JAMA Internal Medicine; Rob F. Walker, et al
Nov 30th, 2019 - Testosterone therapy is increasingly prescribed in patients without a diagnosis of hypogonadism. This therapy may be associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) through several mechanisms, including elevated hematocrit levels, which increase blood viscosity.
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome; Contreras-Haro B, et al
Nov 26th, 2019 - Insulin resistance (IR) is frequently observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In clinical practice, IR assessment is limited to a low proportion of patients due to cost and equipment and technical expertise requirements. The surrogate index of triglycerides and glucose (TyG index) has been validated in non-rheumatic populations, showing adequat...
Nov 24th, 2019 - Access to affordable insulin can be a matter of life and death for Americans with diabetes. If not appropriately treated, diabetes can lead to serious and life-threatening complications, including heart disease, organ failure and blindness. And consistent, lifelong access to insulin is imperative to patient survival and quality of life. However, we are aware that the high cost of insulin raises...
Nov 20th, 2019 - Medtronic is recalling the specified remote controllers due to potential cybersecurity risks. An unauthorized person (someone other than a patient, patient caregiver, or health care provider) could potentially record and replay the wireless communication between the remote and the MiniMed insulin pump. Using specialized equipment, an unauthorized person could instruct the pump to either over-d...
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology; Davies C, et al
Nov 7th, 2019 - Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are heterogeneous and often debilitating conditions that contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. The introduction of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in the 1950s revolutionised the treatment of psychotic disorders and they remain the mainstay of our treatment arsenal for psychosis. However, traditional antipsychotics are associated wi...
Oct 28th, 2019 - Biologic drugs are complex medications produced from living organisms or their parts. They include vaccines and drugs to treat conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer. Some biologic drugs, like insulin, can only be delivered by injection. If taken by mouth, stomach acid would destroy the drug before it could take effect.
Oct 21st, 2019 - Novo Nordisk today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has expanded the label for Fiasp® (insulin aspart injection) 100 u/mL to include use in insulin infusion pumps for the improvement of glycemic control in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.1 Fiasp®, a rapid-acting insulin, was approved by the FDA in 2017 for use by intravenous infusion under supervision by a health...
Oct 7th, 2019 - The AMBER trial showed that the potassium binder patiromer was effective at allowing more patients to remain on spironolactone.
Journal of the Endocrine Society;
Oct 6th, 2019 - Faster-acting insulins, new noninsulin drug classes, more flexible insulin-delivery systems, and improved continuous glucose monitoring devices offer unprecedented opportunities to improve postprandial glucose (PPG) management and overall care for adults with insulin-treated diabetes. These developments led the Endocrine Society to convene a working panel of diabetes experts in December 2018 to...
American Family Physician;
Sep 30th, 2019 - Anticoagulation therapy is recommended for preventing, treating, and reducing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism, and preventing stroke in persons with atrial fibrillation. Direct oral anticoagulants are first-line agents for eligible patients for treating venous thromboembolism and preventing stroke in those with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists are recommended for ...
American Family Physician;
Sep 30th, 2019 - Living on my own continues to be very important to me, even though I'm getting older and am sometimes forgetful. I manage pretty well with the help of my son, who visits me weekly, and my family doctor, who I see monthly for my hypertension, stomach reflux problems, prediabetes, and high cholesterol. I try to manage my forgetfulness with the help of a pill box so that I remember to take my medi...
Sep 25th, 2019 - Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a suite of guidances to continue to encourage innovative approaches to the development of digital health tools, and to ensure the agency’s approach to overseeing these technologies advances along with it. Patients, their families and their health care professionals are increasingly embracing digital health technologies to inform everyday ...
Sep 23rd, 2019 - Although androgen excess can manifest in many ways, the most common and recognizable symptoms are hirsutism and acne. Reports of hirsutism and acne should be taken seriously because of their possible association with medical disorders, their substantial effect on self-esteem and quality of life, and the potential for psychosocial morbidity. In patients with symptoms of androgen excess, the diff...
Sep 19th, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Rybelsus (semaglutide) oral tablets to improve control of blood sugar in adult patients with type 2 diabetes, along with diet and exercise. Rybelsus is the first glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor protein treatment approved for use in the United States that does not need to be injected. GLP-1 drugs are non-insulin treatments for people wi...
