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Diabetes Care in the Hospital: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2019
http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/42/Supplement_1/S173

Dec 17th, 2018 - In the hospital, both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are associated with adverse outcomes, including death. Therefore, inpatient goals should include the prevention of both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Hospitals should promote the shortest safe hospital stay and provide an effective transition out of the hospital that prevents acute complications and readmission.

BAQSIMI™ (glucagon) Nasal Powder 3 mg, the First and Only Nasally Administered Glucagon to Treat Severe Hypoglycemia in Adults and Children with Diabetes Ages Four Years and Older, Approved by FDA
https://investor.lilly.com/news-releases/news-release-details/baqsimitm-glucagon-nasal-powder-3-mg-first-and-only-nasally

Jul 23rd, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved BAQSIMI™ (glucagon) nasal powder 3 mg for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in people with diabetes ages four years and above, Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) announced today. BAQSIMI is the first and only nasally administered glucagon, and it was designed with severe hypoglycemia rescue in mind. It is compact, portable and ready to ...

BAQSIMI (glucagon) nasal powder | A severe low blood sugar and hypoglycemia treatment
https://www.baqsimi.com

BAQSIMI™ is indicated for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes ages 4 years and above

Hypoglycemia - StatPearls
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534841/
Mathew,P.,et al

Feb 28th, 2019 - Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concentrations drop below 55 mg/dL. The symptoms of Whipple's triad have been used to describe hypoglycemia since 1938. For Whipple's triad, the practitioner must first recognize symptoms of hypoglycemia, then obtain low blood glucose, and finally, demo...

International Consensus on Risk Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Treated With Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT) Inhibitors
http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/42/6/1147
Diabetes Care; Danne,T.,et al

May 31st, 2019 - Sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors are new oral antidiabetes medications shown to effectively reduce glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and glycemic variability, blood pressure, and body weight without intrinsic properties to cause hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes. However, recent studies, particularly in individuals with type 1 diabetes, have demonstrated increases in the absolut...

Xeris Pharmaceuticals Receives U.S. Fda Approval For Gvoke™ (Glucagon), The First Ready-to-use Stable Liquid Glucagon For Severe Hypoglycemia
https://xerispharma.gcs-web.com/news-releases/news-release-details/xeris-pharmaceuticals-receives-us-fda-approval-gvoketm-glucagon

Sep 9th, 2019 - Xeris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: XERS), a specialty pharmaceutical company leveraging its novel technology platforms to develop and commercialize ready-to-use injectable and infusible drug formulations, announced today that it has received regulatory approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for GVOKE™ (glucagon) injection, its ready-to-use, room-temperature stable liquid gl...

Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1911303
The New England Journal of Medicine; McMurray,J.,et al

Sep 18th, 2019 - BACKGROUND In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 d...

Metformin: an old but still the best treatment for type 2 diabetes
https://dmsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1758-5996-5-6
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome;

Feb 4th, 2013 - The management of T2DM requires aggressive treatment to achieve glycemic and cardiovascular risk factor goals. In this setting, metformin, an old and widely accepted first line agent, stands out not only for its antihyperglycemic properties but also for its effects beyond glycemic control such as improvements in endothelial dysfunction, hemostasis and oxidative stress, insulin resistance, lipid...

Hypoglycemia During Therapy of Diabetes
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279100/
Spanakis,E.,et al

Jun 14th, 2018 - Hypoglycemia, caused by treatment with a sulfonylurea, a glinide, or insulin coupled with compromised defenses against the resulting falling plasma glucose concentrations, is the limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes. It causes recurrent morbidity in most people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and many with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is sometimes fatal; i...

Tramadol use and the risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia in patients with noncance...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6512
JAMA Internal Medicine; Fournier JP, Azoulay L et. al.

Dec 8th, 2014 - Tramadol is a weak opioid analgesic whose use has increased rapidly, and it has been associated with adverse events of hypoglycemia. To assess whether tramadol use, when compared with codeine use, is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia. A nested case-control analysis was conducted within the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospi...

Association Between Transient Newborn Hypoglycemia and Fourth-Grade Achievement Test Pr...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1631
JAMA Pediatrics; Kaiser JR, Bai S et. al.

