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Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2017 - 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-2550
Pediatrics

Sep 5th, 2017 - This statement updates the recommendations for routine use of the seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older, including children and adolescents. Highlights for the upcoming 2017-2018 season include the followin...

WHO Coronavirus Resources
https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus
World Health Organization; WHO

Mar 10th, 2020 - Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

Immune Status and Associated Mortality After Cancer Treatment Among Individuals With HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/article-abstract/2757078
JAMA Oncology; Calkins KL, et al

Dec 4th, 2019 - What is the association between cancer treatment and CD4 count and HIV RNA level, and how are these markers associated with all-cause mortality among people with HIV?

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus — Another Emergent Arbovirus in the United States
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1914328
New England Journal of Medicine; David M. Morens, M.D. et. al.

Nov 24th, 2019 - Humans have always lived in intimate association with arthropods that transmit pathogens between humans or from animals to humans. About 700,000 deaths due to vectorborne diseases occur globally each year, according to World Health Organization estimates. In the summer and fall of 2019, nine U.S. states have reported 36 human cases (14 of them fatal) of one of the deadliest of these diseases: e...

Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. An Official ATS/CDC/ERS/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline
https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/full/10.1164/rccm.201909-1874ST
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Payam Nahid et al

Nov 20th, 2019 - The American Thoracic Society, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Respiratory Society, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored this new practice guideline on the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). The document includes recommendations on the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) as well as isoniazid-resistant but rifampin-suscept...

Update on the Management of Constipation
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2754106
JAMA Wald A

Nov 16th, 2019 - Chronic constipation is very common. The most recent estimate of clinician visits attributable to constipation were from 2001 to 2004 and reported more than 8 million clinician visits in the United States, with most occurring in adult primary care settings (33%) followed by pediatric (21%) and gastroenterologist (14%) offices.1 These encounters result in large expenditures for nonprescription l...

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: Recommendation Statement
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/od1.html
AAFP

Nov 16th, 2019 - Summary of Recommendation and Evidence The USPSTF recommends that clinicians offer preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with effective antiretroviral therapy to persons who are at high risk of HIV acquisition (Table 1). A recommendation.

Biggest Threats and Data 2019 AR Threats Report CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019
https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/biggest-threats.html
CDC

Nov 14th, 2019 - CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (2019 AR Threats Report) includes the latest national death and infection estimates that underscore the continued threat of antibiotic resistance in the U.S. According to the report, more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the U.S. each year, and more than 35,000 people die as a result. In addition, 223,900...

Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in HIV Controller & Long‐term Nonprogressor Populations
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/hiv.12820
HIV Medicine; Brusca RM, et al

Nov 13th, 2019 - Elite controllers (ECs), viraemic controllers (VCs), and long‐term nonprogressors (LTNPs) control HIV viral replication or maintain CD4 T‐cell counts without antiretroviral therapy, but may have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared to HIV‐uninfected persons. We evaluated subclinical carotid and coronary atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarker levels among HIV controllers, LTN...

Can We Use Structural Knowledge to Design a Protective Vaccine Against HIV‐1?
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tan.13759
HLA Bjorkman PJ

Nov 11th, 2019 - HIV/AIDS remains one of the most important current threats to global public health. Since its identification in the early 1980s, at least 75 million people have been infected with HIV‐1, the virus that causes AIDS. Although anti‐retroviral drugs are effective at prolonging life after infection in the developed world, they are associated with significant side effects and are not in widespread us...

FDA approves Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine) for adults 65 years of age and older
http://www.news.sanofi.us/2019-11-04-FDA-approves-Fluzone-R-High-Dose-Quadrivalent-Influenza-Vaccine-for-adults-65-years-of-age-and-older

Nov 5th, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a supplemental Biologics License Application for Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine) for use in adults 65 years of age and older. Fluzone® High-Dose (Influenza Vaccine) was approved by the FDA in 2009 as a trivalent influenza vaccine, including two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. Fluzone High-Dose Quadri...

Final Analysis of a Trial of M72/AS01E Vaccine to Prevent Tuberculosis
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1909953
The New England Journal of Medicine; Tait, D. et. al.

Oct 28th, 2019 - BACKGROUND Results of an earlier analysis of a trial of the M72/AS01E candidate vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that in infected adults, the vaccine provided 54.0% protection against active pulmonary tuberculosis disease, without evident safety concerns. We now report the results of the 3-year final analysis of efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity. METHODS From August 201...

Risk Factors and Cancer | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/risk_factors.htm

Oct 28th, 2019 - Selected risk factors (things that increase your chance of getting cancer), including tobacco and alcohol use and human papillomavirus (HPV).