Sep 19th, 2019 - Novo Nordisk today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Rybelsus® (semaglutide) tablets 7 mg or 14 mg for adults with type 2 diabetes that along with diet and exercise may improve blood sugar (glucose).1 Rybelsus® is the first and only glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog in a pill and a new option for adults with type 2 diabetes who are not achieving their ...
Sep 19th, 2019 - Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis (PsO) and found in about 20 to 30% of such patients. It shares many clinical features with other spondyloarthropathies and also rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is usually seronegative, but a small percentage of patients may be positive for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodi...
The New England Journal of Medicine; McMurray, J. et. al.
Sep 18th, 2019 - BACKGROUND In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 ...
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology; Lingvay, I. et. al.
Sep 16th, 2019 - Existing guidelines for management of type 2 diabetes recommend a patient-centred approach to guide the choice of pharmacological agents. Although glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are increasingly used as second-line agents, direct comparisons between these treatments are insufficient. In the SUSTAIN 8 trial, we compared the...
American Family Physician;
Sep 14th, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic burden and decreased quality of life. The Women's Preventive Services Initiative is the only major organization that recommends annual screening for urinary incontinence in all women despite low to insufficient evidence regarding effectiveness and accuracy of methods. No other major organization ...
Sep 9th, 2019 - Xeris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: XERS), a specialty pharmaceutical company leveraging its novel technology platforms to develop and commercialize ready-to-use injectable and infusible drug formulations, announced today that it has received regulatory approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for GVOKE™ (glucagon) injection, its ready-to-use, room-temperature stable liquid gl...
Aug 21st, 2019 - Heavy menstrual bleeding is defined as excessive menstrual blood loss that interferes with a woman's physical, social, emotional, or material quality of life. If obstetrician–gynecologists suspect that a patient has a bleeding disorder, they should work in coordination with a hematologist for laboratory evaluation and medical management. Evaluation of adolescent girls who present with heavy men...
Annals of Internal Medicine;
Aug 12th, 2019 - Description: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) annually updates its Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested parties with evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes. Methods: The ADA Professional Practice Committee comprises physicians, adult and pediatric endocrinol...
American Family Physician; Brown, S.
Aug 1st, 2019 - Prediabetes is not a disease. It is a risk factor for a disease (diabetes mellitus). Most people with so-called prediabetes will not develop diabetes within five years.1 The American Diabetes Association (ADA) definition of prediabetes now includes a threshold value in fasting glucose (100 to 125 mg per dL [5.5 to 6.9 mmol per L]), two-hour glucose tolerance test (140 to 199 mg per dL [7.8 to 1...
American Family Physician; Moin, T.
Aug 1st, 2019 - A surge in the prevalence of prediabetes1 highlights the importance of improving prediabetes awareness and engaging in strategies to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Based on evidence from randomized controlled trials and observational studies, U.S. and international guidelines advocate for the use of medications in addition to intensive lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes.2,...
Kowdley, K. et. al.
Aug 1st, 2019 - Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is one of the most common genetic disorders among persons of northern European descent. There have been recent advances in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of HH. The availability of molecular diagnostic testing for HH has made possible confirmation of the diagnosis for most patients. Several genotype-phenotype correlation studies have clarified the diffe...
Jul 30th, 2019 - The American Diabetes Association® (ADA) issued important updates to the 2019 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes (Standards of Care) today, in annotations as the Living Standards of Care, with the changes focusing on new metrics for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) utilization and new medication options and recommendations for youth and adults with type 2 diabetes. The updates were inform...
Annals of Internal Medicine;
Jul 29th, 2019 - Background: Prior studies evaluating risk for severe urinary tract infections (UTIs) with sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have reported conflicting findings. Objective: To assess whether patients initiating use of SGLT-2 inhibitors were at increased risk for severe UTI events compared with those initiating use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors or glucagon-like...
Jul 25th, 2019 - Shield Therapeutics plc (LSE: STX), a commercial stage, pharmaceutical company with a focus on addressing iron deficiency, announces that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved its lead product Feraccru® / Accrufer® for the treatment of iron deficiency in adults. With this broad label approval Accrufer® (as the product will be marketed in the USA) has taken a big step towar...
