About 72,680 results
Association Between Marijuana Use and Risk of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA Network Open; Ghasemiesfe M, et al

Nov 26th, 2019 - What is the association between marijuana use and cancer development in adults with at least 1 joint-year exposure (equivalent to 1 joint per day for 1 year)?

Association Between Recreational Marijuana Legalization in the United States and Changes in Marijuana Use and Cannabis Use Disorder From 2008 to 2016
JAMA Psychiatry; Cerda M, et al

Nov 12th, 2019 - This study’s findings suggest that possible increases in the risk for cannabis use disorder among adolescent users and increases in frequent use and cannabis use disorder among adults after legalization of recreational marijuana use may raise public health concerns and warrant ongoing study.

Millions of Americans have a substance use disorder. Help is available.

Nov 5th, 2019 - The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) collects information on thousands of state-licensed providers who specialize in treating substance use disorders, addiction, and mental illness.

Smoking & Tobacco Use For Healthcare Providers

Oct 10th, 2019 - CDC investigates outbreak of severe lung disease in patients who have recently used e-cigarette products, also known as “vaping.

E-Cigarettes and Vaping-Related Disease
New England Journal of Medicine;

Oct 1st, 2019 - The use of e-cigarettes has increased rapidly. Although vaping has been shown to assist with smoking cessation, cases of severe vaping-related pulmonary disease and a number of deaths have recently been reported. Here we present a collection of articles and other resources on e-cigarettes and vaping-related disease, including clinical reports and commentary.

Alarming number of heart infections tied to opioid epidemic

Sep 17th, 2019 - An alarming number of people nationwide are developing infections of either the heart’s inner lining or valves, known as infective endocarditis, in large part, due to the current opioid epidemic. This new trend predominantly affects young, white, poor men who also have higher rates of HIV, hepatitis C and alcohol abuse, according to new research published in the Journal of the American Heart As...

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management
American Family Physician;

Sep 14th, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic burden and decreased quality of life. The Women's Preventive Services Initiative is the only major organization that recommends annual screening for urinary incontinence in all women despite low to insufficient evidence regarding effectiveness and accuracy of methods. No other major organization ...

U.S. Surgeon General’s Advisory: Marijuana Use and the Developing Brain

Aug 28th, 2019 - This Surgeon General Advisory emphasizes the importance of protecting the U.S. from the health risks of marijuana use in adolescence and during pregnancy.

Interventions to increase adherence to medications for tobacco dependence
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews;

Aug 15th, 2019 - Background Pharmacological treatments for tobacco dependence, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), have been shown to be safe and effective interventions for smoking cessation. Higher levels of adherence to these medications increase the likelihood of sustained smoking cessation, but many smokers use them at a lower dose and for less time than is optimal. It is important to determine th...

Electronic Cigarettes: Common Questions and Answers
American Family Physician;

Aug 14th, 2019 - Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular devices designed to heat a liquid solution, often containing nicotine, that generates an inhaled aerosol, or vapor. e-Cigarettes have been marketed as healthier alternatives to traditional cigarettes. Thus, most adult users are current or former smokers who use e-cigarettes to reduce or quit cigarette smoking. Switching completely from cigarettes...

FDA releases long-awaited graphic cigarette warnings

Aug 14th, 2019 - American Heart Association CEO Nancy Brown issued the following response to the proposed cigarette warning labels released today by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): “The new, graphic cigarette warning labels proposed today by the FDA are a necessary and dramatic departure from the plain box warnings that have been in use for nearly 35 years. Cigarette warning labels that include atten...

Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews;

Jul 30th, 2019 - Background Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a directive patient‐centred style of counselling, designed to help people to explore and resolve ambivalence about behaviour change. It was developed as a treatment for alcohol abuse, but may help people to a make a successful attempt to stop smoking. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation compared with no treatment, in ...

Incentives for smoking cessation
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews;

Jul 16th, 2019 - Background Financial incentives, monetary or vouchers, are widely used in an attempt to precipitate, reinforce and sustain behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They have been used in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and within community programmes. Objectives To determine the long‐term effect of incentives and contingency management programmes for smoking cessation. Searc...

HIV, schizophrenia, and all-cause mortality
Schizophrenia Research;

Jun 26th, 2019 - Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness with important implications for morbidity and mortality. This population-based cohort study examined the impact of schizophrenia diagnoses on all-cause mortality among a sample of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and a 10% random sample of individuals living without HIV (HIV-) in British Columbia (BC), through a data linkage between the BC Centre for Excel...

Drug Overdose Deaths | Drug Overdose | CDC Injury Center

Jun 26th, 2019 - 70,237 drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States in 2017. The age-adjusted rate of overdose deaths increased significantly by 9.6% from 2016 (19.8 per 100,000) to 2017 (21.7 per 100,000). Opioids—mainly synthetic opioids (other than methadone)—are currently the main driver of drug overdose deaths. Opioids were involved in 47,600 overdose deaths in 2017 (67.8% of all drug overdose deaths).

