About 122,664 results
Influenza and Tdap Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - United States, April 2018.
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Kahn KE, Black CL et. al.

Sep 27th, 2018 - Vaccinating pregnant women with influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines can reduce the risk for influenza and pertussis for themselves and their infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season receive influenza vaccine, which can be adminis...

Safety and Side Effects of Rifampin versus Isoniazid in Children.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diallo T, Adjobimey M et. al.

Aug 1st, 2018 - The treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in children because of their vulnerability to life-threatening forms of tuberculosis disease. The current standard treatment - 9 months of isoniazid - has been associated with poor adherence and toxic effects, which have hampered the effectiveness of the drug. In adults, treatment with 4 months of rifampin has been s...

Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. An Official ATS/CDC/ERS/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Payam Nahid et al

Nov 20th, 2019 - The American Thoracic Society, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Respiratory Society, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored this new practice guideline on the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). The document includes recommendations on the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) as well as isoniazid-resistant but rifampin-suscept...

Final Analysis of a Trial of M72/AS01E Vaccine to Prevent Tuberculosis
The New England Journal of Medicine; Tait, D. et. al.

Oct 28th, 2019 - BACKGROUND Results of an earlier analysis of a trial of the M72/AS01E candidate vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that in infected adults, the vaccine provided 54.0% protection against active pulmonary tuberculosis disease, without evident safety concerns. We now report the results of the 3-year final analysis of efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity. METHODS From August 201...

Alarming number of heart infections tied to opioid epidemic

Sep 17th, 2019 - An alarming number of people nationwide are developing infections of either the heart’s inner lining or valves, known as infective endocarditis, in large part, due to the current opioid epidemic. This new trend predominantly affects young, white, poor men who also have higher rates of HIV, hepatitis C and alcohol abuse, according to new research published in the Journal of the American Heart As...

Scarlet fever changes its spots
The Lancet Infectious Diseases;

Sep 9th, 2019 - Historically, the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) was a major cause of death as a result of sepsis and fatal epidemics of scarlet fever.1 Despite a decline in the incidence and severity of these toxin-mediated diseases over the past century in high-income countries, group A streptococcus is still among the top ten infectious causes of human mortality, with more tha...

Emergence of dominant toxigenic M1T1 Streptococcus pyogenes clone during increased scarlet fever activity in England: a population-based molecular epidemiological study
The Lancet;

Sep 9th, 2019 - Since 2014, England has seen increased scarlet fever activity unprecedented in modern times. In 2016, England's scarlet fever seasonal rise coincided with an unexpected elevation in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections. We describe the molecular epidemiological investigation of these events.

Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Associated with Packaged Leafy Green Salads, United States and Canada, 2015–2016

Jul 31st, 2019 - We investigated an outbreak of listeriosis detected by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and associated with packaged leafy green salads. Nineteen cases were identified in the United States during July 5, 2015–January 31, 2016; isolates from case-patients were closely related (median difference 3 alleles, range 0–16 alleles). Of 16 case-patients interviewed, all reported salad consumption...

IDSA/AAN/ACR Draft Lyme Disease Guidelines

Jun 26th, 2019 - The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), American Academy of Neurology (AAN), and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) are now accepting comments on the “2019 Draft Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease.” We are looking for feedback from not only physicians and healthcare professionals, but also individuals affected by Lyme disease, such as patients,...


May 8th, 2019 - Safety Review of DEET (chemical name, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient in many repellent products. It is widely used to repel biting pests such as mosquitoes and ticks. Every year, an estimated one-third of the U.S. population use DEET to protect them from mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile Virus, the Zika virus or malaria and tick-borne illnesses like Lyme disease and ...

Guidance for Clinicians: Recommendations for Patients after a Tick Bite

Apr 30th, 2019 - Antimicrobial prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease (Table 1) following tick bite may be beneficial in certain circumstances. A single dose of doxycycline can lower the risk of Lyme disease when: The tick bite occurred in a state where Lyme disease incidence is high

Botulism | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

Apr 15th, 2019 - A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Botulism

Infection and Lupus: Which Causes Which?
Current Rheumatology Reports; Doaty, S. et. al.