Aug 24th, 2015 - Prolonged neonatal hypoglycemia is associated with poor long-term neurocognitive function. However, little is known about an association between early transient newborn hypoglycemia and academic achievement. To determine if early (within the first 3 hours of life) transient hypoglycemia (a single initial low glucose concentration, followed by a second value above a cutoff) is associated with su...

Neonatal Glycemia and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4646166
The New England Journal of Medicine; McKinlay CJ, Alsweiler JM et. al.

Oct 15th, 2015 - Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause neurologic impairment, but evidence supporting thresholds for intervention is limited. We performed a prospective cohort study involving 528 neonates with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks who were considered to be at risk for hypoglycemia; all were treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per ...

Effect of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine U100 on Hypoglycemia in Patients With Ty...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817477
JAMA Lane W, Bailey TS et. al.

Jul 3rd, 2017 - Hypoglycemia, common in patients with type 1 diabetes, is a major barrier to achieving good glycemic control. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to coma or death. To determine whether insulin degludec is noninferior or superior to insulin glargine U100 in reducing the rate of symptomatic hypoglycemic episodes. Double-blind, randomized, crossover noninferiority trial involving 501 adults with at least...

Effect of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine U100 on Hypoglycemia in Patients With Ty...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817473
JAMA Wysham C, Bhargava A et. al.

Jul 3rd, 2017 - Hypoglycemia, a serious risk for insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes, negatively affects glycemic control. To test whether treatment with basal insulin degludec is associated with a lower rate of hypoglycemia compared with insulin glargine U100 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Randomized, double-blind, treat-to-target crossover trial including two 32-week treatment periods, each with...

Healthcare resource use and associated costs of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 di...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2017.07.012
Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications; Alemayehu B, Liu J et. al.

Aug 28th, 2017 - The objective of this study was to evaluate diabetes-related healthcare resource use and associated costs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated with a sulfonylurea (SU), with and without hypoglycemia. In this retrospective cohort study, patients 18years or older receiving SU monotherapy or as add-on to metformin were identified from a US healthcare claims database (MarketScan®). Of 11...

Association of Initiation of Basal Insulin Analogs vs Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Insuli...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134432
JAMA Lipska KJ, Parker MM et. al.

Jun 24th, 2018 - In clinical trials of patients with type 2 diabetes, long-acting insulin analogs modestly reduced the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with human neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, but cost 2 to 10 times more. Outcomes in clinical practice may differ from trial results. To compare the rates of hypoglycemia-related emergency department (ED) visits or hospital admissions associated ...

Intensive Glycemic Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes on β-Blockers.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-0721
Diabetes Care; Tsujimoto T, Sugiyama T et. al.

Jul 27th, 2016 - Recent studies have suggested that β-blockers may decrease the adverse influence of hypoglycemia and reduce hypoglycemia-associated cardiac arrhythmias and death. We evaluated whether intensive glycemic therapy in patients with diabetes receiving treatment with β-blockers showed beneficial effects for the prevention of cardiovascular events without increased mortality compared with a standard g...

Use of Intensive Glycemic Management in Older Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7032960
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society; Arnold SV, Lipska KJ et. al.

Apr 10th, 2018 - To examine the proportion of older adults with diabetes mellitus treated with tight glucose control and the factors associated with this practice. Cross-sectional analysis. Outpatient sites in the Diabetes Collaborative Registry (N=151). Adults aged 75 and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N=42,669). Participants were categorized based on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose-lowering ...

Moderate-Intensity Insulin Therapy Is Associated With Reduced Length of Stay in Critica...
https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003709
Critical Care Medicine; Firestone RL, Parker PL et. al.

Mar 11th, 2019 - Insulin infusion therapy is commonly used in the hospital setting to manage diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Clinical evidence suggests both hypoglycemia and glycemic variability negatively impact patient outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that moderate-intensity insulin therapy decreases hospital length of stay and prevalence of hypoglycemia in patients with ...

Cost Analysis of Treating Neonatal Hypoglycemia with Dextrose Gel.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019118
The Journal of Pediatrics; Glasgow MJ, Harding JE et. al.

Apr 7th, 2018 - To evaluate the costs of using dextrose gel as a primary treatment for neonatal hypoglycemia in the first 48 hours after birth compared with standard care. We used a decision tree to model overall costs, including those specific to hypoglycemia monitoring and treatment and those related to the infant's length of stay in the postnatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit, comparing the use of de...