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Screening for Intimate Partner Violence, Elder Abuse, and Abuse of Vulnerable Adults: U...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.14741
JAMA , Curry SJ et. al.

Oct 25th, 2018 - Intimate partner violence (IPV) and abuse of older or vulnerable adults are common in the United States but often remain undetected. In addition to the immediate effects of IPV, such as injury and death, there are other health consequences, many with long-term effects, including development of mental health conditions such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, substan...

Influenza and Tdap Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - United States, April 2018.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6188122
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Kahn KE, Black CL et. al.

Sep 27th, 2018 - Vaccinating pregnant women with influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines can reduce the risk for influenza and pertussis for themselves and their infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season receive influenza vaccine, which can be adminis...

Trial of Fingolimod versus Interferon Beta-1a in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1800149
The New England Journal of Medicine; Chitnis T, Arnold DL et. al.

Sep 12th, 2018 - Treatment of patients younger than 18 years of age with multiple sclerosis has not been adequately examined in randomized trials. We compared fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in this population. In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients 10 to 17 years of age with relapsing multiple sclerosis in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral fingolimod at a dose of 0.5 mg per day (0.25 mg per day for ...

Oral steroids for resolution of otitis media with effusion in children (OSTRICH): a dou...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099122
Lancet (London, England); Francis NA, Cannings-John R et. al.

Aug 28th, 2018 - Children with persistent hearing loss due to otitis media with effusion are commonly managed by surgical intervention. A safe, cheap, and effective medical treatment would enhance treatment options. Underpowered, poor-quality trials have found short-term benefit from oral steroids. We aimed to investigate whether a short course of oral steroids would achieve acceptable hearing in children with ...

Safety and Side Effects of Rifampin versus Isoniazid in Children.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1714284
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diallo T, Adjobimey M et. al.

Aug 1st, 2018 - The treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in children because of their vulnerability to life-threatening forms of tuberculosis disease. The current standard treatment - 9 months of isoniazid - has been associated with poor adherence and toxic effects, which have hampered the effectiveness of the drug. In adults, treatment with 4 months of rifampin has been s...

Birth Outcomes for Pregnant Women with HIV Using Tenofovir-Emtricitabine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5984044
The New England Journal of Medicine; Rough K, Seage GR et. al.

Apr 25th, 2018 - In a previous trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) involving pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, those randomly assigned to receive tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) had infants at greater risk for very premature birth and death within 14 days after delivery than those assigned to receive zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavi...

Change in Overweight from Childhood to Early Adulthood and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1713231
The New England Journal of Medicine; Bjerregaard LG, Jensen BW et. al.

Apr 4th, 2018 - Childhood overweight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. We investigated whether remission of overweight before early adulthood reduces this risk. We conducted a study involving 62,565 Danish men whose weights and heights had been measured at 7 and 13 years of age and in early adulthood (17 to 26 years of age). Overweight was defined in accordance with Centers ...

Aspirin or Rivaroxaban for VTE Prophylaxis after Hip or Knee Arthroplasty.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1712746
The New England Journal of Medicine; Anderson DR, Dunbar M et. al.

Feb 21st, 2018 - Clinical trials and meta-analyses have suggested that aspirin may be effective for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (proximal deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) after total hip or total knee arthroplasty, but comparisons with direct oral anticoagulants are lacking for prophylaxis beyond hospital discharge. We performed a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial i...

Acute Myocardial Infarction after Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Infection.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1702090
The New England Journal of Medicine; Kwong JC, Schwartz KL et. al.

Jan 24th, 2018 - Acute myocardial infarction can be triggered by acute respiratory infections. Previous studies have suggested an association between influenza and acute myocardial infarction, but those studies used nonspecific measures of influenza infection or study designs that were susceptible to bias. We evaluated the association between laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and acute myocardial infarct...

IVF Transfer of Fresh or Frozen Embryos in Women without Polycystic Ovaries.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1703768
The New England Journal of Medicine; Vuong LN, Dang VQ et. al.