Mar 6th, 2019 - Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune systems increases the risk of infection in patients with SLE. Infectious agents have also been theorized to play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE. This article summarizes our current knowledge of the infectious risk SLE patients face as a ...

WHO consolidated guidelines on drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment

Feb 28th, 2019 - Tuberculosis (TB) strains with drug resistance (DR-TB) are more difficult to treat than drug-susceptible ones, and threaten global progress towards the targets set by the End TB Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). There is thus a critical need for evidence-based policy recommendations on the treatment and care of patients with DR-TB, based on the most recent and comprehensive evide...

Tetanus For Clinicians

Feb 27th, 2019 - Overview of tetanus for clinicians including pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications.

Tetanus - StatPearls

Feb 19th, 2019 - Tetanus is an infection that is characterized by muscle spasms, also known as lockjaw or trismus. The disease most commonly occurs in those who are not vaccinated or in the elderly with waning immunity. Currently, vaccination campaigns have decreased the incidence and prevalence of tetanus worldwide.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) - CDC

Feb 18th, 2019 - Doxycycline is the treatment of choice for RMSF, and all other tickborne rickettsial diseases. Use of antibiotics other than doxycycline is associated with a higher risk of fatal outcome from RMSF.

Tuberculosis - StatPearls

Feb 5th, 2019 - Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which mainly affects the lungs, making pulmonary disease the most common presentation (K Zaman, 2010). However, TB is a multi-systemic disease with a protean presentation. The organ system most commonly affected include the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal (GI) system, the lymphoreticular system, the skin...

International Consensus Guidelines for the Optimal Use of the Polymyxins

Feb 1st, 2019 - The polymyxin antibiotics colistin (polymyxin E) and polymyxin B became available in the 1950s and thus did not undergo contemporary drug development procedures. Their clinical use has recently resurged, assuming an important role as salvage therapy for otherwise untreatable gram‐negative infections. Since their reintroduction into the clinic, significant confusion remains due to the existence ...

National Trends in Hospitalizations for Stroke Associated With Infective Endocarditis and Opioid Use Between 1993 and 2015
Omran, S. et. al.

Jan 29th, 2019 - There has been a recent sharp rise in opioid-related deaths in the United States. Intravenous opioid use can lead to infective endocarditis (IE) which can result in stroke. There are scant data on recent trends in this neurological complication of opioid abuse. We hypothesized that increasing opioid abuse has led to a higher incidence of stroke associated with IE and opioid use.

Ten threats to global health in 2019

Jan 20th, 2019 - The world is facing multiple health challenges. These range from outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases like measles and diphtheria, increasing reports of drug-resistant pathogens, growing rates of obesity and physical inactivity to the health impacts of environmental pollution and climate change and multiple humanitarian crises.

Use of Orthokeratology for the Prevention of Myopic Progression in Children OTA - IN PRESS
AAO OTAC Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Panel,

Jan 16th, 2019 - Orthokeratology may be effective in slowing myopic progression for children and adolescents, with a potentially greater effect when initiated at an early age (6–8 years). Safety remains a concern because of the risk of potentially blinding microbial keratitis from contact lens wear.

Body Piercing Infections - StatPearls
Preslar, D.et al

Jan 5th, 2019 - Body piercings have become increasingly popular and a socially acceptable form of body modification. The most common site of piercings is the ear, with increasing popularity involving the mouth, nose, eyebrows, nipples, navel, and genitals. Localized cellulitis is the most common infectious complication resulting from body piercings. If not identified and treated accordingly these localized in...

Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes | Lyme Disease | CDC

Dec 20th, 2018 - Various photos of Lyme rashes and skin conditions that are not Lyme related.

Management of Neonates Born at ?34 6/7 Weeks’ Gestation With Suspected or Proven Early-Onset...
Puopolo, Karen M.

Nov 30th, 2018 - Early-onset sepsis (EOS) remains a serious and often fatal illness among infants born preterm, particularly among newborn infants of the lowest gestational age. Currently, most preterm infants with very low birth weight are treated empirically with antibiotics for risk of EOS, often for prolonged periods, in the absence of a culture-confirmed infection.

Tick-Borne Disease Working Group: 2018 Report to Congress

Nov 13th, 2018 - Tick-Borne Diseases have rapidly become a serious and growing threat to public health in the United States. Despite many scientific unknowns, experts agree that the incidence and distribution of tick-borne diseases are increasing. Over the past 25 years, reports of Lyme disease have increased steadily with estimated annual cases approximating 300,000 (Hinckley et al., 2014; Nelson et al., 2...


Nov 12th, 2018 - Evidence-based update using Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group-identified systematic reviews for the initial evaluation of conjunctivitis patients and discussion of associated or predisposing factors.

Botulism Information for Health Professionals

Oct 3rd, 2018 - Get clinical information about botulism and find out who to call for case consultation if you suspect your patient may have botulism.

Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance (AR / AMR) - Protecting Patients and Stopping Outbreaks

Sep 9th, 2018 - Your patients can get infections when receiving healthcare, called healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). HAIs are commonly caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens (germs), which may lead to sepsis or death. People can also get antibiotic-resistant infections in their community, for example, gonorrhea, tuberculosis (TB), or foodborne infections. Take the following actions to help protect ...

HIV and Tuberculosis | HIV Risk and Prevention | HIV/AIDS | CDC

Sep 5th, 2018 - All people with newly diagnosed HIV should be tested for TB infection as soon as possible. Anyone who has TB disease, is being evaluated for TB disease, or is a contact of a TB patient should be tested for HIV.

Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adul...
Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council

May 28th, 2018 - Opportunistic infections (OIs) were the first clinical manifestations that alerted clinicians to the occurrence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasma encephalitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, and pneumococcal respiratory disease, as well as cer.

WHO treatment guidelines for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis

Mar 14th, 2018 - The emergence of drug-resistant TB (tuberculosis) is a major global health concern, which threatens the ambitious goals and progress set under the End TB Strategy. Isoniazid-resistant TB, which is present in 8% of TB cases worldwide, reduces treatment success in patients treated with the standard 6-month first-line regimen.

Latent tuberculosis infection: updated and consolidated guidelines for programmatic management

Feb 18th, 2018 - These new guidelines supersede previous WHO policy documents on the management of LTBI (Latent Tuberculosis Infection) in people living with HIV, household contacts of people with active TB, other groups at risk of developing TB, and for LTBI testing. The consolidated guidelines are expected to provide the basis and rationale for the development of national guidelines for LTBI management, adapt.

Cough Due to TB and Other Chronic Infections.CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report: AACP G...
Stephen K. Field, MD

Jan 31st, 2018 - CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report describing recommendations for cough due to TB and other chronic infections.

WHO position statement on the use of delamanid for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
World Health Organization (WHO)

Jan 30th, 2018 - This Position Statement by the World Health Organization (WHO) on the use of delamanid in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been developed in response to the final data from the phase III, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of delamanid (Trial #242-09-213, hereafter referred to as ‘Trial 213’).

Beating the Clock to Reduce Sepsis Mortality
Robin Warshaw

Dec 11th, 2017 - Often overlooked and more difficult to identify than many other life-threatening conditions, sepsis causes one-third to one-half of all deaths in U. S.

Guidelines for the prevention and control of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinet...

Oct 31st, 2017 - Health care-associated infections (HAI) are one of the most common adverse events in care delivery. A large proportion are caused by antibiotic resistant organisms.

Missed Opportunities for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Initiation in an Insured Adolesce...
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society; Espinosa CM, Marshall GS et. al.

Oct 16th, 2017 - This study assessed the initiation of HPV vaccination in insured adolescent females in relation to physician visits and receipt of other vaccines routinely given at the same age. January 1, 2010, and September 31, 2015. Vaccination administration was determined by using Current Procedural Terminology codes. A missed opportunity was defined as the absence of an HPV vaccine at the following encou...

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Imaging of Possible Tuberculosis
Ravenel, J.

Apr 30th, 2017 - Pulmonary tuberculosis remains a major cause of disease worldwide and an important public health hazard in the United States. The imaging evaluation depends to a large degree on clinical symptoms and whether active disease is suspected or a subject is at high risk for developing active disease.

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Suspected Osteomyelitis, Septic Arthritis, or Soft Tissue Infec...
Beaman, F.

Apr 30th, 2017 - Infection of the musculoskeletal system is a common clinical problem. Differentiating soft tissue from osseous infection often determines the appropriate clinical therapeutic course.

Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities

Feb 14th, 2017 - Although the environment serves as a reservoir for a variety of microorganisms, it is rarely implicated in disease transmission except in the immunocompromised population. Inadvertent exposures to environmental opportunistic pathogens (e.

Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children
David M. Lewinsohn

Jan 14th, 2017 - These guidelines are not intended to impose a standard of care. They provide the basis for rational decisions in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in the context of the existing evidence.

Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Diseas...
David M. Lewinsohn

Dec 7th, 2016 - Twenty-three evidence-based recommendations about diagnostic testing for latent tuberculosis infection, pulmonary tuberculosis, and extrapulmonary tuberculosis are provided. Six of the recommendations are strong, whereas the remaining 17 are conditional.

Signs of Lyme disease that appear on your skin | American Academy of Dermatology

Oct 25th, 2016 - Lyme disease can cause more than a bull’s-eye rash. Here’s what to look for on your skin.

The Use of Delamanid in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children and Ad...

Oct 24th, 2016 - Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a public health challenge of growing concern. Approximately 580 000 people acquired MDR-TB in 2015, with children accounting for close to 30 000 of MDR-TB cases.

Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Dis...
Payam Nahid

Sep 30th, 2016 - The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, t.

WHO Treatment Guidelines for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, 2016 Update

Sep 15th, 2016 - The WHO treatment guidelines for drug-resistant tuberculosis (2016 update) contains policy recommendations on priority areas in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The revision is in accordance with the WHO requirements for the formulation of evidence-informed policy.

The Use of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (TB-LAMP) for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary T...

Aug 27th, 2016 - The WHO End TB Strategy calls for the early diagnosis of TB and universal drug susceptibility testing (DST), highlighting the critical role of laboratories for rapidly and accurately detecting TB and drug resistance. Molecular assays based on nucleic acid amplification techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed for rapid TB diagnosis and are being implemented in deve.

Routine Use of Pertussis Vaccine in Adults
American Occupational and Environmental Medicine Association

Aug 14th, 2016 - With concern that there has been too little attention given to routine pertussis vaccination in adults, ACOEM supports the importance of Tetanus Diphtheria Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) vaccination as a part of sound preventive medical care. Protocols should be consistent with current recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization.

Latent Tuberculosis Infection: Screening
US Preventive Services Task Force

May 31st, 2016 - The USPSTF recommends screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in populations at increased risk.

Tuberculosis (TB) - Tools for Health Care Providers

May 1st, 2016 - Tools for health care providers, such as guidelines, educational materials, and other helpful links about tuberculosis. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not ever...

Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae

Apr 14th, 2016 - This manual summarizes laboratory techniques used in the isolation and identification and characterization of Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus), Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) and Haemophilus influenzae from the cerebrospinal fluid or blood of patients with clinical meningitis or bacteremia. The procedures described in this manual are not new; most have been used for many ...

Does Early Goal-Directed Therapy Decrease Mortality Compared with Standard Care in Patients ...
Robert Sherwin, Michael Winters

Feb 16th, 2016 - Improvements in usual care can largely be attributed to the emphasis that the EGDT study placed on caring for patients with sepsis. Patients in the usual care arms of the ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISE trials received aggressive intravenous fluids and early antibiotic medications.

2015 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diag...
Elie F. Berbari

Sep 14th, 2015 - Native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) in adults is often the result of hematogenous seeding of the adjacent disc space from a distant focus, as the disc is avascular [1, 2]. The diagnosis of NVO can often be delayed several months and may initially be misdiagnosed and mismanaged as a degenerative process [3, 4].

Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Compli...
Larry M. Baddour

Sep 14th, 2015 - Infective endocarditis is a complex disease, and patients with this disease generally require management by a team of physicians and allied health providers with a variety of areas of expertise. The recommendations provided in this document are intended to assist in the management of this uncommon but potentially deadly infection.