Building Systems to Address Tobacco Use in Oncology: Early Benefits and Opportunities From the Cancer Center Cessation Initiative
Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network; Jenssen, B. et. al.

Jun 14th, 2019 - The 2014 Surgeon General’s report underscored the importance of helping patients with cancer quit smoking, because continued smoking after a diagnosis is causally linked to cancer-specific and all-cause mortality.1 More than 50% of patients with cancer who smoked before diagnosis continue to smoke after diagnosis and treatment,2 leading to calls from NCCN,3 ASCO,4 and the American Association f...

Binge Drinking and Prescription Opioid Misuse in the U.S., 2012–2014
American Journal of Preventive Medicine; Esser, M et. al.

Jun 10th, 2019 - Introduction Prescription opioids were responsible for approximately 17,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2016. One in five prescription opioid deaths also involve alcohol. Drinkers who misuse prescription opioids (i.e., use without a prescription or use only for the experience or feeling it causes) are at a heightened risk of overdose. However, little is known about the relationship between drinking ...

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - What Is A Standard Drink?

Apr 28th, 2019 - Many people are surprised to learn what counts as a drink. The amount of liquid in your glass, can, or bottle does not necessarily match up to how much alcohol is actually in your drink. Different types of beer, wine, or malt liquor can have very different amounts of alcohol content. For example, many light beers have almost as much alcohol as regular beer – about 85% as much.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - Brochures and Fact Sheets

Apr 28th, 2019 - This section contains easy-to-read material for the public covering a wide range of alcohol-related topics. Publications listed below are online full text and free of charge unless otherwise noted.

Different doses, durations and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Lindson, N. et. al.

Apr 16th, 2019 - Background Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aims to replace nicotine from cigarettes to ease the transition from cigarette smoking to abstinence. It works by reducing the intensity of craving and withdrawal symptoms. Although there is clear evidence that NRT used after smoking cessation is effective, it is unclear whether higher doses, longer durations of treatment, or using NRT before cessa...

Public Policy Statement on the Ethical Use of Drug Testing in the Practice of Addiction Medicine

Apr 16th, 2019 - Drug testing uses a biological sample to detect the presence of drugs and/or drug metabolites in a patient’s body. Drug tests are ordered by physicians in a range of medical specialties, but drug testing has particular utility in addiction practices. In clinical addiction medicine, drug testing can provide the treating clinician with objective information about a patient’s recent substance u...

Maternal Smoking Before and During Pregnancy and the Risk of Sudden Unexpected Infant Death
Pediatrics Anderson, T. et. al.

Mar 10th, 2019 - OBJECTIVES: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is an established risk factor for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID). Here, we aim to investigate the effects of maternal prepregnancy smoking, reduction during pregnancy, and smoking during pregnancy on SUID rates. METHODS: We analyzed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set (2007–2011: 2...

State Medical Marijuana Laws

Mar 4th, 2019 - In 1996, California voters passed Proposition 215, making the Golden State the first in the union to allow for the medical use of marijuana. Since then, 33 more states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands have enacted similar laws. As of Jan. 22, 2018, the Vermont legislature passed adult-use legalization legislation and the governor signed the bill. The measure do...

Substance-Linked Sex in Heterosexual, Homosexual, and Bisexual Men and Women: An Online, Cross-Sectional “Global Drug Survey” Report
Lawn. W., et al

Mar 1st, 2019 - Introduction Substance use in sexual contexts has received recent attention, but it has mostly been restricted to men who have sex with men and the so-called “chemsex” phenomenon. Aim To explore the use of licit and illicit substances in combination with sex in heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual men and women; to explore substance-linked sex (SLS) differences across sexual orientation ...

Relapse prevention interventions for smoking cessation
Livingstone‐Banks, Jonathan

Feb 14th, 2019 - Behavioural interventions that teach people to recognise situations that are high risk for relapse along with strategies to cope with them provided no worthwhile benefit in preventing relapse in assisted abstainers, although unexplained statistical heterogeneity means we are only moderately certain of this. In people who have successfully quit smoking using pharmacotherapy, there were mixed res...

Tobacco Use By Youth Is Rising

Feb 11th, 2019 - Tobacco product use among US youth is increasing. More than 1 in 4 high school students and about 1 in 14 middle school students in 2018 had used a tobacco product in the past 30 days. This was a considerable increase from 2017, which was driven by an increase in e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use increased from 11.7% to 20.8% among high school students and from 3.3% to 4.9% among middle school s...

A Transitioning Epidemic: How The Opioid Crisis Is Driving The Rise In Hepatitis C
Powell, D. et. al.

Feb 3rd, 2019 - The hepatitis C virus is responsible for more deaths in the United States than any other infectious disease, and hepatitis C infections have been rising at an alarming rate since 2010. We evaluated the role of the opioid epidemic and, in particular, the 2010 introduction of an abuse-deterrent version of OxyContin. The OxyContin reformulation led some users of the drug to switch to heroin, which...

Effective management of opioid withdrawal symptoms: A gateway to opioid dependence treatment
Kosten, T. et. al.

Jan 30th, 2019 - The opioid crisis has taken an immense toll in the United States. On average, five lives are lost to an opioid overdose every hour of the day; estimated costs associated with opioid misuse exceed $500 billion annually. Illicit opioid discontinuation is the first step in the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), and transition to an opioid agonist may initiate treatment. However, discontinuati...

E-Cigarettes and Similar Devices
Jenssen, B. et. al.

Jan 30th, 2019 - Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most commonly used tobacco product among youth. The 2016 US Surgeon General’s Report on e-cigarette use among youth and young adults concluded that e-cigarettes are unsafe for children and adolescents. Furthermore, strong and consistent evidence finds that children and adolescents who use e-cigarettes are significantly more likely to go on to use tra...

Challenges with Implementing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Opioid Guideline: A Consensus Panel Report
Kroenke, K. et. al.

Jan 24th, 2019 - A national crisis of opioid-related morbidity, mortality, and misuse has led to initiatives to address the appropriate role of opioids to treat pain. Deployment of a guideline from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reduce the risks of opioid therapy has raised substantial clinical and public policy challenges. The agency anticipated implementation challenges and committed to ree...

Telehealth Services

Dec 31st, 2018 - The Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment (SUPPORT) for Patients and Communities Act removes the originating site geographic conditions and adds an individual’s home as a permissible originating telehealth services site for treatment of a substance use disorder or a co-occurring mental health disorder.

Opioids in Nursing Homes

Dec 3rd, 2018 - AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine has two primary policies related to opioids in nursing homes: 1. Provide access to opioids when indicated to relieve suffering and to improve or maintain function, and 2. Promote opioid tapering, discontinuation and avoidance of opioids when the above goals are not achievable, to prevent adverse events, dependence and diversion.

MORPHABOND™ ER (morphine sulfate) Prescribing Information

Nov 30th, 2018 - MORPHABOND ER is an opioid agonist indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate.

ROXYBOND (oxycodone hydrochloride) Prescribing Information

Nov 30th, 2018 - ROXYBOND is an opioid agonist indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.

Three New State Laws Legalize Marijuana Use, Sparking More Confusion and Igniting Further Conflict With Federal Law

Nov 20th, 2018 - The mid-term elections are still on people’s minds, as recounts and run-offs for federal congressional and state gubernatorial candidates are finally wrapping up. Meanwhile, and largely taking a media-coverage backseat to these high-profile races, many new state initiatives became law as a result of the mid-terms, three which involved legalizing marijuana for recreational or medical use. Thes...

Interaction between warfarin and cannabis
Damkier, P. et. al.

Oct 15th, 2018 - Delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis, may inhibit the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9. Consequently, cannabis use might infer a risk of drug‐drug interaction with substrates for this enzyme, which includes drugs known to have a narrow therapeutic window. In this study, we describe a case report of a 27‐year‐old man treated with warfarin due to mechanic...

Alcohol and Cancer Risk

Sep 12th, 2018 - Alcohol is the common term for ethanol or ethyl alcohol, a chemical substance found in alcoholic beverages such as beer, hard cider, malt liquor, wines, and distilled spirits (liquor). Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of sugars and starches by yeast. Alcohol is also found in some medicines, mouthwashes, and household products (including vanilla extract and other flavorings). This fact sh...

Marijuana Use by Breastfeeding Mothers and Cannabinoid Concentrations in Breast Milk
Bertrand, K. et. al.

Aug 31st, 2018 - Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug among breastfeeding women. With legalization of marijuana in several US states and a 1990 study in which authors documented psychomotor deficits in infants breastfed by mothers using marijuana, there is a need for information on potential exposure to the breastfed infant. Our objective with this study was to quantify cannabinoids in human m...

MORPHABOND ER Medication Guide

May 31st, 2018 - MORPHABOND ER is: A strong prescription pain medicine that contains an opioid (narcotic) that is used to manage pain severe enough to require daily around-the clock, long-term treatment with an opioid, when other pain treatments such as non-opioid pain medicines or immediate-release opioid medicines do not treat your pain well enough or you cannot tolerate them.

Risk Factors for Opioid Use Disorders in Adult Postsurgical Patients
Burcher, K. et. al.

May 10th, 2018 - The use of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain is one of the most controversial topics in medicine today. Many studies have proposed that the postoperative period is a vulnerable time for patients at risk for developing an opioid use disorder. Many patients are prescribed opioids for management of their postsurgical pain and continue using them for prolonged amounts of time following their...