Jul 25th, 2019 - The accuracy of diagnosing and predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes could be improved by applying multiple or alternative measures, according to studies presented at the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Scientific Sessions meeting in San Francisco, CA, in June. Joon Ha, PhD, Laboratory of Biological Modeling, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disea...
Jul 24th, 2019 - The incidence of congestive heart failure (HF) was reduced by 47% in a group of individuals adhering to a combination of healthy lifestyle practices; among individuals who adhered to an “ideal” combination of those practices, HF was reduced by 55%. In a recent study that analyzed the impact of the American Heart Association’s (AHA) Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) healthy behaviors on HF risk reduction, t...
Jul 23rd, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved BAQSIMI™ (glucagon) nasal powder 3 mg for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in people with diabetes ages four years and above, Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) announced today. BAQSIMI is the first and only nasally administered glucagon, and it was designed with severe hypoglycemia rescue in mind. It is compact, portable and ready to ...
Jul 22nd, 2019 - Question Does intensive glucose control improve functional outcome in patients with hyperglycemic acute ischemic stroke? Findings This randomized clinical trial included 1151 adults who received either intensive treatment of hyperglycemia (target blood glucose concentration of 80-130 mg/dL) or standard treatment of hyperglycemia (target glucose concentration of 80-179 mg/dL). The proportio...
Annals of Internal Medicine; Khan, S. et. al.
Jul 8th, 2019 - Background: The role of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions in preventing mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is unclear. Purpose: To examine evidence about the effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception until March 20...
Jun 26th, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is warning patients and health care providers that certain Medtronic MiniMed insulin pumps are being recalled due to potential cybersecurity risks and recommends that patients using these models switch their insulin pump to models that are better equipped to protect against these potential risks. To date, the FDA is not aware of any confirmed reports of pat...
Jun 25th, 2019 - Macleods Pharmaceuticals Limited has initiated a voluntary recall in the United States, to the patient level, of 32 lots of Losartan Potassium USP Tablets (2 lots of 50mg strength) and Losartan Potassium/Hydrochlorothiazide combination Tablets (12 lots of 50mg/12.5mg strength, 3 lots of 100mg/12.5mg strength and 15 100mg/25mg strength) to the patient level due to the detection of trace amount...
Jun 16th, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Victoza (liraglutide) injection for treatment of pediatric patients 10 years or older with type 2 diabetes. Victoza is the first non-insulin drug approved to treat type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients since metformin was approved for pediatric use in 2000. Victoza has been approved to treat adult patients with type 2 diabetes since 2010.
BMJ Sabia, S. et. al.
Jun 11th, 2019 - Objectives To examine the association between the Life Simple 7 cardiovascular health score at age 50 and incidence of dementia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Civil service departments in London (Whitehall II study; study inception 1985-88). Participants 7899 participants with data on the cardiovascular health score at age 50. Exposures The cardiovascular health score inc...
New England Journal of Medicine; Pittas. A., et al
Jun 6th, 2019 - Observational studies support an association between a low blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether vitamin D supplementation lowers the risk of diabetes is unknown. METHODS We randomly assigned adults who met at least two of three glycemic criteria for prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose level, 100 to 125 mg per deciliter; plasma glucose level 2 hou...
Diabetes Care; Danne, T. et. al.
May 31st, 2019 - Sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors are new oral antidiabetes medications shown to effectively reduce glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and glycemic variability, blood pressure, and body weight without intrinsic properties to cause hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes. However, recent studies, particularly in individuals with type 1 diabetes, have demonstrated increases in the absolut...
May 16th, 2019 - insulin pumps, or automated insulin dosing (AID) systems to manage their diabetes Health care providers treating or managing patients with diabetes who use continuous glucose monitoring systems, insulin pumps, or automated insulin dosing systems to manage their diabetes
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Bekkering GE, Agoritsas T et. al.
May 15th, 2019 - What are the benefits and harms of thyroid hormones for adults with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH)? This guideline was triggered by a recent systematic review of randomised controlled trials, which could alter practice. Current guidelines tend to recommend thyroid hormones for adults with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels >10 mIU/L and for people with lower TSH values who are young, sy...