2015 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Jun 4th, 2015 - Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) comprises a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the upper female genital tract, including any combination of endometritis, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and pelvic peritonitis (728). Sexually transmitted organisms, especially N.

DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) - ATSDR

Jan 20th, 2015 - DEET is the chemical N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. DEET is the active ingredient in some common repellents widely used to repel biting pests such as mosquitos and ticks. A significant benefit of DEET is protection against mosquito or tick borne illnesses such as West Nile Virus and Lyme disease. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: 201...
Dennis L. Stevens

Jul 14th, 2014 - A panel of national experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) to update the 2005 guidelines for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The panel's recommendations were developed to be concordant with the recently published IDSA guidelines for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

Managing Drug Interactions in the Treatment of HIV-Related Tuberculosis

Dec 8th, 2013 - Worldwide, tuberculosis is the most common serious opportunistic infection among people with HIV infection. The World Health Organization estimates that of the 8.

2013 Update of the 2011 American College of Rheumatology Recommendations for the Treatment o...
Ringold, S.,et al

Sep 30th, 2013 - The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published treatment recommendations for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in 2011 (1). These recommendations represented the first such effort by the ACR that focused entirely on the treatment of a pediatric rheumatic disease, and included recommendations for the initial and subsequent treatment of patients with synovitis and systemic manifestations.

Update of Recommendations for Use of Once-Weekly Isoniazid-Rifapentine Regimen to Treat...
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Borisov AS, Bamrah Morris S et. al.

Jun 28th, 2018 - Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is critical to the control and elimination of tuberculosis disease (TB) in the United States. In 2011, CDC recommended a short-course combination regimen of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 weeks (3HP) by directly observed therapy (DOT) for treatment of LTBI, with limitations for use in children aged <12 years and persons with human ...

Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Re...
MMWR. Recommendations and Reports : Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports; Liang JL, Tiwari T et. al.

Apr 27th, 2018 - This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations and replaces all previously published reports and policy notes; ...

Report of Expert Consultations on Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant Tuberculo...

Aug 31st, 2012 - This report is based on contributions of an expert panel of consultants (E Desmond PhD, California Dept. of Public Health; K Field RN MSN, Washington Dept.

2012 Update of the 2008 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Recommendations for the use of Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs and Biologics in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Singh, J. et. al.

Apr 30th, 2012 - The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) most recently published recommendations for use of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2008 (1). These recommendations covered indications for use, monitoring of side-effects, assessment of the clinical response to DMARDs and biologics, screening for tuberculosis (TB), and asses...

Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention ...
Lancet (London, England); Jin C, Gibani MM et. al.

Oct 2nd, 2017 - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To add...

Dental procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis, and endocarditis among people with prostheti...
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Tubiana S, Blotière PO et. al.

Sep 8th, 2017 - Objective To assess the relation between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci among people with prosthetic heart valves.Design Nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.Setting French national health insurance administrative data linked with the national hospital discharge database.Participants All adults aged more than 18 y...

National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescen...
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Walker TY, Elam-Evans LD et. al.

Aug 24th, 2017 - The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (1) at age 11-12 years. ACIP also recommends catch-up vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, and varicella vac...

Committee Opinion No. 718: Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, a...
Obstetrics and Gynecology;

Aug 23rd, 2017 - The overwhelming majority of morbidity and mortality attributable to pertussis infection occurs in infants who are 3 months and younger. Infants do not begin their own vaccine series against pertussis until approximately 2 months of age. This leaves a window of significant vulnerability for newborns, many of whom contract serious pertussis infections from family members and caregivers, especial...

Detection of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Foot by Imaging Techniques: A Systematic Rev...
Diabetes Care; Lauri C, Tamminga M et. al.

Jul 24th, 2017 - Diagnosing bone infection in the diabetic foot is challenging and often requires several diagnostic procedures, including advanced imaging. We compared the diagnostic performances of MRI, radiolabeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy (either with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime [HMPAO] or 111In-oxine), and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET)/computed tomogr...

Effectiveness of Vaccination During Pregnancy to Prevent Infant Pertussis.
Pediatrics Baxter R, Bartlett J et. al.

