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ALLMedicine™ Detailed topics Center - Research & Reviews

ACE2 Expression in Kidney and Testis May Cause Kidney and Testis Damage After 2019-nCoV Infection
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.12.20022418v1

In December 2019 and January 2020, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) - infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, and has already posed a serious threat to public health. ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) has been shown to be one of the major receptors that mediate the entry of 2019-nCoV into human cells, which also happens in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Several res...

Covid-19 pandemic and the skin - What should dermatologists know?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102542/
Clinics in Dermatology;

The World has changed dramatically since the COVID-19 pandemic began. Together with our social, occupational, and personal life, the new corona virus poses novel challenges for all physicians, including dermatologists. Despite the virus not being dermatotropic, several skin conditions have emerged, mainly as a result of prolonged contact to personal protective equipment and excessive personal h...

Cardiovascular disease and COVID-19
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871402120300539
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews;

Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have underlying cardiovascular (CV) disease or develop acute cardiac injury during the course of the illness. Adequate understanding of the interplay between COVID-19 and CV disease is required for optimum management of these patients.

Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer
https://uroweb.org/guideline/bladder-cancer-muscle-invasive-and-metastatic/

The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines Panel for Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer (MIBC) have prepared these guidelines to help urologists assess the evidence-based management of MIBC and to incorporate guideline recommendations into their clinical practice.

Can the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Affect the Eyes? A Review of Coronaviruses and Ocular Implications in Humans and Animals
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09273948.2020.1738501
Ocular Immunology and Inflammation;

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) epidemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from China. This virus causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since then, there have been anecdotal reports of ocular infection. The ocular implications of human CoV infections have not been widely studied. However, CoVs have been known to cause var...

Non-neural expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the olfactory epithelium suggests mechanisms underlying anosmia in COVID-19 patients
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.25.009084v2.full

Recent reports suggest an association between COVID-19 and altered olfactory function. Here we analyze bulk and single cell RNA-Seq datasets to identify cell types in the olfactory epithelium that express molecules that mediate infection by SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2), the causal agent in COVID-19. We find in both mouse and human datasets that olfactory sensory neurons do not express two key genes invol...

Comparison of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 detection in 353 patients received tests with both specimens simultaneously
https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(20)30235-6/pdf
International Journal of Infectious Diseases;

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan in December 2019, by March 10, 2020, a total of 80,932 confirmed cases have been reported in China. Two consecutively negative RTPCR test results in respiratory tract specimens is required for the evaluation of discharge from hospital, and oropharyngeal swabs were the most common sample. However, false negative results occurred in ...

The revised clinical practice guidelines on the management of thyroid tumors by the Japan Associations of Endocrine Surgeons: Core questions and recommendations for treatments of thyroid cancer
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/endocrj/advpub/0/advpub_EJ20-0025/_pdf/-char/en
Endocrine Journal;

 The Japan Associations of Endocrine Surgeons has developed the revised version of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Thyroid Tumors. This article describes the guidelines translated into English for the 35 clinical questions relevant to the therapeutic management of thyroid cancers. The objective of the guidelines is to improve health-related outcomes in patients with thyroid tumors by en...

Cancer Pain (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/pain/pain-hp-pdq?cid=eb_govdel

Pain is one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients and often has a negative impact on patients’ functional status and quality of life. The goal of the following summary is to provide evidence-based, up-to-date, and practical information on the management of cancer pain.

Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version
https://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder/hp/bladder-treatment-pdq?cid=eb_govdel

Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States after lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and lymphoma. It is the third most common cancer in men and the eleventh most common cancer in women. Of the roughly 70,000 new cases annually, about 53,000 are in men and about 18,000 are in women. Of the roughly 15,000 annual deaths, more than 10,000 are in men ...

Serology Testing for COVID-19 at CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/serology-testing.html

CDC has developed a laboratory blood test to assist with efforts to determine how much of the U.S. population has been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. CDC is also using its serologic test (antibody) to evaluate the performance of commercial antibody tests.

The new International Society of Hypertension guidelines on hypertension
https://journals.lww.com/jhypertension/Fulltext/2020/06000/The_new_International_Society_of_Hypertension.1.aspx?context=LatestArticles
Journal of Hypertension;

The June issue of the Journal of Hypertension starts with the hypertension guidelines prepared by the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) and simultaneously published in Hypertension as well. Compared with the guidelines issued by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) the ...

Prevalence of Dyskinesia and OFF by 30-Minute Intervals Through the Day and Assessment of Daily Episodes of Dyskinesia and OFF: Novel Analyses of Diary Data from Gocovri Pivotal Trials
https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-parkinsons-disease/jpd181565
Journal of Parkinson's Disease;

Jul 29th, 2019 - Evaluate prevalence of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF through the day, assessed by 30-minute intervals, as well as the mean number and duration of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF episodes, transitions between PD states, and effects of Gocovri® (amantadine) extended release capsules on these episodes.

Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: clinical features, incidence, and risk factors
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00702-018-1900-6
Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies;

Jul 2nd, 2018 - Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have been controlled with levodopa for many years; however, motor complications consisting of wearing off of medication effect and dyskinesias tend to occur within a few years of starting levodopa. Motor complications can begin a few months after taking levodopa, with the average time to onset estimated to be 6.5 years. Dyskinesias can be troublesome and require ...

Hypertension and the Risk of Dementia
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcvm.2020.00005/full

Hypertension, particularly midlife high blood pressure, has been related to a higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer disease. However, these associations are complex and not fully elucidated. Cerebral small vessel disease emerges as one of the most important causes. Several observational studies have shown the potential beneficial role of antihypertensive treatment i...

Impairments in Activities of Daily Living in Parkinson's Disease: Implications for Management
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14530586/
NeuroRehabilitation

Sep 9th, 2003 - Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive impairment in motor and cognitive functioning. A review of past research shows that individuals experience not only physical discomfort brought on by the illness, but also considerable psychological distress. Increased dependency on a caregiver due to impairments in activities of daily living (e.g., walking, eating, dress...

Presynaptic mechanisms of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: the findings, the debate, and the therapeutic implications
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2014.00242/full
Frontiers in Neurology;

Dec 14th, 2014 - The dopamine (DA) precursor l-DOPA has been the most effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) for over 40 years. However, the response to this treatment changes with disease progression, and most patients develop dyskinesias (abnormal involuntary movements) and motor fluctuations within a few years of l-DOPA therapy.

Investigation of antihypertensive class, dementia, and cognitive decline
https://n.neurology.org/content/94/3/e267.abstract

High blood pressure is one of the main modifiable risk factors for dementia. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the best antihypertensive class for optimizing cognition. Our objective was to determine whether any particular antihypertensive class was associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline or dementia using comprehensive meta-analysis including reanalysis of original p...

Pooled Analysis of Phase 3 studies of ADS-5102 (amantadine hydrochloride) extended release capsules for Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia: A detailed review of UDysRS Results (S56.003)
https://n.neurology.org/content/88/16_Supplement/S56.003
Neurology

Apr 16th, 2017 - Data from two Phase 3 clinical studies investigating the efficacy and safety of ADS-5102 in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) were pooled to summarize results for the shared primary endpoint, Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) and its sub-components.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors for Parkinson's Disease Therapy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703788/
Parkinson's Disease;

May 28th, 2013 - Excessive glutamatergic signalling within the basal ganglia is implicated in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) and inthe emergence of dyskinesia associated with long-term treatment with L-DOPA. There is considerable research focus on the discovery and development of compounds that modulate glutamatergic signalling via glutamate receptors, as treatments for PD and L-DOPA-induced dyskin...

The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale: Presentation and clinimetric profile
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mds.22341
Movement Disorders;

Nov 20th, 2008 - We developed and tested a rating scale aimed to capture the essential features of dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several scales assess selected attributes of PD‐dyskinesias, no comprehensive rating tool exists. Available rating scales were evaluated by the investigators and patient focus groups.

Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: clinical features, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600052/
Postgraduate Medical Journal;

Jun 4th, 2007 - Levodopa is the most effective drug for treating Parkinson's disease. However, long‐term use of levodopa is often complicated by significantly disabling fluctuations and dyskinesias negating its beneficial effects. Younger age of Parkinson's disease onset, disease severity, and high levodopa dose increase the risk of development of levodopa‐induced dyskinesias (LID). The underlying mechanisms f...

Advances in understanding l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959438808000068?via=ihub
Current Opinion in Neurobiology;

Mar 3rd, 2008 - The crucial role of dopamine (DA) in movement control is illustrated by the spectrum of motor disorders caused by either a deficiency or a hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission in the basal ganglia. The degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons in Parkinson's disease causes poverty and slowness of movement. These symptoms are greatly improved by pharmacological DA replacement with l-3,4-dih...

The levodopa wearing-off phenomenon in Parkinson’s disease: pharmacokinetic considerations
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1517/14656566.7.10.1399?src=recsys&journalCode=ieop20
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy;

Jun 28th, 2006 - Levodopa is the most efficacious treatment in the management of Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, chronic use of traditional levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor formulations is associated with the development of complications, such as wearing-off and dyskinesia. In an attempt to avoid these complications, some physicians delay the introduction of levodopa or employ levodopa-sparing strategi...