Shingles - Genetics Home Reference - NIH
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/shingles

Oct 28th, 2019 - Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) results from infection by the varicella zoster virus. This common virus causes chickenpox (also known as varicella), which is characterized by itchy spots on the skin that cover the whole body and usually occurs in childhood or adolescence. After the body fights the initial infection, the varicella zoster virus remains in nerve cells for the rest of a per...

Pan-viral serology implicates enteroviruses in acute flaccid myelitis
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-019-0613-1
Nature Medicine; Schubert, R. et. al.

Oct 20th, 2019 - Since 2012, the United States of America has experienced a biennial spike in pediatric acute flaccid myelitis (AFM)1,2,3,4,5,6. Epidemiologic evidence suggests non-polio enteroviruses (EVs) are a potential etiology, yet EV RNA is rarely detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)2. CSF from children with AFM (n = 42) and other pediatric neurologic disease controls (n = 58) were investigated for intra...

Genentech Announces FDA Approval of Xofluza (Baloxavir Marboxil) for People at High Risk of Developing Influenza-Related Complications
https://www.gene.com/media/press-releases/14817/2019-10-17/genentech-announces-fda-approval-of-xofl

Oct 16th, 2019 - Single-dose Xofluza is the first and only antiviral medicine indicated specifically for patients at high risk of developing serious complications from influenza (flu) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines people at high risk of serious flu complications as those who have conditions such as asthma, chronic lung disease, diabetes, heart disease, morbid obesity or adults ...

Influenza Vaccination: Updated Recommendations from ACIP
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p505.html

Oct 14th, 2019 - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has released its recommendations for routine influenza vaccination in the 2019–2020 season. Updates this year include the antigenic composition of seasonal influenza vaccines available in the United States and changes related to recent regulatory actions, including labeling changes for previousl...

Nail Changes Following a Viral Infection: Photo Quiz
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p497.html
American Family Physician;

Oct 14th, 2019 - A seven-year-old boy presented with abnormal growth of his fingernails that began two weeks prior. He had no other symptoms, including pain or pruritus on his hands or around his nails. He did not have fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, or change in activity. He had hand-foot-and-mouth disease two months earlier that was diagnosed based on vesicular lesions in his mouth and on his hands and feet...

Three Leading National Public Health Organizations Ring The Alarm About All-time Highs Of STDs
http://www.ncsddc.org/three-leading-national-public-health-organizations-ring-the-alarm-about-all-time-highs-of-stds/

Oct 7th, 2019 - Data released this week by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show STDs have surged for the fifth consecutive year, reaching an all-time high in the U.S. These dangerous trends in chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis show no sign of slowing and affect millions of lives each year in the United States. Particularly worrisome is the emerging trend of newborn syphilis (congenital sy...

California OKs pharmacists to dispense HIV prevention meds
https://apnews.com/a1491134e0c242bc95ef36ed0a9fa95e

Oct 6th, 2019 - Pharmacists in California will be able to dispense HIV prevention pills to patients without a doctor’s prescription after Gov. Gavin Newsom signed legislation Monday that supporters say will greatly reduce the spread of infection. Advocates of Senate Bill 159 say California is the first state to authorize pre-exposure prophylaxis, also called PrEP, and post-exposure prophylaxis, known as PEP...

National Update on Measles Cases and Outbreaks — United States, January 1–October 1, 2019
https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6840e2.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Patel, M. et. al.

Oct 3rd, 2019 - What is already known about this topic? Measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000. High national coverage with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and rapid implementation of measles control measures prevent widespread measles transmission. What is added by this report? During January–September 2019, 1,249 U.S. measles cases were reported, the highest annual number since 1992...

Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Resources for Health Professionals | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/vaccination/index.htm

Oct 2nd, 2019 - CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Flu - vaccination resources for healh care professionals includes links to ACIP resources, flu vaccine information and patient education materials.

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Rapid Evidence Review
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p408.html
American Family Physician; Saguil, A. et. al.

Sep 30th, 2019 - Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is caused by human enteroviruses and coxsackieviruses. Outbreaks can occur in the spring to fall and are common in North America, and most cases occur in patients younger than 10 years. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is transmitted by fecal-oral, oral-oral, and respiratory droplet contact. Patients present with a low-grade fever, a maculopapular or papulovesicular rash ...

Opioid Use Disorder: Medical Treatment Options
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p416.html
American Family Physician; Coffa, D. et. al.

Sep 30th, 2019 - Opioid use disorder is highly prevalent and can be fatal. At least 2.1 million Americans 12 years and older had opioid use disorder in 2016, and approximately 47,000 Americans died from opioid overdoses in 2017. Opioid use disorder is a chronic relapsing condition, the treatment of which falls within the scope of practice of family physicians. With appropriate medication-assisted treatment, pat...

Common Misperceptions About Buprenorphine Prescribing for Opioid Use Disorder
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p396.html
American Family Physician;

Sep 30th, 2019 - “Virtually every issue [that] relates to drug dependence is suffused with emotion that turns differences of opinion into controversy and leads to distortions, exaggerations, and misunderstandings.” This quotation comes from 1971 in the early days of methadone treatment. Policy makers and practitioners were wrestling with a strategy to safely use this effective medication. We are now faced wi...

Protein Oxidation Biomarkers & Myeloperoxidase Activation in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31581487
Antioxidants (Basel); Rugemalira E, et al

Sep 30th, 2019 - The immunological response in bacterial meningitis (BM) causes the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS) and activates myeloperoxidase (MPO), an inflammatory enzyme. Thus, structural oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins and DNA occurs. We aimed to asses these events in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pediatric BM patients.

What Is the Best Treatment for Advanced HIV Disease?
https://blogs.jwatch.org/hiv-id-observations/index.php/what-is-the-best-treatment-for-advanced-hiv-disease/2019/09/28/

Sep 27th, 2019 - An ongoing dialogue on HIV/AIDS, infectious diseases, all matters medical, and some not so medical.

U.S. FDA Clears Abbott's High Sensitivity Troponin-I Blood Test That Aids Doctors In Diagnosing Heart Attacks Faster And More Accurately
https://abbott.mediaroom.com/2019-09-25-U-S-FDA-Clears-Abbotts-High-Sensitivity-Troponin-I-Blood-Test-That-Aids-Doctors-in-Diagnosing-Heart-Attacks-Faster-and-More-Accurately

Sep 24th, 2019 - Abbott (NYSE: ABT) today announced that its ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitivity Troponin-I blood test has received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As one of the most researched troponin diagnostic tests, doctors in the U.S. can now utilize this proven technology to help detect heart attacks faster and more accurately than contemporary troponin tests.

Prevention, Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chronic Kidney Disease: Synopsis of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2018 Clinical Practice Guideline
https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2751913/prevention-diagnosis-evaluation-treatment-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-chronic-kidney

Sep 23rd, 2019 - Description: The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2018 clinical practice guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an extensive update of KDIGO's 2008 guideline on HCV infection in CKD. This update reflects the major advances since the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs...

Alarming number of heart infections tied to opioid epidemic
https://newsroom.heart.org/news/alarming-number-of-heart-infections-tied-to-opioid-epidemic

Sep 17th, 2019 - An alarming number of people nationwide are developing infections of either the heart’s inner lining or valves, known as infective endocarditis, in large part, due to the current opioid epidemic. This new trend predominantly affects young, white, poor men who also have higher rates of HIV, hepatitis C and alcohol abuse, according to new research published in the Journal of the American Heart As...

HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over | Age | HIV by Group | HIV/AIDS | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/age/olderamericans/index.html

Sep 17th, 2019 - Nearly half of people in the United States living with diagnosed HIV are aged 50 and older. Though new HIV diagnoses are declining among people aged 50 and older, around 1 in 6 HIV diagnoses in 2016 were in this group.

Frequently Asked Influenza (Flu) Questions: 2019-2020 Season | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/season/faq-flu-season-2019-2020.htm

Sep 15th, 2019 - What you need to know about the upcoming 2019-2020 influenza season in the United States.

Scarlet fever changes its spots
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(19)30494-3/fulltext
The Lancet Infectious Diseases;

Sep 9th, 2019 - Historically, the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) was a major cause of death as a result of sepsis and fatal epidemics of scarlet fever.1 Despite a decline in the incidence and severity of these toxin-mediated diseases over the past century in high-income countries, group A streptococcus is still among the top ten infectious causes of human mortality, with more tha...

Emergence of dominant toxigenic M1T1 Streptococcus pyogenes clone during increased scarlet fever activity in England: a population-based molecular epidemiological study
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(19)30446-3/fulltext
The Lancet;

Sep 9th, 2019 - Since 2014, England has seen increased scarlet fever activity unprecedented in modern times. In 2016, England's scarlet fever seasonal rise coincided with an unexpected elevation in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections. We describe the molecular epidemiological investigation of these events.

Influenza (Flu) Information for Health Professionals
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/index.htm

Aug 28th, 2019 - The pages listed below offer public health and health care professionals key information about vaccination, infection control, prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of seasonal influenza.

FDA warns about rare occurrence of serious liver injury with use of hepatitis C medicines Mavyret, Zepatier, and Vosevi in some patients with advanced liver disease
https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-warns-about-rare-occurrence-serious-liver-injury-use-hepatitis-c-medicines-mavyret-zepatier-and

Aug 27th, 2019 - The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received reports that the use of Mavyret, Zepatier, or Vosevi to treat chronic hepatitis C in patients with moderate to severe liver impairment has resulted in rare cases of worsening liver function or liver failure. All these medicines contain a hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor and are not indicated for use in patients with moderate to sever...