May 30th, 2017 - Vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy is recommended to protect newborns, yet there is limited information about the effectiveness of maternal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine before the first infant dose of diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine and during the first year of life in infants who have received DTaP. In a re...

Impact of Fluoroquinolone Use on Mortality Among a Cohort of Patients With Suspected Dr...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Seifert M, Georghiou SB et. al.

May 5th, 2017 - Previous retrospective and in vitro studies suggest that use of later-generation fluoroquinolones may reduce mortality risk and improve treatment outcomes for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) patients, including individuals resistant to a fluoroquinolone. Meta-analysis results are mixed and few studies have examined this relationship prospectively. As part of a comparative diagnostic study, we ...

Trends in Infective Endocarditis in California and New York State, 1998-2013.
JAMA Toyoda N, Chikwe J et. al.

Apr 26th, 2017 - Prophylaxis and treatment guidelines for infective endocarditis have changed substantially over the past decade. In the United States, few population-based studies have explored the contemporary epidemiology and outcomes of endocarditis. To quantify trends in the incidence and etiologies of infective endocarditis in the United States. Retrospective population epidemiology study of patients hosp...

Enhanced terminal room disinfection and acquisition and infection caused by multidrug-r...
Lancet (London, England); Anderson DJ, Chen LF et. al.

Jan 20th, 2017 - Patients admitted to hospital can acquire multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile from inadequately disinfected environmental surfaces. We determined the effect of three enhanced strategies for terminal room disinfection (disinfection of a room between occupying patients) on acquisition and infection due to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enteroc...

Transmission of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in South Africa.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Shah NS, Auld SC et. al.

Jan 18th, 2017 - Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is neede...

Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for D...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Lewinsohn DM, Leonard MK et. al.

Dec 9th, 2016 - Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. A task force supported by the American T...

Randomized, Controlled Trial of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Pediatric Autoimmune Neu...
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; Williams KA, Swedo SE et. al.

Sep 24th, 2016 - Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are hypothesized to occur as a result of cross-reactive antibodies produced in response to group A streptococcal infections. Previous research suggests that immunomodulatory therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), may lead to rapid and sustained symptom improvement in patients with PA...

Association Between Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement and Subsequent Infective End...
JAMA Regueiro A, Linke A et. al.

Sep 13th, 2016 - Limited data exist on clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients who had infective endocarditis after undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). To determine the associated factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients who had infective endocarditis after TAVR. The Infectious Endocarditis after TAVR International Registry included patients with definite infec...

Endemic Scrub Typhus in South America.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Weitzel T, Dittrich S et. al.

Sep 7th, 2016 - Scrub typhus is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms that are transmitted by the larvae of trombiculid mites. Endemic scrub typhus was originally thought to be confined to the so called "tsutsugamushi triangle" within the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, however, two individual cases were detected in the Middle East and South America, which suggested that the path...

Primary Care Screening and Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults: Evide...
JAMA Kahwati LC, Feltner C et. al.

Sep 6th, 2016 - Five to ten percent of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progress to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Identifying and treating LTBI is a key component of the strategy for reducing the burden of TB disease. To review the evidence about targeted screening and treatment for LTBI among adults in primary care settings to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating ...

Cough Aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Prediction of Incident Tuberculosis...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Jones-López EC, Acuña-Villaorduña C et. al.

Mar 30th, 2016 - Tuberculosis disease develops in only 5%-10% of humans infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis The mechanisms underlying this variability remain poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that colony-forming units of M. tuberculosis in cough-generated aerosols are a better predictor of infection than the standard sputum acid-fast bacilli smear. We hypothesized that cough aerosol cultures may ...

Randomized Trial of Longer-Term Therapy for Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Berende A, ter Hofstede HJ et. al.

Mar 30th, 2016 - The treatment of persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease remains controversial. We assessed whether longer-term antibiotic treatment of persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease leads to better outcomes than does shorter-term treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Europe, we assigned patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme diseas...

A blood RNA signature for tuberculosis disease risk: a prospective cohort study.
Lancet (London, England); Zak DE, Penn-Nicholson A et. al.