Optimizing levodopa therapy for Parkinson’s disease with levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone: implications from a clinical and patient perspective
https://www.dovepress.com/optimizing-levodopa-therapy-for-parkinsonrsquos-disease-with-levodopac-peer-reviewed-article-NDT
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment;

Feb 7th, 2008 - After 40 years of clinical experience, levodopa remains the gold standard treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) despite the recent emergence of a host of new therapies. Some physicians are cautious when prescribing levodopa because of its association with motor complications. Evidence now suggests that levodopa-associated complications are a result of deep troughs in delivery of levodopa to th...

Subacute thyroiditis after SARS-CoV-2 infection
https://academic.oup.com/jcem/advance-article/doi/10.1210/clinem/dgaa276/5838793

Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a thyroid disease of viral or post-viral origin. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that began in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly worldwide and Italy has been severely affected by this outbreak.

Top 20 Research Studies of 2019 for Primary Care Physicians
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0515/p608.html

In 2019, regular surveillance of 110 English-language research journals identified 254 studies that met the criteria to become POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters). Physician members of the Canadian Medical Association rated these POEMs for their relevance to patients in their practices. This article summarizes the clinical questions and bottom-line answers from the top 20 POEMs of 20...

Indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.04.20053058v1.full.pdf

By early April 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had infected nearly one million people and had spread to nearly all countries worldwide. It is essential to understand where and how SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted.

Re-thinking the Potential for Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2
https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202005.0126/v1

Evidence for the potential for airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-19 continues to accumulate, with important implications for healthcare workers, as well as the general public. Three lines of evidence support this conclusion. COVID-19

Guidelines for Laboratory Diagnosis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea
https://www.sfndt.org/sites/www.sfndt.org/files/medias/documents/Hong et al. Ann Lab Med Avril 2020.pdf
Annals of Laboratory Medicine;

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which began in December 2019, is still ongoing in Korea, with >9,000 confirmed cases as of March 25, 2020. COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR is currently the most reliable diagnostic method for COVID-19 around the world. Korean Society for Laborato...

CDC Diagnostic Test for COVID-19
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/testing.html

CDC has developed a new laboratory test kit for use in testing patient specimens for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. The test kit is called the “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-PCR Diagnostic Panel.” It is intended for use with the Applied Biosys...

Association of Blood Pressure Lowering With Incident Dementia or Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2766163
JAMA

May 18th, 2020 - In this meta-analysis that included 12 trials with 92 135 participants for the primary outcome measure, blood pressure lowering with antihypertensive agents, compared with control, was associated with the development of a composite dementia or cognitive impairment outcome in 7.0% vs 7.5% of patients over a mean trial follow-up of 4.1 years, a difference that was statistically significant.

Policy Statement—Tobacco Use: A Pediatric Disease
https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/124/5/1474.full.pdf
American Academy of Pediatrics

Tobacco use and secondhand tobacco-smoke (SHS) exposure are major national and international health concerns. Pediatricians and other clinicians who care for children are uniquely positioned to assist patients and families with tobacco-use prevention and treatment. Understanding the nature and extent of tobacco use and SHS exposure is an essential first step toward the goal of eliminating toba...

Michael S. Hofman, MBBS, on Prostate Cancer: LuPSMA vs Cabazitaxel in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Disease
https://ascopost.com/videos/asco20-virtual-scientific-program/michael-hofman-on-lupsma-vs-cabazitaxel-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer/

May 29th, 2020 - Michael S. Hofman, MBBS, of the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, discusses phase II results from the ANZUP 1603 trial, which showed that in men with docetaxel-treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, LuPSMA was more active than cabazitaxel, with relatively fewer grade 3 and 4 adverse events and a more favorable PSA progression-free-survival (Abstract 5500).

David R. Wise, MD, PhD, on Novel Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer: Is Tissue the Issue?
https://ascopost.com/videos/asco20-virtual-scientific-program/david-wise-on-novel-biomarkers-in-prostate-cancer/

May 29th, 2020 - David R. Wise, MD, PhD, of New York University Perlmutter Cancer Center, summarizes three important studies in prostate cancer: circulating tumor cell count as a prognostic marker of PSA response and progression in metastatic castration-sensitive disease; new phenotypic subtypes; and how circulating tumor DNA dynamics associate with treatment response and radiologic progression-free survival (A...

Is Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Alone Oncologically Safe for Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer?
https://ascopost.com/news/may-2020/is-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-alone-oncologically-safe-for-patients-with-early-stage-cervical-cancer/

May 29th, 2020 - In a study of patients with early-stage cervical cancer presented by Balaya et al during the Gynecologic Cancer Oral Abstract Session of the ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program (Abstract 6006), researchers assessed disease-free and disease-specific survival to determine whether sentinel lymph node biopsy alone was a valid standard of care, or if bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy—the current “gold ...