Fentanyl and Other Synthetic Opioids Drug Overdose Deaths

Apr 30th, 2018 - In 2016, synthetic opioids (primarily illegal fentanyl) passed prescription opioids as the most common drugs involved in overdose deaths in the United States.

Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) 2018 guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder
Yatham, L. et. al.

Apr 20th, 2018 - The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) previously pub-lished treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder in 2005, along with international com-mentaries and subsequent updates in 2007, 2009, and 2013. The last two updates were published in collaboration with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD). These 2018 CANMAT and ISBD Bipolar Treatment Guidelines repre...

What Is the Evidence for “Food Addiction?” A Systematic Review
Nutrients Gordon, E. et. al.

Apr 11th, 2018 - The diagnostic construct of “food addiction” is a highly controversial subject. The current systematic review is the first to evaluate empirical studies examining the construct of “food addiction” in humans and animals. Studies were included if they were quantitative, peer-reviewed, and in the English language. The 52 identified studies (35 articles) were qualitatively assessed to determine the...

Enforcing Federal Drug Laws in States Where Medical Marijuana Is Lawful

Apr 9th, 2018 - On January 4, 2018, Attorney General Jeff Sessions issuedamemorandum immediately rescinding theObama Administration’s long-standing guidance limiting federal enforcement ofmedicalmarijuana.1 Federal law creates harsh penalties for the cultivation, distribution, and possession ofmarijuana, whichSessions deemed a “dangerous drug” and a “serious crime.” The memorandum places physicians and pat...

Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System
International Journal of Molecular Sciences;

Mar 12th, 2018 - The biological effects of cannabinoids, the major constituents of the ancient medicinal plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana) are mediated by two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1R) and 2. The CB1R is the prominent subtype in the central nervous system (CNS) and has drawn great attention as a potential therapeutic avenue in several pathological condition...

Malley, G. et. al.

Mar 1st, 2018 - Amphetamines are sympathomimetic drugs with CNS stimulant and euphoriant properties whose toxic adverse effects include delirium, hypertension, seizures, and hyperthermia (which can cause rhabdomyolysis and renal failure). Toxicity is managed with supportive care, including IV benzodiazepines (for agitation, hypertension, and seizures) and cooling techniques (for hyperthermia). There is no ster...

Binge Drinking: Predictors, Patterns, and Consequences
Alcohol Research; White, A. et. al.

Jan 1st, 2018 - he National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism defines binge drinking as a pattern of consumption that causes blood alcohol concentration to rise to .08%—the legal limit for adults ages 21 or older operating a motor vehicle—or more. This level typically occurs after a woman consumes four drinks or a man consumes five drinks—in about 2 hours. Research suggests that three out of four adole...

News - Inspirion Delivery Sciences

Nov 4th, 2017 - Recent News About Inspirion Delivery Sciences, a subsidiary of Inspirion Delivery Technologies. View MorphaBond™ ER Full Prescribing Information. View RoxyBond™ Full Prescribing Information

Daiichi Sankyo, Inc. and Inspirion Delivery Sciences LLC Announce Plans for Commercialization of RoxyBond™ (oxycodone hydrochloride) Tablets CII in the U.S.

May 30th, 2017 - Daiichi Sankyo, Inc. and Inspirion Delivery Sciences LLC (Inspirion) announced today that Daiichi Sankyo will lead the U.S. commercialization of FDA-approved RoxyBond™ (oxycodone hydrochloride) immediate-release tablets, for oral use, CII with Inspirion providing additional salesforce as part of Inspirion’s co-promotion rights under the License Agreement. RoxyBond is indicated for the managemen...

ROXYBOND (oxycodone hydrochloride) Medication Guide

Mar 31st, 2017 - ROXYBOND is: A strong prescription pain medicine that contains an opioid (narcotic) that is used to manage pain severe enough to require an opioid pain medicine, when other pain treatments such as nonopioid pain medicines do not treat your pain well enough or you cannot tolerate them.

Opioid-Induced Bowel Dysfunction
Ketwaroo, G. et. al.

Feb 7th, 2017 - Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is a potentially debilitating side effect of chronic opioid use. It refers to a collection of primarily gastrointestinal motility disorders induced by opioids, of which opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most common. Management of OIBD is difficult, and affected patients will often limit their opioid intake at the expense of experiencing more pain, ...

Chronic postsurgical pain and persistent opioid use following surgery: the need for a transitional pain service
Huang, A. et. al.

Jul 5th, 2016 - Aim: To identify the 3-month incidence of chronic postsurgical pain and long-term opioid use in patients at the Toronto General Hospital. Methods: 200 consecutive patients presenting for elective major surgery completed standardized questionnaires by telephone at 3 months after surgery. Results: 51 patients reported a preoperative chronic pain condition, with 12 taking opioids preoperatively. 3...

3 steps for talking with patients about substance use disorder

May 22nd, 2016 - When a patient with a substance use disorder comes in for a visit, talking to them about treating their addiction in a way that avoids the stigma that surrounds these disorders can be difficult. Learn how one physician approaches this conversation during her addiction consultations with patients.

Medical Marijuana: Know the Legalities of Prescribing

Feb 15th, 2016 - The legalization of medical marijuana in 23 states (and counting) has given patients suffering from seizure disorders, nerve damage, glaucoma and cancer treatment a much-needed weapon in the war against pain. It has also left doctors uneasy, to say the least, about their role as gatekeepers of a federally controlled substance for which clinical research is limited. Some worry about legal liabil...

MORPHABOND (morphine sulfate) extended-release tablets Prescribing Information

Oct 30th, 2015 - Assess each patient's risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing MORPHABOND, and monitor all patients receiving MORPHABOND for development of these behaviors or conditions. ... Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed MORPHABOND.

ROXYBOND (oxycodone hydrochloride) tablets Prescribing Information

Oct 30th, 2015 - ROXYBOND™ safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for ROXYBOND. ROXYBOND (oxycodone hydrochloride) tablets, for oral use, CII.

Physicians, Medical Marijuana, and the Law

Aug 31st, 2014 - After attempting to treat their daughter Charlotte’s daily seizures for three painful years to no avail, the Figi family was nearly out of options and hope. Five-year-old Charlotte suffers from Dravet Syndrome, a rare and severe form of epilepsy that cannot be controlled by medication [1]. The Figis had tried nearly every treatment short of brain surgery or a medically induced coma to alleviate...

Naloxegol for Opioid-Induced Constipation in Patients with Noncancer Pain
Chey, W. et. al.

Jun 18th, 2014 - Opioid-induced constipation is common and debilitating. We investigated the efficacy and safety of naloxegol, an oral, peripherally acting, μ-opioid receptor antagonist, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation. In two identical phase 3, double-blind studies (study 04, 652 participants; study 05, 700 participants), outpatients with noncancer pain and opioid-induced constipation were ran...

Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers
BMC Psychiatry; Hesse, M. et. al.

Oct 20th, 2013 - Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use.

Trends in Marijuana Use Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Reproductive-Aged Women, 2002-2014.
JAMA Brown QL, Sarvet AL et. al.

Dec 19th, 2016 - Trends in Marijuana Use Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Reproductive-Aged Women, 2002-2014.|2016|Brown QL,Sarvet AL,Shmulewitz D,Martins SS,Wall MM,|epidemiology,epidemiology,

Unintentional Pediatric Exposures to Marijuana in Colorado, 2009-2015.
JAMA Pediatrics; Wang GS, Le Lait MC et. al.

Jul 27th, 2016 - As of 2015, almost half of US states allow medical marijuana, and 4 states allow recreational marijuana. To our knowledge, the effect of recreational marijuana on the pediatric population has not been evaluated. To compare the incidence of pediatric marijuana exposures evaluated at a children's hospital and regional poison center (RPC) in Colorado before and after recreational marijuana legaliz...

Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder
Gelenberg, A. et. al.

Oct 28th, 2010 - This guideline summarizes the specific approaches to treatment of individuals with major depressive disorder. It presupposes that the psychiatrist has diagnosed major depressive disorder, according to the criteria defined in DSM-IV-TR, in an adult patient and has evaluated the patient to identify general medical conditions that may contribute to the disease process (e.g., hypothyroidism, ...

Effect of Patient Navigation With or Without Financial Incentives on Viral Suppression ...
JAMA Metsch LR, Feaster DJ et. al.

Jul 12th, 2016 - Substance use is a major driver of the HIV epidemic and is associated with poor HIV care outcomes. Patient navigation (care coordination with case management) and the use of financial incentives for achieving predetermined outcomes are interventions increasingly promoted to engage patients in substance use disorders treatment and HIV care, but there is little evidence for their efficacy in impr...

Cannabis Use and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders: Prospective Evidence From a US National...
JAMA Psychiatry; Blanco C, Hasin DS et. al.

Feb 17th, 2016 - With rising rates of marijuana use in the general population and an increasing number of states legalizing recreational marijuana use and authorizing medical marijuana programs, there are renewed clinical and policy concerns regarding the mental health effects of cannabis use. To examine prospective associations between cannabis use and risk of mental health and substance use disorders in the g...

Effects of Nicotine Patch vs Varenicline vs Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy on...
JAMA Baker TB, Piper ME et. al.

Jan 27th, 2016 - Smoking cessation medications are routinely used in health care; it is vital to identify medications that most effectively treat this leading cause of preventable mortality. To compare the efficacies of varenicline, combination nicotine replacement therapy (C-NRT), and the nicotine patch for 26-week quit rates. Three-group randomized intention-to-treat clinical trial occurring from May 2012 to ...

Effect of Opioids vs NSAIDs and Larger vs Smaller Chest Tube Size on Pain Control and P...
JAMA Rahman NM, Pepperell J et. al.

Dec 31st, 2015 - For treatment of malignant pleural effusion, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are avoided because they may reduce pleurodesis efficacy. Smaller chest tubes may be less painful than larger tubes, but efficacy in pleurodesis has not been proven. To assess the effect of chest tube size and analgesia (NSAIDs vs opiates) on pain and clinical efficacy related to pleurodesis in patients w...

Behavioral Counseling and Pharmacotherapy Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Adults...
Annals of Internal Medicine; Patnode CD, Henderson JT et. al.

Sep 21st, 2015 - Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. To review the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy and behavioral interventions for tobacco cessation. 5 databases and 8 organizational Web sites were searched through 1 August 2014 for systematic reviews, and PubMed was searched through 1 March 2015 for trials on electronic nicotine delivery systems. Two reviewe...

Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Interventions for Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults, I...
Annals of Internal Medicine; Siu AL,

Sep 21st, 2015 - Update of the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on counseling and interventions to prevent tobacco use and tobacco-related disease in adults, including pregnant women. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on interventions for tobacco smoking cessation that are relevant to primary care (behavioral interventions, pharmacotherapy, and complementary or alternative therapy...

Effect of Smoking Cessation on Multiple Sclerosis Prognosis.
JAMA Neurology; Ramanujam R, Hedström AK et. al.

Sep 8th, 2015 - Smoking tobacco is a well-established risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system usually characterized by bouts and remissions and typically followed by a secondary progressive (SP) course. However, it is not clear whether smoking after diagnosis is detrimental. To determine whether smoking after MS diagnosis is associated with a chang...

Benzodiazepine prescribing patterns and deaths from drug overdose among US veterans rec...
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Park TW, Saitz R et. al.

Jun 12th, 2015 - To study the association between benzodiazepine prescribing patterns including dose, type, and dosing schedule and the risk of death from drug overdose among US veterans receiving opioid analgesics. Case-cohort study. Veterans Health Administration (VHA), 2004-09. US veterans, primarily male, who received opioid analgesics in 2004-09. All veterans who died from a drug overdose (n=2400) while re...

Randomized trial of four financial-incentive programs for smoking cessation.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Halpern SD, French B et. al.

May 14th, 2015 - Financial incentives promote many health behaviors, but effective ways to deliver health incentives remain uncertain. We randomly assigned CVS Caremark employees and their relatives and friends to one of four incentive programs or to usual care for smoking cessation. Two of the incentive programs targeted individuals, and two targeted groups of six participants. One of the individual-oriented p...

Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience; Salzwedel AP, Grewen KM et. al.

Apr 9th, 2015 - Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large...

Cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with HIV compared with the general adult popu...
Annals of Internal Medicine; Mdodo R, Frazier EL et. al.

Mar 3rd, 2015 - The negative health effects of cigarette smoking and HIV infection are synergistic. To compare the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smoking cessation between adults with HIV receiving medical care and adults in the general population. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. United States. 4217 adults with HIV who participated in the Medical Monitoring Project and 27 731 U....

Effect of varenicline on smoking cessation through smoking reduction: a randomized clin...
JAMA Ebbert JO, Hughes JR et. al.

Feb 17th, 2015 - Some cigarette smokers may not be ready to quit immediately but may be willing to reduce cigarette consumption with the goal of quitting. To determine the efficacy and safety of varenicline for increasing smoking abstinence rates through smoking reduction. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational clinical trial with a 24-week treatment period and 28-week follow-up conducted b...

Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Tappin D, Bauld L et. al.

Jan 29th, 2015 - To assess the efficacy of a financial incentive added to routine specialist pregnancy stop smoking services versus routine care to help pregnant smokers quit. Phase II therapeutic exploratory single centre, individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. One large health board area with a materially deprived, inner city population in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. 61...

The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.
Pediatrics ,

Jan 27th, 2015 - This policy statement is an update of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth," published in 2004. Pediatricians have special expertise in the care of children and adolescents and may be called on to advise legislators about the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents also may look to ...

Combining seeking safety with sertraline for PTSD and alcohol use disorders: A randomiz...
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology; Hien DA, Levin FR et. al.

Jan 26th, 2015 - The current study marks the first randomized controlled trial to test the benefit of combining Seeking Safety (SS), a present-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD), with sertraline, a front-line medication for PTSD shown to also impact drinking outcomes. Sixty-nine participants (81% female; 59% African American)...

Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk of spontaneous preterm birth.
Obstetrics and Gynecology; Shaw JG, Asch SM et. al.

Nov 21st, 2014 - To evaluate the association between antenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and spontaneous preterm delivery. We identified antenatal PTSD status and spontaneous preterm delivery in a retrospective cohort of 16,334 deliveries covered by the Veterans Health Administration from 2000 to 2012. We divided mothers with PTSD into those with diagnoses present the year before delivery (active PTS...

Anhedonia as a component of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology; Cook JW, Piper ME et. al.

Nov 10th, 2014 - Animal research suggests that anhedonia is a tobacco withdrawal symptom, but this topic has not been addressed definitively in research with humans. This research sought to determine whether anhedonia is (a) an element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans and (b) an impediment to successful tobacco cessation. Data were from 1,175 smokers (58.3% women; 85.5% White) participating in a ran...

Clinical and social outcomes of adolescent self harm: population based birth cohort study.
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Mars B, Heron J et. al.

Oct 22nd, 2014 - To investigate the mental health, substance use, educational, and occupational outcomes of adolescents who self harm in a general population sample, and to examine whether these outcomes differ according to self reported suicidal intent. Population based birth cohort study. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK birth cohort of children born in 1991-92. Data on lifetime ...

Sustained care intervention and postdischarge smoking cessation among hospitalized adul...
JAMA Rigotti NA, Regan S et. al.

Aug 20th, 2014 - Health care systems need effective models to manage chronic diseases like tobacco dependence across transitions in care. Hospitalizations provide opportunities for smokers to quit, but research suggests that hospital-delivered interventions are effective only if treatment continues after discharge. To determine whether an intervention to sustain tobacco treatment after hospital discharge increa...

A randomized clinical trial of behavioral couples therapy versus individually based tre...
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology; Schumm JA, O'Farrell TJ et. al.

Jul 21st, 2014 - Multiple studies show that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually based therapy (IBT) for substance use and relationship outcomes among men with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The present study compared BCT with IBT for women with AUD. Participants were women with AUD (N = 105) and their male partners without substance use disorder. Participants were mostly White an...

Efficacy of varenicline combined with nicotine replacement therapy vs varenicline alone...
JAMA Koegelenberg CF, Noor F et. al.

Jul 9th, 2014 - Behavioral approaches and pharmacotherapy are of proven benefit in assisting smokers to quit, but it is unclear whether combining nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with varenicline to improve abstinence is effective and safe. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining varenicline and a nicotine patch vs varenicline alone in smoking cessation. Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clini...

Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults.
Pediatrics Duke JC, Lee YO et. al.

Jun 11th, 2014 - Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing unless it is advertised as a smoking cessation aid. To date, the extent to which youth and young adults are exposed to e-cigarette television advertisements is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in youth and young adult exposure to e-cigarette television advertis...

The burden of loss: unexpected death of a loved one and psychiatric disorders across th...
The American Journal of Psychiatry; Keyes KM, Pratt C et. al.

May 16th, 2014 - Unexpected death of a loved one is common and associated with subsequent elevations in symptoms of multiple forms of psychopathology. Determining whether this experience predicts novel onset of psychiatric disorders and whether these associations vary across the life course has important clinical implications. The authors examined associations of a loved one's unexpected death with first onset ...

Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among U.S. adolescents: a cross-se...
JAMA Pediatrics; Dutra LM, Glantz SA

Mar 7th, 2014 - To examine e-cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking. Cross-sectional analyses of survey data from a representative sample of US middle and high school students in 2011 (n = 17 353) and 2012 (n = 22 529) who completed the 2011 and 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Ever and current e-cigarette use. Experimentation with, ever, and current smoking, and smoking abstinence. Among cigarett...

“Drink at least eight glasses of water a day.” Really? Is there scientific evidence for “8 × 8”?
American Journal of Physiology- Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology; Valtin, H. et. al.

Oct 31st, 2002 - Despite the seemingly ubiquitous admonition to “drink at least eight 8-oz glasses of water a day” (with an accompanying reminder that beverages containing caffeine and alcohol do not count), rigorous proof for this counsel appears to be lacking. This review sought to find the origin of this advice (called “8 × 8” for short) and to examine the scientific evidence, if any, that might support it. ...

Safety and Efficacy of Exposure-Based Risk Reduction Through Family Therapy for Co-occu...
JAMA Psychiatry; Danielson CK, Adams Z et. al.

Feb 4th, 2020 - No empirically supported treatments have been evaluated to address co-occurring substance use problems (SUP) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among adolescents in an integrative fashion. This lack is partially owing to untested clinical lore suggesting that delivery of exposure-based PTSD treatments to youth with SUP might be iatrogenic. To determine whether an exposure-based, ...

Self-reported Marijuana Use in Electronic Cigarettes Among US Youth, 2017 to 2018.

Dec 18th, 2019 - Self-reported Marijuana Use in Electronic Cigarettes Among US Youth, 2017 to 2018.|2019|Dai H,|

Effectiveness of a Brief Self-determination Theory-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention...
JAMA Internal Medicine; Li WHC, Ho KY et. al.