May 10th, 2019 - A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification.
Apr 26th, 2019 - The initial laboratory evaluation should include a complete blood count (CBC) with platelets and reticulocyte count; a complete chemistry panel to evaluate electrolytes, liver, and kidney function; urine analysis; and a measure of acute phase reactants (eg, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR] or C-reactive protein [CRP]).
Journal of Endocrine Society;
Apr 23rd, 2019 - Type 1 diabetes is a disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-secreting β-cells in the pancreas. Individuals are treated for this disease with lifelong insulin replacement. However, one attractive treatment possibility is to reprogram an individual’s endogenous cells to acquire the ability to secrete insulin, essentially replacing destroyed β-cells. Herein, we review the literature o...
Apr 22nd, 2019 - The USPSTF recommends screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant persons with urine culture.
The Journal of Nutrition; Mejia, S. et. al.
Apr 21st, 2019 - Certain plant foods (nuts and soy protein) and food components (viscous fibers and plant sterols) have been permitted by the FDA to carry a heart health claim based on their cholesterol-lowering ability. The FDA is currently considering revoking the heart health claim for soy protein due to a perceived lack of consistent LDL cholesterol reduction in randomized controlled trials.
Apr 19th, 2019 - The acute form of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) differs from the chronic form. It disseminates differently, and it is highly fatal. Kaposi was the first in recognizing SLE in 1872, and then Pernet described it in 1908. Before that time SLE was considered to be a non-fatal disfiguring skin disease. It is now to be considered a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a course of altern...
Apr 13th, 2019 - Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism;
Apr 9th, 2019 - Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) still remains a progressive condition that is associated with higher risk of end‐stage kidney disease and significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Twelve cardiovascular outcome trials in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been published to date. Most trials with dipeptidyl‐peptidase inhibitors (SAVOR‐TIMI 53 with saxagliptin, EXAMINE with alogliptin, TECOS with ...
Chen, F. et. al.
Apr 8th, 2019 - Background: The health benefits and risks of dietary supplement use are controversial. Objective: To evaluate the association among dietary supplement use, levels of nutrient intake from foods and supplements, and mortality among U.S. adults. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from 1999 to 2010, linked to Nation...
Benson, A. et. al.
Mar 31st, 2019 - Incidence and mortality rates for cancer overall are declining, but both incidence and mortality rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are increasing.1,2 Risk factors for development of HCC include infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and cirrhosis of the liver (eg, alcohol cirrhosis).3 Metabolic disorders (ie, obesity, diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism,...
The New England Journal of Medicine; van der Pol, L. et. al.
Mar 20th, 2019 - Pulmonary embolism is one of the leading causes of maternal death in the Western world. Because of the low specificity and sensitivity of the d-dimer test, all pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism undergo computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography or ventilation–perfusion scanning, both of which involve radiation exposure to the mother and fetus. Whether a pregnancy-adapted alg...
Mar 19th, 2019 - Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (Nasdaq: JAZZ) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Sunosi™ (solriamfetol) to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Once-daily Sunosi is approved with doses of 75 mg and 150 mg for patients with narcolepsy and doses of 37.5 mg, 75 mg, and 1...
Mar 7th, 2019 - Genentech, a member of the Roche Group (six:RO)(six:ROG)(otcqx:RHHBY), today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted accelerated approval to Tecentriq [®] (atezolizumab) plus chemotherapy (Abraxane [®] [paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension (albumin-bound); nab-paclitaxel]) for the treatment of adults with unresectable locally advanced or metasta...
White, H. et. al.
Feb 28th, 2019 - LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction with statins and PCSK9 inhibitors reduces risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but effects on specific types of MI are unknown. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab (ALI) with placebo (PBO) in 18924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and elevated LDL-C despite intensive statin therapy. ALI reduced the primary composite endpoin...
Mathew, P. et. al.
Feb 28th, 2019 - Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concentrations drop below 55 mg/dL. The symptoms of Whipple's triad have been used to describe hypoglycemia since 1938. For Whipple's triad, the practitioner must first recognize symptoms of hypoglycemia, then obtain low blood glucose, and finally, demo...