Scott Kopetz, MD, PhD, on Colorectal Cancer: Encorafenib Plus Cetuximab With or Without Binimetinib
https://ascopost.com/videos/asco20-virtual-scientific-program/scott-kopetz-on-encorafenib-plus-cetuximab-with-or-without-binimetinib-in-colorectal-cancer/

May 29th, 2020 - Scott Kopetz, MD, PhD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, discusses phase III results of the BEACON CRC study, which confirmed that, compared with standard chemotherapy, encorafenib plus cetuximab with or without binimetinib improved overall survival and objective response rate in previously treated patients with BRAF V600E–mutated metastatic colorectal cancer (Abstract 4001).

Longer-term imatinib treatment extends OS among patients with GIST
https://www.healio.com/hematology-oncology/sarcoma/news/online/{e2646bcc-d52d-4050-898d-1d3154b179b4}/longer-term-imatinib-treatment-extends-os-among-patients-with-gist

May 30th, 2020 - An extended course of imatinib increased OS among patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, or GIST, according to long-term study results presented during the ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program.

Drunkorexia: An investigation of symptomatology and early maladaptive schemas within a female, young adult Australian population
https://aps.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ap.12462
Australian Psychologist;

Drunkorexia is a trend on the rise within the young adult population with significant physical, psychological, and social health implications. Many studies have investigated the link between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) and both eating disorders and substance misuse. To date, no studies have specifically focused on EMS amongst those with Drunkorexia behaviours. The main objectives of this st...

Drunkorexia: A new entity and the emergence of a new danger in young people. Drink or eat, they chose. A case report
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0985056220300200
Nutrition Clinique Et Métabolisme;

Eating disorders (ED) are common, severe and prevalent in young women. They share common clinical, neurobiological and psychopathological processes with other addictive behaviors. Binge drinking is also a growing behavior among young people, creating major risks. In parallel to these existing disorders, we have seen the arrival of new clinical phenomenon called “drunkorexia”, which is of intere...

HIF2A Inhibitor for von Hippel-Lindau Disease–Associated Renal Cell Carcinoma
https://ascopost.com/news/may-2020/hif2a-inhibitor-for-von-hippel-lindau-disease-associated-renal-cell-carcinoma/

May 29th, 2020 - In an international trial, treatment with MK-6482, a small-molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2a, was well tolerated and resulted in clinical responses for patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease–associated renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Fatima Cardoso, MD, on Breast Cancer: MammaPrint as Guidance for Adjuvant Chemotherapy
https://ascopost.com/videos/asco20-virtual-scientific-program/fatima-cardoso-on-mammaprint-as-guidance-for-adjuvant-chemotherapy/

May 29th, 2020 - Fatima Cardoso, MD, of Lisbon’s Champalimaud Cancer Center, discusses the long-term results of MINDACT, a large prospective trial showing the clinical utility of the 70-gene signature MammaPrint for adjuvant chemotherapy decision-making. The primary distant metastasis–free survival endpoint at 5 years continued to be met in chemotherapy-untreated women with clinical-high/genomic-low risk diseas...

Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, MD, MPH, on Colon Cancer: Celecoxib and FOLFOX for Stage III Disease
https://ascopost.com/videos/asco20-virtual-scientific-program/jeffrey-meyerhardt-on-celecoxib-and-folfox-for-stage-iii-colon-cancer/

May 29th, 2020 - Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, MD, MPH, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, discusses results from the CALGB/SWOG 80702 trial of celecoxib plus standard adjuvant therapy with fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). Adding celecoxib to standard chemotherapy did not significantly improve disease-free or overall survival (Abstract 4003).

Transoral Resection Followed by Low-Dose Radiation for Some Oropharyngeal Cancers
https://ascopost.com/news/may-2020/transoral-resection-followed-by-low-dose-radiation-for-some-oropharyngeal-cancers/

May 29th, 2020 - The final results of the randomized phase II ECOG-ACRIN E3311 trial were presented by Robert L. Ferris, MD, PhD, and colleagues during the ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program (Abstract 6500) and in today's Head and Neck Cancer Oral Abstract Session. The trial, conducted in patients undergoing transoral robotic surgery, tested reduced postoperative radiation therapy in patients with human papillom...

First-Line Pembrolizumab Plus Etoposide/Platinum for Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer
https://ascopost.com/news/may-2020/first-line-pembrolizumab-plus-etoposideplatinum-for-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer/

May 29th, 2020 - As reported at the ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program by Charles M. Rudin, MD, PhD, and colleagues (Abstract 9001), the phase III KEYNOTE-604 trial has shown that first-line pembrolizumab plus etoposide/platinum significantly prolonged progression-free survival and prolonged overall survival at a near significant level vs placebo plus etoposide/platinum in patients with extensive-stage small cel...