County of Rockland, New York :: Measles Information
http://rocklandgov.com/departments/health/measles-information/

Aug 25th, 2019 - 2018 - 2019 Measles Outbreak in Rockland County: As of August 26, 2019, there are 312* confirmed reported cases of measles in Rockland County. *On Monday, August 26, 2019, 16 historical cases of measles were added to the current total. These cases occurred between early February 2019 and mid-May 2019.

Influenza vaccines — United States, 2019–20 influenza season | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/vaccines.htm

Aug 21st, 2019 - A chart of recommended available 2016-17 influenza vaccines by type and manufacturer - CDC

Treating Hepatitis C in the Family Medicine Office
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p248.html
American Family Physician;

Aug 14th, 2019 - Patient story about being diagnosed with hepatitis C and successful treatment by family doctor.

FDA warns consumers about the dangerous and potentially life threating side effects of Miracle Mineral Solution
https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-warns-consumers-about-dangerous-and-potentially-life-threating-side-effects-miracle-mineral

Aug 11th, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is warning consumers not to purchase or drink a product sold online as a medical treatment due to a recent rise in reported health issues. Since 2010, the FDA has warnedExternal Link Disclaimer consumers about the dangers of Miracle or Master Mineral Solution, Miracle Mineral Supplement, MMS, Chlorine Dioxide (CD) Protocol, Water Purification Solution (WPS)...

Cochrane for Clinicians: Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Children, Healthy Adults, and Older Adults
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p143.html
American Family Physician;

Jul 31st, 2019 - Clinical Question Do influenza vaccines reduce the risk of influenza in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults? Evidence-Based Answer Influenza vaccination reduces rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza and symptomatic influenza-like illness in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults. There is no consistent evidence that influenza vaccination reduces school absentee...

Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Associated with Packaged Leafy Green Salads, United States and Canada, 2015–2016
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/8/18-0761_article

Jul 31st, 2019 - We investigated an outbreak of listeriosis detected by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and associated with packaged leafy green salads. Nineteen cases were identified in the United States during July 5, 2015–January 31, 2016; isolates from case-patients were closely related (median difference 3 alleles, range 0–16 alleles). Of 16 case-patients interviewed, all reported salad consumption...

Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and the Risk for Severe Urinary Tract Infections: A Population-Based Cohort Study
https://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/2739786/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-risk-severe-urinary-tract-infections
Annals of Internal Medicine;

Jul 29th, 2019 - Background: Prior studies evaluating risk for severe urinary tract infections (UTIs) with sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have reported conflicting findings. Objective: To assess whether patients initiating use of SGLT-2 inhibitors were at increased risk for severe UTI events compared with those initiating use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors or glucagon-like...

The Family Physician’s Role in the Prevention of Measles
https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/journals/afp/MeaslesEditorial.pdf
American Family Physician;

Jul 28th, 2019 - Measles is one of the most highly transmissible diseases, with 90% of unvaccinated persons infected after contact.1 In 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) declared that measles was eliminated in the United States, but that elimination status may be revoked if the current chain of measles transmission and outbreaks continues for one year, through the fall of 2019. As ...

Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2738558
JAMA

Jul 22nd, 2019 - Screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy identifies women whose infants are at risk of perinatal transmission. Data from a nationally representative sample showed a prevalence of maternal HBV infection of 85.8 cases per 100 000 deliveries from 1998 to 2011 (0.09% of live-born singleton deliveries in the United States). Although there are guidelines for universal infant H...

Hepatitis B Screening in Pregnant Women A Perspective on the New USPSTF Recommendations
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2738527
JAMA

Jul 22nd, 2019 - Contemporary clinicians who provide obstetric care acknowledge screening of pregnant women for perinatally transmissible infectious diseases as a routine component of prenatal care,1 although this has not always been the case. For example, prenatal screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection only began to be discussed after rigorous trials conducted in the 1970s and 1980s in high-endemic ar...

City of El Paso- Measles Information
http://www.elpasotexas.gov/health/public%20health/current-events/measles-information

Jul 17th, 2019 - Measles is one of the most easily transmitted viruses known to man. It spreads via the respiratory system – much like influenza and TB. An infected person coughs the virus and others inhale it. The measles virus remains infectious in the air up to two hours after the infectious individual has left the area.

FDA Approves Merck’s RECARBRIO™ (imipenem, cilastatin, and relebactam) For the Treatment of Adults with Complicated Urinary Tract and Complicated Intra-Abdominal Bacterial Infections Where Limited ...
https://www.mrknewsroom.com/news-release/prescription-medicine-news/fda-approves-mercks-recarbrio-imipenem-cilastatin-and-releba

Jul 16th, 2019 - Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved RECARBRIO™ (imipenem, cilastatin, and relebactam) for injection, 1.25 grams, a new combination antibacterial. RECARBRIO is indicated in patients 18 years of age and older who have limited or no alternative treatment options, for the treatment of comp...

Guidance for Providers Caring for Women and Men Of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure
https://www.asrm.org/globalassets/asrm/asrm-content/news-and-publications/practice-guidelines/for-non-members/guidance_for_providers_zika_virus_exposure.pdf

Jul 15th, 2019 - This is an update of the ASRM Zika virus guidance for providers that addresses the care of non-pregnant patients desiring pregnancy, originally released in September 2016 and updated in August 2018. This revised document reflects the changes that the CDC has made on its Blood and Tissue Safety webpage to more clearly communicate epidemiological information about the risk of Zika virus infect...

Meningitis Workup
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/232915-workup

Jul 15th, 2019 - The diagnostic challenges in patients with clinical findings of meningitis are as follows: Early identification and treatment of patients with acute bacterial meningitis Assessing whether a treatable central nervous system (CNS) infection is present in those with suspected subacute or chronic meningitis Identifying the causative organism

Statistics & Maps | Eastern Equine Encephalitis | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/easternequineencephalitis/tech/epi.html

Jul 9th, 2019 - Eastern Equine Encephalitis is a rare disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes

Shingles | Resources and References | Herpes Zoster | CDC<
https://www.cdc.gov/shingles/resources-refs.html

Jul 1st, 2019 - Shingles resources and references include Shingrix and Zostavax vaccination recommendations, as well as disease- and vaccine-related resources and articles.

HIV Infection and AIDS Differential Diagnoses
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-differential

Jun 30th, 2019 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection should be considered in any patient with unusual or recurrent serious infections without another cause, especially in those with risk factors for HIV infection.

HIV Risk Behaviors | HIV Risk and Prevention Estimates | HIV Risk and Prevention | HIV/AIDS | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/estimates/riskbehaviors.html

Jun 30th, 2019 - This page provides information on the estimated per-act probability of acquiring HIV from an infected source.

Shingles | Surveillance, Trends, Deaths | Herpes Zoster | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/shingles/surveillance.html

Jun 30th, 2019 - Learn more about shingles surveillance, including shingles hospitalizations, trends, and vaccination rates

Shingles | Laboratory Testing for VZV | Herpes Zoster | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/shingles/lab-testing/index.html

Jun 30th, 2019 - Learn about varicella zoster virus (VZV) laboratory testing and about the CDC National VDZ Laboratory.

Doxycycline: Uses, Side Effects & Dosage Guide - Drugs.com
https://www.drugs.com/doxycycline.html

Jun 30th, 2019 - Doxycycline is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections like urinary tract infections, acne and chlamydia. Includes side effects, interactions and indications.

HIV Infection and AIDS Workup
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-workup

Jun 30th, 2019 - Screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is paramount, since infected individuals may remain asymptomatic for years while the infection progresses. Serologic tests are the most important studies in the evaluation for HIV infection.

HIV, schizophrenia, and all-cause mortality
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0920996419301537?via%3Dihub
Schizophrenia Research;

Jun 26th, 2019 - Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness with important implications for morbidity and mortality. This population-based cohort study examined the impact of schizophrenia diagnoses on all-cause mortality among a sample of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and a 10% random sample of individuals living without HIV (HIV-) in British Columbia (BC), through a data linkage between the BC Centre for Excel...

HIV and Viral Hepatitis - CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/factsheets/hiv-viral-hepatitis.pdf

Jun 26th, 2019 - People with HIV infection are affected disproportionally by viral hepatitis. Nearly 75% of people with HIV who report a history of injection drug use also are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV).

IDSA/AAN/ACR Draft Lyme Disease Guidelines
https://www.idsociety.org/practice-guideline/Lyme-Disease-Guideline-Public-Comments/

Jun 26th, 2019 - The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), American Academy of Neurology (AAN), and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) are now accepting comments on the “2019 Draft Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease.” We are looking for feedback from not only physicians and healthcare professionals, but also individuals affected by Lyme disease, such as patients,...

HIV and Nutrition and Food Safety | Understanding HIV/AIDS | AIDSinfo
https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/27/97/hiv-and-nutrition-and-food-safety

Jun 12th, 2019 - In people with HIV, good nutrition supports overall health and helps maintain the immune system. Good nutrition also helps people with HIV maintain a healthy weight and absorb HIV medicines.

Screening for HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2735345
JAMA US Preventive Services Task Force

Jun 10th, 2019 - Importance Approximately 1.1 million persons in the United States are currently living with HIV, and more than 700 000 persons have died of AIDS since the first cases were reported in 1981. There were approximately 38 300 new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2017. The estimated prevalence of HIV infection among persons 13 years and older in the United States is 0.4%, and data from the Centers for...

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2735508
JAMA US Preventive Services Task Force

Jun 10th, 2019 - Importance Effective prevention strategies for HIV infection are an important public health priority. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) involves use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) daily or before and after sex to decrease risk of acquiring HIV infection. Objective To synthesize the evidence on the benefits and harms of PrEP, instruments for predicting incident HIV infection, and PrEP adheren...

Screening for HIV Infection in Asymptomatic, Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2735343
JAMA US Preventive Services Task Force

Jun 10th, 2019 - Importance Untreated HIV infection can result in significant morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission. A 2012 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found antiretroviral therapy (ART) associated with improved clinical outcomes and decreased transmission risk in persons with CD4 cell counts less than 500/mm3. Objective To update the 2012 review on HIV screening to infor...

Screening for HIV Infection in Pregnant Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2735344
JAMA US Preventive Services Task Force

Jun 10th, 2019 - Objective To update the 2012 review on prenatal HIV screening to inform the USPSTF. Data Sources Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2012 to June 2018, with surveillance through January 2019. Study Selection Pregnant persons 13 years and older; randomized clinical trials and cohort studies of screening v...

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2735509
JAMA US Preventive Services Task Force

Jun 10th, 2019 - Importance An estimated 1.1 million individuals in the United States are currently living with HIV, and more than 700 000 persons have died of AIDS since the first cases were reported in 1981. In 2017, there were 38 281 new diagnoses of HIV infection reported in the United States; 81% of these new diagnoses were among males and 19% were among females. Although treatable, HIV infection has no c...

Statistics and Disease Facts - National Meningitis Association
https://www.nmaus.org/disease-prevention-information/statistics-and-disease-facts/

May 31st, 2019 - 1 in 5 U.S. teens have not yet received their first dose of the meningococcal vaccine against serogroups A, C, W and Y and remain unprotected.

U.S. measles cases in first five months of 2019 surpass total cases per year for past 25 years
https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2019/p0530-us-measles-2019.html

May 29th, 2019 - Today, CDC is reporting 971 cases of measles in the United States thus far in 2019. This is the greatest number of cases reported in the U.S. since 1994, when 963 cases were reported for the entire year. CDC continues to work with affected state and local health departments to get ongoing outbreaks under control.

Head‐to‐head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD013024.pub2/full
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Threapleton, C. et. al.

May 23rd, 2019 - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; including chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by shortness of breath, cough and recurrent exacerbations. Long‐term antibiotic use may reduce both bacterial load and inflammation in the airways. Studies have shown a reduction of exacerbations with antibiotics in comparison to placebo in people with COPD, ...

WHO | Meningitis
https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/meningitis/en/

May 18th, 2019 - Vaccines and immunization Licensed vaccines against meningococcal disease have been available for more than 40 years. Over time, there have been major improvements in strain coverage and vaccine availability, but to date no universal vaccine against meningococcal disease exists. Vaccines are serogroup specific and confer varying degrees of duration of protection. There are three types of menin...

DEET | US EPA
https://www.epa.gov/insect-repellents/deet

May 8th, 2019 - Safety Review of DEET (chemical name, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient in many repellent products. It is widely used to repel biting pests such as mosquitoes and ticks. Every year, an estimated one-third of the U.S. population use DEET to protect them from mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile Virus, the Zika virus or malaria and tick-borne illnesses like Lyme disease and ...

Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Guideline
https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/recurrent-uti

Apr 30th, 2019 - Over the past few decades, our ability to diagnose, treat, and manage recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) long-term has evolved due to additional insights into the pathophysiology of rUTI, a new appreciation for the adverse effects of repetitive antimicrobial therapy (“collateral damage”), rising rates of bacterial antimicrobial resistance, and better reporting of the natural history and c...

Guidance for Clinicians: Recommendations for Patients after a Tick Bite
https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/resources/FS-Guidance-for-Clinicians-Patients-after-TickBite-508.pdf

Apr 30th, 2019 - Antimicrobial prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease (Table 1) following tick bite may be beneficial in certain circumstances. A single dose of doxycycline can lower the risk of Lyme disease when: The tick bite occurred in a state where Lyme disease incidence is high

Practice Advisory: Management of Pregnant and Reproductive-Aged Women during a Measles Outbreak
https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Practice-Advisories/Management-of-Pregnant-and-Reproductive-Age-Women-during-a-Measles-Outbreak

Apr 25th, 2019 - The United States is currently experiencing the greatest number of reported cases of measles, also known as rubeola, since the disease was eliminated in 20001. Outbreaks have been confirmed in 22 states and the number of cases and their distribution is increasing rapidly. These measles outbreaks have been linked to travelers bringing back cases of measles from other countries. This situation co...

