy series that advances the mechanistic discussion surrounding this disease process is still lacking.
There is increasing recognition of a prothrombotic state in COVID-19. Post-mortem examination can provide important mechanistic insights.
Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, this disease has spread rapidly around the globe. Considering the potential threat of a pandemic, scientists and physicians have been racing to understand this new virus and the pathophysiology of this disease to uncover possible treatment regimens and discover effective therapeutic agents and vacc...
The exclusive focus of political, regulatory, health service, and public health agencies on covid-19 has concealed another less visible epidemic. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and mental health disorders cause many times more premature deaths and greater suffering than covid-19, year after year.
In response to the covid-19 pandemic, many health systems attempted to rapidly reorganise their healthcare workforce in the first half of 2020, including redeployment of doctors from primary care and non-frontline specialties to acute care wards.1 Preparedness for potential future redeployment remains essential given the risk of further waves of covid-19 as society negotiates repeated cycles of...
With nationwide school closures currently operating in 191 countries, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has estimated that 1.6 billion (90.2%) students are currently out of primary, secondary and tertiary education (henceforth schools) as a result of the global COVID-19 lockdown . These restrictions have been introduced to help maintain physical di...
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) . It has led to a pandemic worldwide due to its extremely infectious nature. At present, the route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still controversial, but the major route of the COVID-19 to rapidly spread through indoor environments, is caused by the airborne route of the ...
While a global pandemic by SARS-CoV in 2002–2003 was averted by fast identification, effective surveillance, and quarantine, such measures cannot be easily transferred to new situations, as the case of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates. Knowledge of the fundamental biological and physical parameters affecting transmission pathways of respiratory pathogens is thus critical for the design of effective non-...
We read with great interest Bae’s recent publication on the incubation period of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its infectivity . However, we would like to launch a further discussion on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and the controversy regarding concerns about airborne SARSCoV-2 transmission.
Following the outbreak in China, the Lombardy region of Italy has become one of the areas of highest incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). As the outbreak grew to a pandemic, many centers worldwide raised the concern that immunocompromised patients may be at high risk of developing a severe respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Unli...
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with several skin manifestations, including widespread urticaria, erythematous rash, and varicella-like exanthem.1,2 Ischemic and ecchymotic acral lesions have also been described in patients with severe forms of COVID-19 as a manifestation of clotting disorders.3 Coincident with the COVID-19 pandemic, similar acral lesions hav...
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a substantial challenge for health-care systems and their infrastructure. RT-PCR-based diagnostic confirmation of infected individuals is crucial to contain viral spread because infection can be asymptomatic despite high viral loads. Sufficient molecular diagnostic capacity is important for public health interventions such as case dete...
A recent marked increase in pediatric and adult patients presenting with purpuric acral lesions concerning for ischemia, thrombosis and necrosis has been observed in COVID‐19 prevalent regions worldwide. The clinical and histopathological features and relationship to COVID‐19 have not been well described. The objective of this case series is to describe the clinical features and determine the h...
The lung pathology seen in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows marked microvascular thrombosis and haemorrhage linked to extensive alveolar and interstitial inflammation that shares features with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). We have termed the lung-restricted vascular immunopathology associated with COVID-19 as diffuse pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy, which in ...
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic threatening global public health. In the current paper, we describe our successful treatment of three COVID-19 pneumonia patients cases including severe cases and cases with mortality risk factors. One 32-year-old male COVID-19 patient was diagnosed with sev...
SARS-CoV-2 is causing an increasing number of deaths worldwide because no effective treatment is currently available. Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Clinical Infectious Diseases; Monica Fung MD, MPH et. al.
Jun 26th, 2020 - The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused significant morbidity and mortality for patients and stressed healthcare systems worldwide. The clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 among immunosuppressed patients, who are at presumed risk for more severe disease but who may also have decreased detrimental inflammatory responses, are no...
We agree with Dr. Klok that thromboprophylactic dose low molecular weight heparin should be recommended for all the critically ill patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia . The very high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications raises the question if therapeutic anticoagulation should be considered for severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients. As previously report...
SARS‐CoV‐2 is assumed to use angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 ) and other auxiliary proteins for cell entry. Recent studies have described conjunctival congestion in 0.8% of patients with laboratory‐confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), and there has been speculation that SARS‐CoV‐2 can be transmitted through the conjunctiva. However, it is currently uncle...
The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is highly transmitted. The potential extra-respiratory transmission routes remain uncertain. Five rhesus macaques were inoculated with 1×106 TCID50 of SARS-CoV-2 via conjunctival (CJ), intratracheal (IT), and intragastric (IG) routes, respectively. Remarkably, the CJ inoculated-mac...
We read with interest the article of Dr Xia et al 1 on the detection of RNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) in tears and conjunctival secretions of patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID‐19). Xia et al tested a total of 60 tears and conjunctival secretions samples from 30 patients, with two samples from each patient collected at an interval of 2 to 3 days...
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe and potentially life-threatening disease manifestation. Besides autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) syndrome pulmonary viral infections are also known to be culprits of DAH. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic confronts healthcar...
COVID-19 virus has currently caused major outbreaks worldwide. ACE2 is a major cellular-entry receptor for the COVID-19 virus. Although ACE2 is known to be expressed in many organs, whether it is expressed by the conjunctival tissue is largely unknown. Human conjunctival tissues from 68 subjects were obtained, which included 10 subjects with conjunctival nevi, 20 subjects with conjunctiviti...
In a recent study published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine in May, 2020, Kenrie Hui and colleagues1 described the tropism, replication competence, and innate immune responses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the human respiratory tract and conjunctiva. The authors concluded that SARS-CoV-2 replication in the conjunctiva was greater than SARS-CoV replication...