MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Kahn KE, Black CL et. al.
Sep 27th, 2018 - Vaccinating pregnant women with influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines can reduce the risk for influenza and pertussis for themselves and their infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season receive influenza vaccine, which can be adminis...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diallo T, Adjobimey M et. al.
Aug 1st, 2018 - The treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in children because of their vulnerability to life-threatening forms of tuberculosis disease. The current standard treatment - 9 months of isoniazid - has been associated with poor adherence and toxic effects, which have hampered the effectiveness of the drug. In adults, treatment with 4 months of rifampin has been s...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Rough K, Seage GR et. al.
Apr 25th, 2018 - In a previous trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) involving pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, those randomly assigned to receive tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) had infants at greater risk for very premature birth and death within 14 days after delivery than those assigned to receive zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavi...
The European Respiratory Journal; Moore M, Stuart B et. al.
Nov 23rd, 2017 - The aim was to aid diagnosis of pneumonia in those presenting with lower respiratory tract symptoms in routine primary care.A cohort of 28 883 adult patients with acute cough attributed to lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) was recruited from 5222 UK practices in 2009-13. Symptoms, signs and treatment were recorded at presentation and subsequent events followed-up for 30 days by chart r...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Cardemil CV, Dahl RM et. al.
Sep 6th, 2017 - The effect of a third dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in stemming a mumps outbreak is unknown. During an outbreak among vaccinated students at the University of Iowa, health officials implemented a widespread MMR vaccine campaign. We evaluated the effectiveness of a third dose for outbreak control and assessed for waning immunity. Of 20,496 university students who were enrolled ...
Sep 5th, 2017 - This statement updates the recommendations for routine use of the seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older, including children and adolescents. Highlights for the upcoming 2017-2018 season include the followin...
JAMA Moran GJ, Krishnadasan A et. al.
May 23rd, 2017 - Emergency department visits for skin infections in the United States have increased with the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For cellulitis without purulent drainage, β-hemolytic streptococci are presumed to be the predominant pathogens. It is unknown if antimicrobial regimens possessing in vitro MRSA activity provide improved outcomes compared with treatments l...
JAMA Oncology; Calkins KL, et al
Dec 4th, 2019 - What is the association between cancer treatment and CD4 count and HIV RNA level, and how are these markers associated with all-cause mortality among people with HIV?
New England Journal of Medicine; David M. Morens, M.D. et. al.
Nov 24th, 2019 - Humans have always lived in intimate association with arthropods that transmit pathogens between humans or from animals to humans. About 700,000 deaths due to vectorborne diseases occur globally each year, according to World Health Organization estimates. In the summer and fall of 2019, nine U.S. states have reported 36 human cases (14 of them fatal) of one of the deadliest of these diseases: e...
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Payam Nahid et al
Nov 20th, 2019 - The American Thoracic Society, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Respiratory Society, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored this new practice guideline on the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). The document includes recommendations on the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) as well as isoniazid-resistant but rifampin-suscept...
JAMA Wald A
Nov 16th, 2019 - Chronic constipation is very common. The most recent estimate of clinician visits attributable to constipation were from 2001 to 2004 and reported more than 8 million clinician visits in the United States, with most occurring in adult primary care settings (33%) followed by pediatric (21%) and gastroenterologist (14%) offices.1 These encounters result in large expenditures for nonprescription l...
Nov 16th, 2019 - Summary of Recommendation and Evidence The USPSTF recommends that clinicians offer preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with effective antiretroviral therapy to persons who are at high risk of HIV acquisition (Table 1). A recommendation.
Nov 14th, 2019 - CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (2019 AR Threats Report) includes the latest national death and infection estimates that underscore the continued threat of antibiotic resistance in the U.S. According to the report, more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the U.S. each year, and more than 35,000 people die as a result. In addition, 223,900...
HIV Medicine; Brusca RM, et al
Nov 13th, 2019 - Elite controllers (ECs), viraemic controllers (VCs), and long‐term nonprogressors (LTNPs) control HIV viral replication or maintain CD4 T‐cell counts without antiretroviral therapy, but may have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared to HIV‐uninfected persons. We evaluated subclinical carotid and coronary atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarker levels among HIV controllers, LTN...
HLA Bjorkman PJ
Nov 11th, 2019 - HIV/AIDS remains one of the most important current threats to global public health. Since its identification in the early 1980s, at least 75 million people have been infected with HIV‐1, the virus that causes AIDS. Although anti‐retroviral drugs are effective at prolonging life after infection in the developed world, they are associated with significant side effects and are not in widespread us...
Nov 5th, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a supplemental Biologics License Application for Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine) for use in adults 65 years of age and older. Fluzone® High-Dose (Influenza Vaccine) was approved by the FDA in 2009 as a trivalent influenza vaccine, including two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. Fluzone High-Dose Quadri...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Tait, D. et. al.
Oct 28th, 2019 - BACKGROUND Results of an earlier analysis of a trial of the M72/AS01E candidate vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that in infected adults, the vaccine provided 54.0% protection against active pulmonary tuberculosis disease, without evident safety concerns. We now report the results of the 3-year final analysis of efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity. METHODS From August 201...
Oct 28th, 2019 - Selected risk factors (things that increase your chance of getting cancer), including tobacco and alcohol use and human papillomavirus (HPV).
Oct 28th, 2019 - Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) results from infection by the varicella zoster virus. This common virus causes chickenpox (also known as varicella), which is characterized by itchy spots on the skin that cover the whole body and usually occurs in childhood or adolescence. After the body fights the initial infection, the varicella zoster virus remains in nerve cells for the rest of a per...
Nature Medicine; Schubert, R. et. al.
Oct 20th, 2019 - Since 2012, the United States of America has experienced a biennial spike in pediatric acute flaccid myelitis (AFM)1,2,3,4,5,6. Epidemiologic evidence suggests non-polio enteroviruses (EVs) are a potential etiology, yet EV RNA is rarely detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)2. CSF from children with AFM (n = 42) and other pediatric neurologic disease controls (n = 58) were investigated for intra...