HIV/AIDS | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/

Apr 18th, 2019 - CDC provides leadership for HIV prevention research and surveillance and the development and testing of effective biomedical interventions to reduce transmission and HIV disease progression in the United States and internationally. It also provides national leadership in the development, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based HIV prevention programs serving persons affected by, or at ...

DPDx - Laboratory Identification of Parasites of Public Health Concern - CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/

Apr 17th, 2019 - Welcome to DPDx, a website developed and maintained by CDC’s Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM). DPDx uses the Internet to strengthen diagnosis of parasitic diseases, both in the United States and abroad. This interactive and rapid exchange of information, allied with already available diagnostic reference resources, will enhance our capacity to address the global problem of para...

Botulism | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)
https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/943/botulism

Apr 15th, 2019 - A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Botulism

Measles & the MMR Vaccine: Recommendations Around Pregnancy, Including the Periconception and Postpartum Periods
http://providerresource.uwmedicine.org/flexpaper/measles-and-the-mmr-vaccine-recommendations-around-pregnancy-including-the-periconception-and-postpartum-periods

Apr 14th, 2019 - Measles, Also Known As Rubeola, Is A Highly Contagious Airborne Viral Illness That Infects Approximately Nine Out Of Ten Exposed Susceptible Individuals. Measles Infection Was Common Until The Measles, Mumps, And Rubella (MMR) Vaccine Was Licensed In 1963 And Became Part Of The Routine Immunization Schedule. By 2000, Measles Was Essentially Eliminated From The United States. In The Last Decade,...

Hepatitis C Questions and Answers for Health Professionals
https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/hcvfaq.htm

Apr 8th, 2019 - What are the case definitions for reportable hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections? The specific viral cause of illness cannot be determined based solely on signs, symptoms, history, or current risk factors, but must be verified by specific serologic testing

Vaccine Information Statement | Serogroup B Meningococcal | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mening-serogroup.html

Apr 4th, 2019 - Serogroup B Meningococcal (MenB) Vaccine Information Statement Meningococcal disease is a serious illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. It can lead to meningitis (infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and infections of the blood. Meningococcal disease often occurs without warning – even among people who are otherwise healthy.

HIV Infection and AIDS - Lab Tests Online
https://labtestsonline.org/conditions/hiv-infection-and-aids

Apr 4th, 2019 - Learn about HIV infection and AIDS and the laboratory tests used to screen for HIV, help diagnose HIV, and select and monitor HIV treatment. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. It weakens the immune system by infecting lymphocytes, a type of w...

Ritual Nasal Rinsing & Ablution | Naegleria fowleri | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/naegleria/ritual-ablution.html

Apr 3rd, 2019 - Education and information about the brain eating ameba Naegleria fowleri that causes encephalitis and death including frequently asked questions, biology, sources of infection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control, and other publications and pertinent information for the public and medical professionals

Measles Cases and Outbreaks
https://www.cdc.gov/measles/cases-outbreaks.html

Mar 31st, 2019 - Measles Cases in 2019 From January 1 to February 21, 2019, 159** individual cases of measles have been confirmed in 10 states. In a given year, more measles cases can occur for any of the following reasons: an increase in the number of travelers who get measles abroad and bring it into the U.S., and/or further spread of measles in U.S. communities with pockets of unvaccinated people.

Dengue fever | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)
https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6254/dengue-fever

Mar 31st, 2019 - A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Dengue fever

Guidelines Insights: Hepatobiliary Cancers, Version 2.2019
https://jnccn.org/view/journals/jnccn/17/4/article-p302.xml
Benson, A. et. al.

Mar 31st, 2019 - Incidence and mortality rates for cancer overall are declining, but both incidence and mortality rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are increasing.1,2 Risk factors for development of HCC include infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and cirrhosis of the liver (eg, alcohol cirrhosis).3 Metabolic disorders (ie, obesity, diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism,...

CDC: Artesunate Now First-Line Treatment for Severe Malaria in the United States
https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2019/s0328-artesunate-first-line-treatment.html

Mar 27th, 2019 - CDC is issuing new guidance to clinicians for the treatment of severe malaria cases in the United States (U.S.). This change in treatment protocol is necessary because the only FDA-approved intravenous (IV) antimalarial drug in the U.S., quinidine, has been discontinued by the manufacturer and will no longer be available. As of April 2019, artesunate, the WHO-recommended first-line treatment o...

Update: Widespread Outbreaks of Hepatitis A among People Who Use Drugs and People Experiencing Homelessness across the United States
https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00418.asp

Mar 24th, 2019 - Multiple states across the country have reported outbreaks of hepatitis A, primarily among people who use drugs and people experiencing homelessness. Since the hepatitis A outbreaks were first identified in 2016, more than 15,000 cases, 8,500 (57%) hospitalizations, and 140 deaths as a result of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection have been reported. This Health Alert Network (HAN) update recomme...

H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) - StatPearls
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513241/

Mar 23rd, 2019 - H1N1 Swine flu is a subtype of influenza A virus (a communicable viral disease), which causes upper, and potentially, lower respiratory tract infections in the host it infects, resulting in symptoms such as nasal secretions, chills, fever, decreased appetite, and possibly lower respiratory tract disease. H1N1 swine influenza is a common infection in pigs worldwide, and that is why it is also kn...

Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/index.htm

Mar 22nd, 2019 - Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report: FluView - CDC

HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs | HIV by Group | HIV/AIDS | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/hiv-idu.html

Mar 14th, 2019 - The risk for getting HIV is very high if an HIV-negative person uses needles, syringes, or other injection equipment that someone with HIV has used. Estimated annual HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) declined 32% from 2010 to 2014 in the United States.a However, injection drug use in nonurban areas has created prevention challenges and has placed new populations at risk for HIV.

AAP Updates Vaccine Recommendations for 2019-2020 Flu Season
https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/Pages/AAP-Updates-Vaccine-Recommendations-for-2019-2020-Flu-Season.aspx

Mar 13th, 2019 - The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) will advise families to vaccinate their children against influenza next season with either the flu shot or the nasal spray vaccine for the best protection against the virus during the 2019-2020 flu season. The recommendation differs slightly from last year, when AAP cited a preference for the injected vaccine over the nasal spray - except in cases whe...

Infection and Lupus: Which Causes Which?
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11926-016-0561-4
Current Rheumatology Reports; Doaty, S. et. al.

Mar 6th, 2019 - Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune systems increases the risk of infection in patients with SLE. Infectious agents have also been theorized to play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE. This article summarizes our current knowledge of the infectious risk SLE patients face as a ...

Measles - StatPearls
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448068/

Mar 5th, 2019 - Measles, also known as rubeola, is a preventable, highly contagious, acute febrile viral illness. It remains an important cause of global mortality and morbidity, particularly in the regions of Africa and Southeast Asia

FDA approves Avaclyr for herpetic keratitis
https://www.healio.com/ophthalmology/cornea-external-disease/news/online/%7B625de90e-8394-429c-bdb0-efa672cd14da%7D/fda-approves-avaclyr-for-herpetic-keratitis

Mar 1st, 2019 - The FDA has approved a new drug application for Avaclyr, Fera Pharmaceuticals’ herpetic keratitis treatment, according to a press release. Avaclyr (acyclovir ophthalmic ointment 3%), a herpes simplex virus nucleoside analog DNA polymerase inhibitor, is indicated to treat dendritic ulcers in patients with HSV-1 and HSV-2, the release said.

WHO consolidated guidelines on drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment
https://www.who.int/tb/publications/2019/consolidated-guidelines-drug-resistant-TB-treatment/en/
WHO

Feb 28th, 2019 - Tuberculosis (TB) strains with drug resistance (DR-TB) are more difficult to treat than drug-susceptible ones, and threaten global progress towards the targets set by the End TB Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). There is thus a critical need for evidence-based policy recommendations on the treatment and care of patients with DR-TB, based on the most recent and comprehensive evide...

Vaccine Storage and Handling
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/admin/storage/index.html

Feb 27th, 2019 - Proper vaccine storage and handling practices play a very important role in protecting individuals and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases.Vaccine quality is the shared responsibility of everyone, from the time vaccine is manufactured until it is administered.

Guidelines for Malaria Vector Control
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538118/?report=classic

Feb 27th, 2019 - The Guidelines for malaria vector control provide a “one-stop shop” for all countries and partners working to implement effective malaria vector control measures. They cover the 2 core malaria vector control interventions – ITNs and IRS – as well as supplementary interventions, namely chemical and biological larvicides, and personal protection measures, such as the use of topical repellents. ...

Tetanus For Clinicians
https://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/clinicians.html

Feb 27th, 2019 - Overview of tetanus for clinicians including pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications.

HIV/AIDS - Home Tests
https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/testing/hometests.html

Feb 21st, 2019 - Currently there is only one home HIV test available in the United States, the OraQuick In-home HIV test. If you buy any home test online make sure the HIV test is FDA-approved. The OraQuick In-Home HIV Test provides rapid results in the home. The testing procedure involves swabbing your mouth for an oral fluid sample and using a kit to test it. Results are available in 20 minutes. If you tes...