Jan 10th, 2018 - Among women who are undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), the transfer of frozen embryos has been shown to result in a higher rate of live birth than the transfer of fresh embryos in those with infertility associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. It is not known whether frozen-embryo transfer results in similar benefit in women with infertility that is not associated with the polycysti...

Efficacy of Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication vs Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication...
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2017.12.021
Gastroenterology Richter JE, Kumar A et. al.

Jan 6th, 2018 - The effects of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) have been compared with those of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or a sham procedure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but there has been no direct comparison of TIF vs LNF. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to comp...

Predictors of pneumonia in lower respiratory tract infections: 3C prospective cough com...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5724402
The European Respiratory Journal; Moore M, Stuart B et. al.

Nov 23rd, 2017 - The aim was to aid diagnosis of pneumonia in those presenting with lower respiratory tract symptoms in routine primary care.A cohort of 28 883 adult patients with acute cough attributed to lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) was recruited from 5222 UK practices in 2009-13. Symptoms, signs and treatment were recorded at presentation and subsequent events followed-up for 30 days by chart r...

Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30132-7
The Lancet. HIV; Hoornenborg E, Prins M et. al.

Sep 18th, 2017 - Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consi...

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2017 - 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-2550
Pediatrics

Sep 5th, 2017 - This statement updates the recommendations for routine use of the seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older, including children and adolescents. Highlights for the upcoming 2017-2018 season include the followin...

History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574033
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Farland LV, Eliassen AH et. al.

Aug 30th, 2017 - Objective To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Nurses' Health Study II, 1989-2011.Participants 72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed end...

Effect of Oral Prednisolone on Symptom Duration and Severity in Nonasthmatic Adults Wit...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817483
JAMA Hay AD, Little P et. al.

Aug 22nd, 2017 - Acute lower respiratory tract infection is common and often treated inappropriately in primary care with antibiotics. Corticosteroids are increasingly used but without sufficient evidence. To assess the effects of oral corticosteroids for acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults without asthma. Multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (July 2013 to final follow-up October 2014...

Benefits and safety of gabapentinoids in chronic low back pain: A systematic review and...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557428
PLoS Medicine; Shanthanna H, Gilron I et. al.

Aug 15th, 2017 - Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is very common, with a lifetime prevalence between 51% and 80%. In majority, it is nonspecific in nature and multifactorial in etiology. Pregabalin (PG) and Gabapentin (GB) are gabapentinoids that have demonstrated benefit in neuropathic pain conditions. Despite no clear rationale, they are increasingly used for nonspecific CLBP. They necessitate prolonged use and a...

Randomized phase 2 study of low-dose decitabine vs low-dose azacitidine in lower-risk M...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5620419
Blood Jabbour E, Short NJ et. al.

Aug 4th, 2017 - Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) improve survival in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) but are less well-studied in lower-risk disease. We compared the safety and efficacy of low-dose decitabine vs low-dose azacitidine in this group of patients. Adults with low- or intermediate 1-risk MDS or MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, a...

Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders o...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5506851
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Behrens I, Basit S et. al.

Jul 13th, 2017 - Objectives To determine how soon after delivery the risk of post-pregnancy hypertension increases in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and how the risk evolves over time.Design Nationwide register based cohort study.Setting Denmark.Populations 482 972 primiparous women with a first live birth or stillbirth between 1995 and 2012 (cumulative incidence analyses), and 1 025 118 women w...

Effect of Cephalexin Plus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole vs Cephalexin Alone on Clinical...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815038
JAMA Moran GJ, Krishnadasan A et. al.

May 23rd, 2017 - Emergency department visits for skin infections in the United States have increased with the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For cellulitis without purulent drainage, β-hemolytic streptococci are presumed to be the predominant pathogens. It is unknown if antimicrobial regimens possessing in vitro MRSA activity provide improved outcomes compared with treatments l...