Mar 27th, 2016 - Identification of blood biomarkers that prospectively predict progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease might lead to interventions that combat the tuberculosis epidemic. We aimed to assess whether global gene expression measured in whole blood of healthy people allowed identification of prospective signatures of risk of active tuberculosis disease. In this pro...

Effect on mortality of point-of-care, urine-based lipoarabinomannan testing to guide tu...
Lancet (London, England); Peter JG, Zijenah LS et. al.

Mar 13th, 2016 - HIV-associated tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose and results in high mortality. Frequent extra-pulmonary presentation, inability to obtain sputum, and paucibacillary samples limits the usefulness of nucleic-acid amplification tests and smear microscopy. We therefore assessed a urine-based, lateral flow, point-of-care, lipoarabinomannan assay (LAM) and the effect of a LAM-guided anti-tubercu...

Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Versus AFB Smear and Culture to Identify Pulmonary Tubercul...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Luetkemeyer AF, Firnhaber C et. al.

Feb 3rd, 2016 - The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay is a rapid nucleic acid amplification test widely used in settings of high tuberculosis prevalence to detect tuberculosis as well asrpoBmutations associated with rifampin resistance. Data are needed on the diagnostic performance of Xpert in lower-prevalence settings to inform appropriate use for both tuberculosis detection and the need for respiratory isolation. ...

Tuberculosis--diagnosis, management, prevention, and control: summary of updated NICE g...
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Hoppe LE, Kettle R et. al.

Jan 14th, 2016 - Tuberculosis--diagnosis, management, prevention, and control: summary of updated NICE guidance.|2016|Hoppe LE,Kettle R,Eisenhut M,Abubakar I, ,|administration & dosage,methods,diagnosis,prevention & control,

Intensified Antituberculosis Therapy in Adults with Tuberculous Meningitis.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Heemskerk AD, Bang ND et. al.

Jan 13th, 2016 - Tuberculous meningitis is often lethal. Early antituberculosis treatment and adjunctive treatment with glucocorticoids improve survival, but nearly one third of patients with the condition still die. We hypothesized that intensified antituberculosis treatment would enhance the killing of intracerebral Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms and decrease the rate of death among patients. We perform...

Suboptimal Addiction Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with Injection Drug Use-As...
The American Journal of Medicine; Rosenthal ES, Karchmer AW et. al.

Nov 25th, 2015 - Infective endocarditis is a serious infection, often resulting from injection drug use. Inpatient treatment regularly focuses on management of infection without attention to the underlying addiction. We aimed to determine the addiction interventions done in patients hospitalized with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis. This is a retrospective review of patients hospitalized wi...

Mycobacterium chelonae Eye Infections Associated with Humidifier Use in an Outpatient L...
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Edens C, Liebich L et. al.

Oct 22nd, 2015 - Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eye surgery is increasingly common, with approximately 600,000 procedures performed each year in the United States. LASIK eye surgery is typically performed in an outpatient setting and involves the use of a machine-guided laser to reshape the lens of the eye to correct vision irregularities. Clinic A is an ambulatory surgery center that performs th...

Management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: WHO guidelines for low tuber...
The European Respiratory Journal; Getahun H, Matteelli A et. al.

Sep 25th, 2015 - Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is characterised by the presence of immune responses to previously acquired Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without clinical evidence of active tuberculosis (TB). Here we report evidence-based guidelines from the World Health Organization for a public health approach to the management of LTBI in high risk individuals in countries with high or middle upp...

Outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-Associated Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.
Pediatrics Olson D, Watkins LK et. al.

Jul 28th, 2015 - Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an uncommon, sporadic disease and outbreaks are rare. In November 2013, an outbreak of SJS was identified at Children's Hospital Colorado. Outbreak cases were children aged 5-21 with a discharge diagnosis of SJS admitted from September 1 to November 30, 2013. Medical charts were reviewed using standardized data collection forms. Respiratory specimens were teste...

A Trial of Early Antiretrovirals and Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in Africa.
The New England Journal of Medicine; , Danel C et. al.

Jul 20th, 2015 - In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis is high. We conducted a trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to assess the benefits of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), or both among HIV-infected adults with high CD4+ cell counts in Ivory Coast. We included participants who had HIV type 1 infection and...

