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Pediatric Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery: Evidence, Barriers, and Best Practices
Pediatrics Armstrong, S. et. al.

Oct 27th, 2019 - Severe obesity among youth is an “epidemic within an epidemic” and portends a shortened life expectancy for today’s children compared with those of their parents’ generation. Severe obesity has outpaced less severe forms of childhood obesity in prevalence, and it disproportionately affects adolescents. Emerging evidence has linked severe obesity to the development and progression of multiple co...

Chronic inflammatory liver diseases and coffee intake
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care; Contaldo, F. et. al.

Jun 17th, 2019 - Purpose of review To review the healthy protective effects of coffee against several metabolic diseases and some types of cancer. In this short review, the possible preventive and/or therapeutic actions of coffee on liver function is focused. Recent findings The protective mechanisms of coffee are various and because of several components with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in ...

FDA approves ramucirumab for hepatocellular carcinoma

May 9th, 2019 - On May 10, 2019, the Food and Drug Administration approved ramucirumab (CYRAMZA®, Eli Lilly and Company) as a single agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who have an alpha fetoprotein (AFP) of ≥ 400 ng/mL and have been previously treated with sorafenib.

Guidelines Insights: Hepatobiliary Cancers, Version 2.2019
Benson, A. et. al.

Mar 31st, 2019 - Incidence and mortality rates for cancer overall are declining, but both incidence and mortality rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are increasing.1,2 Risk factors for development of HCC include infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and cirrhosis of the liver (eg, alcohol cirrhosis).3 Metabolic disorders (ie, obesity, diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism,...

Appendicitis - StatPearls

Feb 21st, 2019 - Appendicitis is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. This is a hollow organ located at the tip of the cecum, usually in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.

Hepatitis, Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
Sharma, B. et. al.

Jan 31st, 2019 - Nonalcoholic, fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the ectopic accumulation of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis) when no other causes of secondary, liver fat accumulation are present. As minor deposition of fat can occur in healthy adults, deposition of fat in at least 5% of hepatocytes is considered pathologic. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is diagnosed via a liver biopsy when th...

Ramucirumab After Sorafenib in Patients With Advanced HCC and Increased α-Fetoprotein Concentrations
Grothey, A.

Jan 22nd, 2019 - The landscape of systemic therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has dramatically changed in the last 5 years with the introduction of various active agents into clinical pathways. The latest addition of agents with proof-of-efficacy in HCC is ramucirumab, an antibody against VEGF-R2. The published results of the REACH-2 trial in patients with prior sorafenib therapy demonstrate increased ov...

Ramucirumab after sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and increased α-fetoprotein concentrations (REACH-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial
Zhu, A. et. al.

Jan 17th, 2019 - Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and increased α-fetoprotein concentrations have poor prognosis. We aimed to establish the efficacy of ramucirumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and α-fetoprotein concentrations of 400 ng/mL or higher.

Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy not Associated with Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Multicenter North American Cohort Study
Singal, A. et. al.

Jan 16th, 2019 - Background & Aims There is controversy over the effects of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for hepatitis C (HCV) infection on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence and tumor aggressiveness. We compared HCC recurrence patterns between DAA-treated and untreated HCV-infected patients who had achieved a complete response to HCC treatment in a North American cohort.

Appendicitis - Merck Manual

Nov 30th, 2018 - Appendicitis is acute inflammation of the vermiform appendix, typically resulting in abdominal pain, anorexia, and abdominal tenderness. Diagnosis is clinical, often supplemented by CT or ultrasonography. Treatment is surgical removal of the appendix

ASMBS updated position statement on bariatric surgery in class I obesity (BMI 30–35 kg/m2)

Jul 31st, 2018 - The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) issued a position statement on the role of bariatric surgery in class I obesity in 2012 [1]. That statement was developed in response to inquiries made to the ASMBS by society members, physicians, patients, hospitals, health insurance payers, policymakers, and the media regarding the safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery f...

Bariatric surgery is most effective early in the diabetes trajectory
Doug Brunk

Jan 15th, 2020 - LOS ANGELES – In the clinical experience of Kurt GMM Alberti, DPhil, FRCP, FRCPath, bariatric surgery should be used earlier in the course of diabetes to yield the most benefit. The problem is, far fewer people with diabetes are being referred for the surgery than would benefit from it.

Unique T cell populations pinpointed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue
Andrew D. Bowser

Jan 14th, 2020 - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue contains several unique populations of tumor infiltrating cells, including some exhausted effector T cells that regain normal function when treated with the immunotherapy drug nivolumab, according to researchers. The unique populations of recently activated CD4+, CD8+, and CD4-CD8 double-negative cells identified in the tumors expressed specific activation.

Evidence builds for bariatric surgery’s role in cancer prevention
Mitchel L. Zoler

Jan 9th, 2020 - LAS VEGAS – The ability of bariatric surgery and substantial subsequent weight loss to cut the incidence of a variety of obesity-related cancers and other malignancies received further confirmation in results from two studies reported at a meeting presented by the Obesity Society and the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Mitchel L.

Bariatric surgery candidates show high prevalence of thrombophilia
Mitchel L. Zoler

Jan 8th, 2020 - LAS VEGAS – More than half the patients seeking laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at a pair of large U. S.

Score predicts bariatric surgery’s benefits for obesity, type 2 diabetes
Mitchel L. Zoler

Jan 8th, 2020 - LAS VEGAS – Researchers have devised a risk calculator for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes that can estimate their 10-year risk for death and cardiovascular disease events if their clinical status continues relatively unchanged, or if they opt to undergo bariatric surgery. Mitchel L.

Deep Vein Thrombosis Risk Declines After Bariatric Surgery

Dec 30th, 2019 - NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Bariatric surgery is associated with a significant decrease in the long-term risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs), principally deep vein thrombosis (DVT), according to findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Obesity is associated with a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of VTEs, including pulmonary embolism and DVT. Surgery is also a risk fa...

Bariatric Surgery Linked to Greater Colon-Cancer Risk

Dec 16th, 2019 - NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Obese adults who undergo bariatric surgery may face a greater risk of colon cancer than their peers who don't have weight-loss surgery, a new study in a large Nordic cohort suggests. "Individuals with obesity have an increased risk of colon cancer. While bariatric surgery results in substantial weight loss in a majority of patients with obesity, our study suggests th...

Bariatric surgery tied to fewer cerebrovascular events
Mitchel L. Zoler

Dec 10th, 2019 - PHILADELPHIA – Obese people living in the United Kingdom who underwent bariatric surgery had a two-thirds lower rate of major cerebrovascular events than that of a matched group of obese residents who did not undergo bariatric surgery, in a retrospective study of 8,424 people followed for a mean of just over 11 years. Mitchel L.