Feb 13th, 2019 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today permitted marketing of the Tandem Diabetes Care t:Slim X2 insulin pump with interoperable technology (interoperable t:Slim X2) for delivering insulin under the skin for children and adults with diabetes. This new type of insulin pump, referred to as an alternate controller enabled (ACE) infusion pump, or ACE insulin pump, is the first interoperable pu...
Feb 5th, 2019 - CABLIVI is a von Willebrand factor (vWF)-directed antibody fragment indicated for the treatment of adult patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP), in combination with plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy.
Jan 29th, 2019 - The Sangia Total Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Test consists of a Cassette Assembly and a Sample Collector. The Sangia Total PSA Test is used as an aid in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new test is the first point-of-care test that can deliver PSA results near where the patient is being evaluated, for example at the doctor's office, instead of waiting for lab analysis. The test can be...
Scully, M. et. al.
Jan 23rd, 2019 - In acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), an immune-mediated deficiency of the von Willebrand factor–cleaving protease ADAMTS13 allows unrestrained adhesion of von Willebrand factor multimers to platelets and microthrombosis, which result in thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and tissue ischemia. Caplacizumab, an anti–von Willebrand factor humanized, bivalent variable-domain-only ...
Jan 23rd, 2019 - Deferasirox is an oral iron‐chelating agent having possible antileukemia and immune modulatory effects. Few reports have evaluated deferasirox in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo‐HSCT). We investigated the impact of deferasirox after allo‐HSCT in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Of 326 consecutive patients undergoing allo‐HSCT in remission, analysis of 198 pa...
Lupus Science & Medicine; Lourdudoss, C. et. al.
Jan 18th, 2019 - Background Some studies suggest that the risk for and severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be modified by certain nutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between diet and glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, as a proxy for disease activity, in patients with SLE. Methods We included 111 patients with SLE from the SLE Vascular Impact Cohort (SLEVIC). Dietary...
Jan 17th, 2019 - Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia may not have any signs or symptoms. More severe iron-deficiency anemia may cause fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain.
Jan 16th, 2019 - Patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have von Willebrand factor (VWF)–mediated platelet aggregates that ...HERCULES Trial
Jan 13th, 2019 - This summary includes the history of research, reviews of laboratory and animal studies, and results of clinical trials on the following foods or dietary supplements: Calcium. Green tea. Lycopene. Modified citrus pectin. Pomegranate. Selenium. Soy. Vitamin D. Vitamin E. Multicomponent therapies. Other prostate health supplements.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute; Hall, K. et. al.
Jan 7th, 2019 - Background Vitamins are among the most frequently used supplements (48% of US adults). However, little is known about contributions of genetic variation to their efficacy and safety. Multiple pathways link catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to the vitamin E supplement, alpha-tocopherol, and cancer. Methods Here we determined if COMT exerted pharmacogenetic effects on cancer prevention in ...
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Trotti, L. et. al.
Jan 3rd, 2019 - Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic disorder that is associated with peripheral iron deficiency in a subgroup of patients. It is unclear whether iron therapy is effective treatment for RLS. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral or parenteral iron for the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) when compared with placebo or other therapies. Search method...
Dec 31st, 2018 - Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best overall index of kidney function. Normal GFR varies according to age, sex, and body size, and declines with age. The National Kidney Foundation recommends using the CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation (2009) to estimate GFR.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Moelands, S. et. al.
Dec 27th, 2018 - Background Alpha‐glucosidase inhibitors (AGI) reduce blood glucose levels and may thus prevent or delay type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated complications in people at risk of developing of T2DM. Objectives To assess the effects of AGI in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c...
Dec 20th, 2018 - Describes how iron tests are used, when iron tests are ordered, and what the results of iron tests might mean. Why Get Tested? To evaluate your body's current level of iron; to help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload
Dec 18th, 2018 - Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes risk through an informal assessment of risk factors (Table 2.3) or with an assessment tool, such as the American Diabetes Association risk test (Fig. 2.1), is recommended to guide providers on whether performing a diagnostic test for prediabetes (Table 2.5) and previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (Table 2.2) is appropriate (see Section 2 “Classif...
American Association of Clinical Chemists
Dec 18th, 2018 - Hemoglobin A1c, also called A1c or glycated hemoglobin, is hemoglobin with glucose attached. The A1c test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months by measuring the percentage of glycated (glycosylated) hemoglobin.
Dec 17th, 2018 - There is strong and consistent evidence that obesity management can delay the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes (1–5) and is beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (6–17). In patients with type 2 diabetes who are overweight or obese, modest and sustained weight loss has been shown to improve glycemic control and to reduce the need for glucose-lowering medications (6–8). Sm...
Dec 17th, 2018 - Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is diagnosed by the persistent presence of elevated urinary albumin excretion (albuminuria), low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), or other manifestations of kidney damage (1,2). In this section, the focus will be on CKD attributed to diabetes (diabetic kidney disease), which occurs in 20–40% of patients with diabetes (1,3–5). CKD typically develops after...
Dec 17th, 2018 - Diabetes technology is the term used to describe the hardware, devices, and software that people with diabetes use to help manage blood glucose levels, stave off diabetes complications, reduce the burden of living with diabetes, and improve quality of life. Historically, diabetes technology has been divided into two main categories: insulin administered by syringe, pen, or pump, and blood gluco...
Dec 17th, 2018 - Glycemic management is primarily assessed with the A1C test, which was the measure studied in clinical trials demonstrating the benefits of improved glycemic control. Patient self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) may help with self-management and medication adjustment, particularly in individuals taking insulin. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) also has an important role in assessing the e...
Dec 16th, 2018 - Because the hallmark of type 1 diabetes is absent or near-absent β-cell function, insulin treatment is essential for individuals with type 1 diabetes. Insufficient provision of insulin causes not only hyperglycemia but also systematic metabolic disturbances like hypertriglyceridemia and ketoacidosis, as well as tissue catabolism. Over the past three decades, evidence has accumulated supporting ...
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; Teo, S. et. al.
Dec 1st, 2018 - Purpose The timing of exercise relative to meal consumption has recently been identified as potentially moderating the effectiveness of exercise on glycemic responses in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature related to exercise timing, relative to meal consumption, and glycemic control in individuals with T2DM. Methods Systematic s...
Kudva, Y.,et al
Nov 30th, 2018 - The use of personal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has expanded dramatically among individuals with diabetes. CGM systems provide retrospective data, as well as the current glucose value and trend arrow data, which indicate the direction and velocity of changing glucose.
Schmid, P. et. al.
Nov 28th, 2018 - Unresectable locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative (hormone-receptor–negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]–negative) breast cancer is an aggressive disease with poor outcomes. Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)–paclitaxel may enhance the anticancer activity of atezolizumab. IMpassion130
Nov 24th, 2018 - human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Diabetes is a disease in which levels of glucose in the blood (also called blood sugar) are too high. Glucose comes from the breakdown of the foods we eat and is our main source of energy. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. People with HIV are more likely to have type 2 diabetes than people without HIV. Some HIV medicin...
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine;
Nov 15th, 2018 - Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, although its mechanisms involve genetic, epigenetic and environmental risk factors. Considering that SLE pathogenesis is yet to be explored, recent studies aimed to investigate the impact of diet, in terms of triggering or altering the course of the disease. To study the impact of diet on SLE pathogenesis, we condu...
American Family Physician; Roth, A. et. al.
Nov 14th, 2018 - A 62-year-old white man with hypertension presents for a routine physical examination. He does not smoke and has a body mass index of 32 kg per m2. After being sedentary for many years, he is about to begin an exercise program. His wife thinks he should get his heart tested before beginning to exercise. The patient does not have chest pain or pressure, dyspnea, or palpitations. His blood pressu...
Sutaria, A. et. al.
Nov 13th, 2018 - Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of pilosebaceous unit, which runs a chronic course and it is self-limiting. Acne vulgaris is triggered by Propionibacterium acnes in adolescence, under the influence of normal circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). It is a very common skin disorder which can present with inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions chiefly on the face but can also occu...
Mechanick, J.,et al
Oct 31st, 2018 - The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) has created a dysglycemia-based chronic disease (DBCD) multimorbidity care model consisting of four distinct stages along the insulin resistance-prediabetes-type 2 diabetes (T2D) spectrum that are actionable in a preventive care paradigm to reduce the potential impact of T2D, cardiometabolic risk, and cardiovascular events. The contro.