Dec 3rd, 2019 - Clinicians have an opportunity to provide smoking cessation interventions to smokers who present to emergency departments (EDs). The effectiveness of a brief intervention based on self-determination theory for smoking cessation is uncertain. To examine the effectiveness of a brief intervention based on self-determination theory for smoking cessation (immediate or progressive) among Chinese smok...

Association of Punitive and Reporting State Policies Related to Substance Use in Pregna...
JAMA Network Open; Faherty LJ, Kranz AM et. al.

Nov 13th, 2019 - Despite the rapidly changing policy environment regarding substance use during pregnancy, information is lacking on the association of state policies with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). To determine if punitive or reporting state policies related to substance use during pregnancy are associated with NAS rates. This repeated cross-sectional study used retrospective, difference-in-difference...

Distinct effects of cocaine and cocaine + cannabis on neurocognitive functioning and ab...
Drug and Alcohol Dependence; Oliveira HP, Gonçalves PD et. al.

Nov 4th, 2019 - Cannabis use is frequent among individuals with cocaine use disorder. Despite recent non-controlled studies advocating a therapeutic role of smoked cannabis, there is a paucity of evidence-based data on potential therapeutic and cognitive side-effects of this association. We examined 63 cocaine-addicted subjects who used cannabis more than 50 times in lifetime (COC + CAN), 24 cocaine-addicted p...

Predictors of Overdose Death Among High-Risk Emergency Department Patients With Substan...
Annals of Emergency Medicine; Krawczyk N, Eisenberg M et. al.

Sep 13th, 2019 - Persons with substance use disorders frequently utilize emergency department (ED) services, creating an opportunity for intervention and referral to addiction treatment and harm-reduction services. However, EDs may not have the appropriate tools to distinguish which patients are at greatest risk for negative outcomes. We link hospital ED and medical examiner mortality databases in one state to ...

Interactive effects of PTSD and substance use on suicidal ideation and behavior in mili...
Depression and Anxiety; Allan NP, Ashrafioun L et. al.

Sep 2nd, 2019 - The current study examines the unique and interactive effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and days using alcohol, opioids, and marijuana on PTSD symptoms, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behavior up to 1 year, later in a high-risk sample of military personnel not active in mental health treatment. Current and former military personnel at risk for suicide (N = 545; M age = 3...

Association of Smoking Cessation With Subsequent Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.
JAMA Duncan MS, Freiberg MS et. al.

Aug 20th, 2019 - The time course of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk after smoking cessation is unclear. Risk calculators consider former smokers to be at risk for only 5 years. To evaluate the association between years since quitting smoking and incident CVD. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from Framingham Heart Study participants without baseline CVD (original cohort: attending their f...

The efficacy of spiritual/religious interventions for substance use problems: A systema...
Drug and Alcohol Dependence; Hai AH, Franklin C et. al.

Jul 27th, 2019 - Spiritual/religious (S/R) interventions are commonly used to treat substance use problems, but this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to examine their efficacy for these problems. Ten electronic databases were searched to identify eligible studies (i.e., randomized controlled trials) published between January 1990 and February 2018 that examined S/R interventions' efficacy for su...

Effect of Computer-Based Substance Use Screening and Brief Behavioral Counseling vs Usu...
JAMA Network Open; Knight JR, Sherritt L et. al.

Jun 21st, 2019 - Annual preventive health visits provide an opportunity to screen youths for unhealthy substance use and intervene before serious harm results. To assess the feasibility and acceptability and estimate the efficacy of a primary care computer-facilitated screening and practitioner-delivered brief intervention (CSBI) system compared with usual care (UC) for youth substance use and associated risk o...

Tubal Ligation and Age at Natural Menopause.
Obstetrics and Gynecology; Ainsworth AJ, Baumgarten SC et. al.

May 28th, 2019 - To determine the effect of tubal ligation on age at natural menopause, as a marker of long-term ovarian function. Three preexisting population-based cohorts were included in this cross-sectional study. Data from each cohort was analyzed separately. The cohorts were restricted to women who never smoked and had reached natural menopause, without prior hysterectomy or oophorectomy. The following v...

A Meta-analysis of the Efficacy of Gabapentin for Treating Alcohol Use Disorder.
Addiction (Abingdon, England); Kranzler HR, Feinn R et. al.

May 10th, 2019 - Studies of the efficacy of gabapentin for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) have yielded mixed findings. The aims of our study were to estimate gabapentin's effects on six alcohol-related outcomes, test potential moderators, examine publication bias, and evaluate the quality of the studies. Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Using PubMed and ClinicalTrial...

Exogenous progesterone for smoking cessation in men and women: a pilot double-blind, pl...
Addiction (Abingdon, England); Tosun NL, Fieberg AM et. al.

May 6th, 2019 - In some clinical studies men and women have been found to differ in their ability to quit smoking, perhaps as a result of progesterone. The primary aim of this study was to provide a preliminary test of whether progesterone (PRO), compared with placebo (PBO), was more effective for smoking cessation in men and women. Pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Minneapolis/...