Shortening Isolation of Patients With Suspected Tuberculosis by Using Polymerase Chain ...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Fløe A, Hilberg O et. al.

Jul 15th, 2015 - Isolation of patients suspected for pulmonary tuberculosis is guided by serial sputum smears. This can result in isolation for days for patients with noncontagious tuberculosis. To determine whether a single sample negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex at polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can guide isolation. We retrospectively evaluated sputum samples analyzed for M. tuberculosis compl...

Optimal Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for HIV-Infected Adults With Newly ...
Annals of Internal Medicine; Uthman OA, Okwundu C et. al.

Jul 6th, 2015 - Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during tuberculosis (TB) treatment remains challenging. To assess evidence from randomized, controlled trials of the timing of ART initiation in HIV-infected adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference abstracts, and ClinicalTrials.gov (from January 1980 to May 2015). Randomized, ...

Tdap vaccine effectiveness in adolescents during the 2012 Washington State pertussis ep...
Pediatrics Acosta AM, DeBolt C et. al.

May 5th, 2015 - Acellular pertussis vaccines replaced whole-cell vaccines for the 5-dose childhood vaccination series in 1997. A sixth dose of pertussis-containing vaccine, tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis, adsorbed (Tdap), was recommended in 2005 for adolescents and adults. Studies examining Tdap vaccine effectiveness (VE) among adolescents who have received all acellular vac...

Predicting Risk of Endocarditis Using a Clinical Tool (PREDICT): Scoring System to Guid...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Palraj BR, Baddour LM et. al.

Mar 26th, 2015 - Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious complication of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). There is limited clinical evidence to guide use of echocardiography in the management of SAB cases. Baseline and 12-week follow-up data of all adults hospitalized at our institution with SAB from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed. Clinical predictors of IE were identified using multivariable logistic regre...

Rocky mountain spotted fever characterization and comparison to similar illnesses in a ...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Traeger MS, Regan JJ et. al.

Feb 23rd, 2015 - Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) has emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality since 2002 on tribal lands in Arizona. The explosive nature of this outbreak and the recognition of an unexpected tick vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, prompted an investigation to characterize RMSF in this unique setting and compare RMSF cases to similar illnesses. We compared medical records of ...

The clinical presentation of Fusobacterium-positive and streptococcal-positive pharyngi...
Annals of Internal Medicine; Centor RM, Atkinson TP et. al.

Feb 16th, 2015 - Pharyngitis guidelines focus solely on group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infection. European data suggest that in patients aged 15 to 30 years, Fusobacterium necrophorum causes at least 10% of cases of pharyngitis; however, few U.S. data exist. To estimate the prevalence of F. necrophorum; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; and group A and C/G β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis and to determine whether ...

Comparative effectiveness of intravenous vs oral antibiotics for postdischarge treatmen...
JAMA Pediatrics; Keren R, Shah SS et. al.

Dec 16th, 2014 - Postdischarge treatment of acute osteomyelitis in children requires weeks of antibiotic therapy, which can be administered orally or intravenously via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). The catheters carry a risk for serious complications, but limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of oral therapy. To compare the effectiveness and adverse outcomes of postdischarge antibiotic...

Incidence of infective endocarditis in England, 2000-13: a secular trend, interrupted t...
Lancet (London, England); Dayer MJ, Jones S et. al.

Dec 3rd, 2014 - Antibiotic prophylaxis given before invasive dental procedures in patients at risk of developing infective endocarditis has historically been the focus of infective endocarditis prevention. Recent changes in antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines in the USA and Europe have substantially reduced the number of patients for whom antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended. In the UK, guidelines from the Nati...

Antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks versus 12 weeks in patients with pyogenic vertebral os...
Lancet (London, England); Bernard L, Dinh A et. al.

Dec 3rd, 2014 - Duration of treatment for patients with vertebral osteomyelitis is mainly based on expert recommendation rather than evidence. We aimed to establish whether 6 weeks of antibiotic treatment is non-inferior to 12 weeks in patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. In this open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with microbiologica...