Oct 3rd, 2018 - In overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes, lorcaserin (Belviq) helped improve blood glucose levels, according to the CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 trial. After 1 year of 10 mg, twice-daily treatment, patients saw a significant 0.33% (95% CI 0.29-0.38%, P<0.0001) drop in mean HbA1c level compared with those receiving placebo, reported Erin Bohula, MD, DPhil, of Brigham and Women's Hospital in ...
Sep 26th, 2018 - Home use tests allow you to test for some diseases or conditions at home. These tests are cost-effective, quick, and confidential. Home use tests can help: detect possible health conditions when you have no symptoms, so that you can get early treatment and lower your chance of developing later complications (i.e. cholesterol testing, hepatitis testing). detect specific conditions when there...
Sep 25th, 2018 - Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids and laxatives). Magnesium is a cofactor in more than 300 enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose contr...
Sep 3rd, 2018 - The World Health Organization developed these guidelines to provide guidance on selection of medicines for treatment intensification in type 2 diabetes and on use of insulin (human or analogue) in type 1 and 2 diabetes. The target audience includes clinicians, policymakers, national diabetes program managers, and medicine procurement officers.
Committee on Gynecologic Practice
Aug 31st, 2018 - Gynecologic surgery is very common: hysterectomy alone is one of the most frequently performed operating room procedures each year. It is well known that surgical stress induces a catabolic state that leads to increased cardiac demand, relative tissue hypoxia, increased insulin resistance, impaired coagulation profiles, and altered pulmonary and gastrointestinal function.
Aug 31st, 2018 - Since the American Diabetes Association (ADA) published the Position Statement “Care of Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes” (1) in 2005, innovations have transformed the landscape and management of type 1 diabetes: novel autoantibodies, sophisticated devices for delivering insulin and measuring glucose, and diabetes registries. However, strategies to prevent or delay type 1 diabetes.
Aug 19th, 2018 - SGLT2 inhibitors are a class of prescription medicines that are FDA-approved for use with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes. Medicines in the SGLT2 inhibitor class include canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin. They are available as single-ingredient products and also in combination with other diabetes medicines such as metformin. SGLT2 inhibitors l...
RMD Open; Merola, J. et. al.
Aug 12th, 2018 - Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have key differences in clinical presentation, radiographic findings, comorbidities and pathogenesis to distinguish between these common forms of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Joint involvement is typically, but not always, asymmetric in PsA, while it is predominantly symmetric in RA. Bone erosions, without new bone growth, and cervical ...
Jul 28th, 2018 - Glycemic control of children and adolescents must be assessed byboth quarterly hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and by regular home glucosemonitoring. T.
US Preventive Services Task Force
Jun 30th, 2018 - The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of adding the ankle-brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, or coronary artery calcium (CAC) score to traditional risk assessment for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in asymptomatic adults to prevent CVD events.
Spanakis, E. et. al.
Jun 14th, 2018 - Hypoglycemia, caused by treatment with a sulfonylurea, a glinide, or insulin coupled with compromised defenses against the resulting falling plasma glucose concentrations, is the limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes. It causes recurrent morbidity in most people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and many with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is sometimes fatal; i...
May 23rd, 2018 - New direct-acting oral agents capable of curing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been approved for use in the United States. The initial direct-acting agents were approved in 2011, and many more oral drugs are expected to be approved in the next few years.
US Preventive Services Task Force
May 7th, 2018 - For men aged 55 to 69 years, the decision to undergo periodic prostate-specific antigen (PSA)–based screening for prostate cancer should be an individual one. Before deciding whether to be screened, men should have an opportunity to discuss the potential benefits and harms of screening with their clinician and to incorporate their values and preferences in the decision.
Apr 29th, 2018 - The new guidelines provide public health guidance on pharmacological agents for managing hyperglycaemia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes for use in primary health-care in low-resource settings. These guidelines update the recommendations for managing hyperglycaemia in the WHO Package of Essential NCD Interventions (WHO PEN) for primary care in low-resources settings, reviewing several newer oral a.
Apr 16th, 2018 - The American College of Physicians developed this guidance statement to guide clinicians in selecting targets for pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes.