Dec 19th, 2018 - The emerging obesity epidemic and accompanying health consequences led The Obesity Society (TOS) in 2008 to publish a position paper defining obesity as a disease. Since then, new information has emerged on the underlying mechanisms leading to excess adiposity and the associated structural, cardiometabolic, and functional disturbances.
Dec 18th, 2018 - These clinical practice guidelines are an update of the guidelines published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) in 2009, prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. This document addresses new information regarding diagnostic testing, treatment and chemoprophylaxis with antiviral medications, and issues related to institutional outbreak management for seasonal influenza. It is ...
Dec 18th, 2018 - The field of diabetes care is rapidly changing as new research, technology, and treatments that can improve the health and well-being of people with diabetes continue to emerge. With annual updates since 1989, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has long been a leader in producing guidelines that capture the most current state of the field. To that end, the “Standards of Medical Care in Dia...
Dec 18th, 2018 - Managing the daily health demands of diabetes can be challenging. People living with diabetes should not have to face additional discrimination due to diabetes. By advocating for the rights of those with diabetes at all levels, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) can help to ensure that they live a healthy and productive life. A strategic goal of the ADA is that more children and adults wit...
Dec 18th, 2018 - The management of diabetes in children and adolescents cannot simply be derived from care routinely provided to adults with diabetes. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, developmental considerations, and response to therapy in pediatric-onset diabetes are different from adult diabetes. There are also differences in recommended care for children and adolescents with type 1 as opposed to type 2 di...
Dec 18th, 2018 - Population health is defined as “the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of health outcomes within the group”; these outcomes can be measured in terms of health outcomes (mortality, morbidity, health, and functional status), disease burden (incidence and prevalence), and behavioral and metabolic factors (exercise, diet, A1C, etc.) (1). Clinical practice recomme...
Dec 18th, 2018 - Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are heterogeneous diseases in which clinical presentation and disease progression may vary considerably. Classification is important for determining therapy, but some individuals cannot be clearly classified as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes at the time of diagnosis. The traditional paradigms of type 2 diabetes occurring only in adults and type 1 diabetes o...
Dec 18th, 2018 - Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes risk through an informal assessment of risk factors (Table 2.3) or with an assessment tool, such as the American Diabetes Association risk test (Fig. 2.1), is recommended to guide providers on whether performing a diagnostic test for prediabetes (Table 2.5) and previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (Table 2.2) is appropriate (see Section 2 “Classif...
Dec 17th, 2018 - In the hospital, both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are associated with adverse outcomes, including death. Therefore, inpatient goals should include the prevention of both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Hospitals should promote the shortest safe hospital stay and provide an effective transition out of the hospital that prevents acute complications and readmission.
Dec 17th, 2018 - There is strong and consistent evidence that obesity management can delay the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes (1–5) and is beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (6–17). In patients with type 2 diabetes who are overweight or obese, modest and sustained weight loss has been shown to improve glycemic control and to reduce the need for glucose-lowering medications (6–8). Sm...
Dec 17th, 2018 - A successful medical evaluation depends on beneficial interactions between the patient and the care team. The Chronic Care Model (1–3) (see Section 1 “Improving Care and Promoting Health in Populations”) is a patient-centered approach to care that requires a close working relationship between the patient and clinicians involved in treatment planning. People with diabetes should receive health c...
Dec 17th, 2018 - DSMES services facilitate the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for optimal diabetes self-care and incorporate the needs, goals, and life experiences of the person with diabetes. The overall objectives of DSMES are to support informed decision making, self-care behaviors, problem-solving, and active collaboration with the health care team to improve clinical outcomes, health status, an...
Dec 14th, 2018 - This algorithm for the comprehensive management of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) was developed to provide clinicians with a practical guide that considers the whole patient, his or her spectrum of risks and complications, and evidence-based approaches to treatment. It is now clear that the progressive pancreatic beta-cell defect that drives the deterioration of metabolic control over time ...
Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council
Dec 13th, 2018 - The Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection (Pediatric Guidelines) address the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children living with HIV, including adolescents with sexual maturity rating (SMR, formerly Tanner staging) I to III (the guidelines developed by the Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents are suitable for the care and ma.
Chipps, B.,et al
Dec 10th, 2018 - Asthma guidelines recommend a control-based approach to disease management in which the assessment of impairment and risk is linked to step-based therapy. Using this model, controller treatment is adjusted—upward or downward—according to a patient's level of asthma control over time.
Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council
Dec 6th, 2018 - Recommendations regarding HIV screening in pregnancy, treatment of pregnant women who are living with HIV, and the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV have evolved considerably in the United States since the mid-1990s, reflecting changes in both the epidemic and also in the science of prevention and treatment. With the implementation of recommendati.
American Urological Association
Nov 30th, 2018 - Based on the prevalence and significance of HPV infection and its sequelae as well as the safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines, the American Urological Association (AUA) supports routine immunization with HPV vaccine for boys and girls 11 through 12 years of age. In addition, the AUA recommends the vaccination of others not previously vaccinated aged 13 through 26 years in accordance with nation.
Puopolo, Karen M.
Nov 30th, 2018 - Early-onset sepsis (EOS) remains a serious and often fatal illness among infants born preterm, particularly among newborn infants of the lowest gestational age. Currently, most preterm infants with very low birth weight are treated empirically with antibiotics for risk of EOS, often for prolonged periods, in the absence of a culture-confirmed infection.
Nov 30th, 2018 - This policy statement revises a previous statement on screening of preterm infants for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that was published in 2013. ROP is a pathologic process that occurs in immature retinal tissue and can progress to a tractional retinal detachment, which may then result in visual loss or blindness.
Nov 17th, 2018 - Cholera is a well-known disease caused by intestinal infection with the toxin-producing bacteria Vibrio cholerae. This potentially fatal diarrheal disease results in large volumes of watery stool, causing rapid dehydration that can progress to hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis.