The New England Journal of Medicine; Diallo T, Adjobimey M et. al.
Aug 1st, 2018 - The treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in children because of their vulnerability to life-threatening forms of tuberculosis disease. The current standard treatment - 9 months of isoniazid - has been associated with poor adherence and toxic effects, which have hampered the effectiveness of the drug. In adults, treatment with 4 months of rifampin has been s...
JAMA Hay AD, Little P et. al.
Aug 22nd, 2017 - Acute lower respiratory tract infection is common and often treated inappropriately in primary care with antibiotics. Corticosteroids are increasingly used but without sufficient evidence. To assess the effects of oral corticosteroids for acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults without asthma. Multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (July 2013 to final follow-up October 2014...
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Payam Nahid et al
Nov 20th, 2019 - The American Thoracic Society, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Respiratory Society, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored this new practice guideline on the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). The document includes recommendations on the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) as well as isoniazid-resistant but rifampin-suscept...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Tait, D. et. al.
Oct 28th, 2019 - BACKGROUND Results of an earlier analysis of a trial of the M72/AS01E candidate vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that in infected adults, the vaccine provided 54.0% protection against active pulmonary tuberculosis disease, without evident safety concerns. We now report the results of the 3-year final analysis of efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity. METHODS From August 201...
Medical Clinics of North America; Nanda A, et al
Oct 27th, 2019 - Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide and approximately 7.5% of adults in the United States. Among adults, asthma results in about 10.5 million physician office visits per year and affects approximately 8.7% of blacks, 7.6% of whites, and 5.8% of Hispanics. Asthma is characterized by inflammation of airways, variable airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.3 I...
Oct 23rd, 2019 - Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: MLNT), a commercial-stage company focused on the development and commercialization of novel antibiotics to treat serious bacterial infections, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved BAXDELA® (delafloxacin) for the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by designated susceptible b...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Dransfield, M. et. al.
Oct 19th, 2019 - Observational studies suggest that beta-blockers may reduce the risk of exacerbations and death in patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these findings have not been confirmed in randomized trials.
Oct 16th, 2019 - Single-dose Xofluza is the first and only antiviral medicine indicated specifically for patients at high risk of developing serious complications from influenza (flu) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines people at high risk of serious flu complications as those who have conditions such as asthma, chronic lung disease, diabetes, heart disease, morbid obesity or adults ...
American Family Physician;
Oct 14th, 2019 - The incidence of pulmonary complications following major surgery is estimated to be 1% to 23%, with the risk varying based on patient factors and the type of surgery.1 Postoperative pulmonary complications include pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, atelectasis, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, bronchospasm, aspiration, respiratory failure, and acute respiratory di...
American Family Physician;
Sep 30th, 2019 - Anticoagulation therapy is recommended for preventing, treating, and reducing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism, and preventing stroke in persons with atrial fibrillation. Direct oral anticoagulants are first-line agents for eligible patients for treating venous thromboembolism and preventing stroke in those with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists are recommended for ...
Sep 29th, 2019 - The 2019 update of the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention incorporates new scientific information about asthma based on a review of recent scientific literature by an international panel of experts on the GINA Science Committee. This comprehensive and practical resource about one of the most common chronic lung diseases worldwide contains extensive citations from the scientifi...
Sep 25th, 2019 - David J. Amrol, MD reviewing Hardy J et al. Lancet 2019 Sep 14 Gauthier M and Wenzel SE. Lancet 2019 Sep 14
Sep 15th, 2019 - BACKGROUND: Donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine are popular cholinesterase inhibitors used to manage the symptoms of Alzheimer disease and other dementias; regulatory agencies in several countries warn about a possible risk of rhabdomyolysis with donepezil, based on information from case reports. Our goal was to investigate the 30-day risk of admission to hospital with rhabdomyolysis associ...
Sep 11th, 2019 - GlaxoSmithKline (LSE/NYSE: GSK) today announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Nucala (mepolizumab) for use in children as young as six years old who are living with severe eosinophilic asthma. Nucala is the only targeted biologic to be approved for the condition in the six to 11-year age group in the US.
Sep 11th, 2019 - GE Healthcare today announced the Food and Drug Administration’s 510(k) clearance of Critical Care Suite, an industry-first collection of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms embedded on a mobile X-ray device. Built in collaboration with UC San Francisco (UCSF), using GE Healthcare’s Edison platform, the AI algorithms help to reduce the turn-around time it can take for radiologists to review...
Annals of Internal Medicine;
Sep 9th, 2019 - Background: Whether health outcomes of menopausal estrogen therapy differ between women with and without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is unknown. Objective: To examine estrogen therapy outcomes by BSO status, with additional stratification by 10-year age groups. Design: Subgroup analyses of the randomized Women's Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT...
Aug 29th, 2019 - The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) released five separate guidelines covering dyslipidemias, supraventricular tachycardia, chronic coronary syndrome, acute pulmonary embolism, and diabetes as part of ESC Congress 2019 and published in the European Heart Journal.
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice; Raita, Y. et. al.
Jul 15th, 2019 - Background Patients with asthma have a high incidence of acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Objective To investigate the acute effect of asthma exacerbation on these cardiovascular events. Methods Using population-based inpatient data of 3 geographically diverse US states (Florida, Nebraska, and New York) during the period 2011 to 2014, we conducted a self-controlled case...
Jul 14th, 2019 - Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE and TASE: TEVA) announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved AirDuo® Digihaler™ (fluticasone propionate 113 mcg and salmeterol 14 mcg) Inhalation Powder, a combination therapy digital inhaler with built-in sensors that connects to a companion mobile application to provide information on inhaler use to people with asthma....
Jun 26th, 2019 - NUCALA (mepolizumab) has clinical data on exacerbation reduction. Learn about NUCALA for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.
Jun 24th, 2019 - Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, itchy skin condition that is very common in children but may occur at any age. It is also known as eczema and atopic eczema and was formerly known as Besnier prurigo. It is the most common form of dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis usually occurs in people who have an 'atopic tendency'. This means they may develop any or all of three closely linked conditions; atop...
Jun 18th, 2019 - Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., (NYSE and TASE: TEVA) today announced the launch of a generic version of Tracleer®1 (bosentan) tablets, 62.5 mg and 125 mg, in the U.S. Bosentan Tablets are an endothelin receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, WHO Group 1) in adults to improve exercise ability and to decrease worsening of the condition. P...
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Threapleton, C. et. al.
May 23rd, 2019 - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; including chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by shortness of breath, cough and recurrent exacerbations. Long‐term antibiotic use may reduce both bacterial load and inflammation in the airways. Studies have shown a reduction of exacerbations with antibiotics in comparison to placebo in people with COPD, ...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Manley BJ, Arnolda GRB et. al.
May 22nd, 2019 - Nasal high-flow therapy is an alternative to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a means of respiratory support for newborn infants. The efficacy of high-flow therapy in nontertiary special care nurseries is unknown. We performed a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial involving newborn infants (<24 hours of age; gestational age, ≥31 weeks) in special care nurseries in A...
JAMA Wise RA, Chapman KR et. al.
May 7th, 2019 - There is concern that long-acting muscarinic antagonists increase cardiovascular morbidity or mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine the cardiovascular safety (noninferiority) and efficacy (superiority) of aclidinium bromide, 400 μg twice daily, in patients with COPD and cardiovascular disease or risk factors. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-contr...
May 2nd, 2019 - Racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity — life-threatening maternal complications associated with childbirth — have persisted and increased at high rates among U.S. women, according to an analysis of nearly 20 years of California hospital records funded by the National Institutes of Health. Known risk factors for these complications — such as blood pressure disorders, asthma ...
Mar 31st, 2019 - Circassia Pharmaceuticals plc (“Circassia” or “the Company”; LSE: CIR), a specialty pharmaceutical company focused on respiratory disease, today announces the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Duaklir® for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Duaklir® is a fixed-dose combination of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) aclidinium bro...
Mar 24th, 2019 - The latest national and state data on the burden of asthma among children and adults.
The New England Journal of Medicine; van der Pol, L. et. al.
Mar 20th, 2019 - Pulmonary embolism is one of the leading causes of maternal death in the Western world. Because of the low specificity and sensitivity of the d-dimer test, all pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism undergo computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography or ventilation–perfusion scanning, both of which involve radiation exposure to the mother and fetus. Whether a pregnancy-adapted alg...
Mar 19th, 2019 - Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (Nasdaq: JAZZ) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Sunosi™ (solriamfetol) to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Once-daily Sunosi is approved with doses of 75 mg and 150 mg for patients with narcolepsy and doses of 37.5 mg, 75 mg, and 1...
Mar 17th, 2019 - This clinical report updates and replaces a 2008 clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics, which addressed the roles of maternal and early infant diet on the prevention of atopic disease, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and food allergy. As with the previous report, the available data still limit the ability to draw firm conclusions about various aspects of atopy prevention ...
Battisti, A. et. al.
Mar 11th, 2019 - Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damage is due to shear or overstretching of tissues. As a gas-filled space expands or contracts, it can cause damage to the local tissue. Occasionally, tears in tissue can allow gas to enter the body through the initial trauma site. This causes potenti...
Current Rheumatology Reports; Doaty, S. et. al.
Mar 6th, 2019 - Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune systems increases the risk of infection in patients with SLE. Infectious agents have also been theorized to play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE. This article summarizes our current knowledge of the infectious risk SLE patients face as a ...
Feb 28th, 2019 - Tuberculosis (TB) strains with drug resistance (DR-TB) are more difficult to treat than drug-susceptible ones, and threaten global progress towards the targets set by the End TB Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). There is thus a critical need for evidence-based policy recommendations on the treatment and care of patients with DR-TB, based on the most recent and comprehensive evide...
Feb 23rd, 2019 - The prevalence of asthma was nearly twice as high as the national average in a cohort of opioid-dependent patients receiving acute care at an inner city hospital in a New York City borough, with female sex more closely linked to higher asthma risk than male sex, researchers reported here.
Feb 21st, 2019 - American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) 2019 Meeting: Read clinically focused news coverage of key developments from AAAAI 2019
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine;
Feb 14th, 2019 - Introduction The purpose of this systematic review is to provide supporting evidence for the clinical practice guideline for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults using positive airway pressure (PAP). Methods The American Academy of Sleep Medicine commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that compared t...
Feb 5th, 2019 - Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which mainly affects the lungs, making pulmonary disease the most common presentation (K Zaman, 2010). However, TB is a multi-systemic disease with a protean presentation. The organ system most commonly affected include the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal (GI) system, the lymphoreticular system, the skin...
Hayes, D. et. al.
Jan 31st, 2019 - Although home oxygen therapy is commonly required in the care of children, there is a striking lack of empirical evidence regarding implementation, monitoring, and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen therapy. The panel formulated and provided the rationale for clinical recommendations for home oxygen therapy based on scant empirical evidence, expert opinion, and clinical experience to aid cl...
Barnes, H. et. al.
Jan 30th, 2019 - Pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a group of complex and heterogenous conditions, characterised by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, and which left untreated leads to right‐heart failure and death. PH includes World Health Organisation (WHO) Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); Group 2 consists of PH due to left‐heart disease (PH‐LHD); Group 3 comprises PH as a result of lung di...
Jan 30th, 2019 - Information for Health Care Workers about hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Dec 31st, 2018 - Information for healthcare professionals about aspergillosis. Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, a common mold (a type of fungus) that lives indoors and outdoors. Most people breathe in Aspergillus spores every day without getting sick. However, people with weakened immune systems or lung diseases are at a higher risk of developing health problems due to Aspergillus. There are di...
European Clinical Respiratory Journal;
Nov 6th, 2018 - Background: New, complex, and expensive therapies targeting Interleukin-5 (IL-5) to treat severe eosinophilic asthma are emerging. Objective: To assess efficacy, adverse events, and inter-drug comparison of mepolizumab and reslizumab for treating severe eosinophilic asthma. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials elucidating two cri...
Nov 3rd, 2018 - Consider a diagnosis of asthma and perform spirometry if any of these indicators are present :The symptoms of dyspnea, cough and/or wheezing, especially nocturnal, difficulty breathing or chest tightness
American Academy Of Sleep Medicine;
Sep 22nd, 2018 - The Link Between Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder characterized by complete or partial airway closure during sleep. Patients with obesity are at higher risk of OSA. The interrelationships between obesity and OSA are complex and bidirectional. Obesity places patients at higher risk for OSA and patients with OSA are likely to gain more w...
Sep 9th, 2018 - Your patients can get infections when receiving healthcare, called healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). HAIs are commonly caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens (germs), which may lead to sepsis or death. People can also get antibiotic-resistant infections in their community, for example, gonorrhea, tuberculosis (TB), or foodborne infections. Take the following actions to help protect ...
Sep 5th, 2018 - All people with newly diagnosed HIV should be tested for TB infection as soon as possible. Anyone who has TB disease, is being evaluated for TB disease, or is a contact of a TB patient should be tested for HIV.
Jun 25th, 2018 - For decades physicians have understood that a diagnosis of asthma requires further description because attacks of wheezing and shortness of breath can be associated with several underlying diseases. For example, patients allergic to animal dander, such as cat dander, who have animals as pets, may suffer from chronic severe asthma. Identification of patients with this form of asthma (referred to...
Jun 18th, 2018 - Vital Signs: Asthma in Children – United States, 2001-2016 Free continuing education (CE) activity that describes trends and demographic differences in health outcomes and healthcare use for childhood asthma, based on a CDC analysis of asthma data from the 2001-2016 National Health Interview Survey for children 17 years and younger.This activity is intended for pediatricians, pulmonologists, ...
May 20th, 2018 - The most common risk factors for developing asthma is having a parent with asthma, having a severe respiratory infection as a child, having an allergic condition, or being exposed to certain chemical irritants or industrial dusts in the workplace.
Apr 23rd, 2018 - Asthma deaths have decreased over time and varied by demographic characteristics. View the statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - National Center of Environmental Health (NCEH) - National Asthma Control Program
Mar 15th, 2018 - Asthma is a common chronic airway disorder characterized by periods of airflow obstruction known as asthma attacks (1). Symptom frequency can range from intermittent to constant, and attack severity can vary from mild to life threatening (1). Several studies have shown that among adults, obesity is associated with an increased risk of asthma diagnosis, more frequent asthma-related health care u...
Feb 16th, 2018 - Asthma statistics: Approximately 25.9 million Americans suffer from asthma. It is one of this country's most common and costly diseases.
Jan 30th, 2018 - Nearly 17% of people without asthma smoke. But surprisingly, even more people with asthma smoke. About 21% of people with asthma smoke, even though cigarette smoke is known to trigger asthma attacks.
Oct 24th, 2017 - Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the lungs. With asthma, the tubes that carry air throughout the lungs (bronchi) are inflamed and swollen, which narrows the airway and makes it more difficult to breathe. Learn about the lab tests used to help diagnose, monitor, and manage asthma.
Lancet (London, England); Woodcock A, Vestbo J et. al.
Sep 14th, 2017 - Evidence for management of asthma comes from closely monitored efficacy trials done in highly selected patient groups. There is a need for randomised trials that are closer to usual clinical practice. We did an open-label, randomised, controlled, two-arm effectiveness trial at 74 general practice clinics in Salford and South Manchester, UK. Patients aged 18 years or older with a general practit...
Aug 31st, 2017 - Pathogenenesis of viral infection in exacerbations of airway disease
Strom, B. et. al.
Aug 26th, 2017 - This chapter reviews and assesses new evidence for associations between dietary sodium intake and outcomes published in the peer-reviewed literature through 2012. The health outcomes reviewed by the committee include cardiovascular disease (CVD), including stroke CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, cancer, and “other” ou...
May 23rd, 2017 - Work-related asthma is the most prevalent occupational lung disease and is likely underrecognized in the clinical setting. Thus, a thorough occupational history is critical for identifying patients.
Jan 18th, 2017 - FastStats is an official application from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention & (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and puts access to topic-specific statistics at your fingertips.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine;
Jul 21st, 2016 - Asthma exacerbations are frequent in patients with severe disease. This report describes results from two retrospective cohort studies describing exacerbation frequency and risk, emergency department (ED)/hospital re-admissions, and asthma-related costs by asthma severity in the US and UK.
Clinical Liver Disease; Reuben, A.
May 31st, 2016 - Generally, the normal abdominal viscera are not detectable on physical examination, with the possible exceptions of a liver that is pushed down below the costal margin by a diaphragm that is depressed by thoracic disease (such as emphysema and scoliosis), or the pulsations of the descending aorta in an individual who is constitutionally or pathologically thin, in whom incidentally the kid...
May 1st, 2016 - Tools for health care providers, such as guidelines, educational materials, and other helpful links about tuberculosis. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not ever...
Jul 11th, 2015 - Chronic dyspnea is shortness of breath that lasts more than one month. The perception of dyspnea varies based on behavioral and physiologic responses. Dyspnea that is greater than expected with the degree of exertion is a symptom of disease. Most cases of dyspnea result from asthma, heart failure and myocardial ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, pneumoni...
Journal of Asthma and Allergy;
Apr 10th, 2014 - Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic inflammation in asthma although several noninva...
The New England Journal of Medicine; , Allix-Béguec C et. al.
Oct 3rd, 2018 - The World Health Organization recommends drug-susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex for all patients with tuberculosis to guide treatment decisions and improve outcomes. Whether DNA sequencing can be used to accurately predict profiles of susceptibility to first-line antituberculosis drugs has not been clear. We obtained whole-genome sequences and associated phenotypes of...
Lancet (London, England); Goyal V, Grimwood K et. al.
Sep 22nd, 2018 - Although amoxicillin-clavulanate is the recommended first-line empirical oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis, azithromycin is also often prescribed for its convenient once-daily dosing. No randomised controlled trials involving acute exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis have been published to our knowledge. We hypothesised that azithro...
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Borisov AS, Bamrah Morris S et. al.
Jun 28th, 2018 - Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is critical to the control and elimination of tuberculosis disease (TB) in the United States. In 2011, CDC recommended a short-course combination regimen of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 weeks (3HP) by directly observed therapy (DOT) for treatment of LTBI, with limitations for use in children aged <12 years and persons with human ...
JAMA Chang SL, Huang YL et. al.
Feb 27th, 2018 - Varicose veins are common but rarely associated with serious health risks. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and peripheral artery disease (PAD) are also vascular diseases but associated with serious systemic effects. Little is known about the association between varicose veins and the incidence of other vascular diseases including DVT, PE, and PAD. To investigate whether v...
Lancet (London, England); Papi A, Vestbo J et. al.
Feb 12th, 2018 - Evidence is scarce on the relative risk-benefit of inhaled triple therapy, consisting of inhaled corticosteroid, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and long-acting β2-agonist, versus dual bronchodilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to compare a single-inhaler triple combination of beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium (BDP/FF/G) versu...
Thrombosis and Haemostasis; Bass AR, Fields KG et. al.
Oct 18th, 2017 - Background Clinical decision rules (CDRs) for pulmonary embolism (PE) have been validated in outpatients, but their performance in hospitalized patients is not well characterized. Objectives The goal of this systematic literature review was to assess the performance of CDRs for PE in hospitalized patients. Methods We performed a structured literature search using Medline, EMBASE and the Cochran...
Singh, J. et. al.
Apr 30th, 2012 - The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) most recently published recommendations for use of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2008 (1). These recommendations covered indications for use, monitoring of side-effects, assessment of the clinical response to DMARDs and biologics, screening for tuberculosis (TB), and asses...
The European Respiratory Journal; Torres A, Niederman MS et. al.
Sep 11th, 2017 - The most recent European guidelines and task force reports on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were published almost 10 years ago. Since then, further randomised clinical trials of HAP and VAP have been conducted and new information has become available. Studies of epidemiology, diagnosis, empiric treatment, response to treatment, new antibiotics or ne...
Anesthesia and Analgesia; Nagappa M, Patra J et. al.
Aug 17th, 2017 - The risk of postoperative complications increases with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The high-risk OSA (HR-OSA) patients can be easily identified using the STOP-Bang screening tool. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the association of postoperative complications in patients screened as HR-OSA versus low-risk OSA (LR-OSA). The following data bases w...
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine; Wu WF, Fang Q et. al.
Aug 1st, 2017 - The benefits and adverse effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have not been well assessed. The aim of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy in patients with severe CAP. The following databases were searched: PubMed, the Cochrane database, Embase, Wanf...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Hakim J, Musiime V et. al.
Jul 20th, 2017 - In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of ...
JAMA , Grossman DC et. al.
Jun 20th, 2017 - Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea,...
JAMA Murphy PB, Rehal S et. al.
May 21st, 2017 - Outcomes after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are poor and there are few treatments to prevent hospital readmission and death. To investigate the effect of home NIV plus oxygen on time to readmission or death in patients with persistent hypercapnia after an acute COPD exacerbation. A randomized clinical trial of patien...
JAMA Detsky ME, Harhay MO et. al.
May 21st, 2017 - Predictions of long-term survival and functional outcomes influence decision making for critically ill patients, yet little is known regarding their accuracy. To determine the discriminative accuracy of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses in predicting 6-month patient mortality and morbidity, including ambulation, toileting, and cognition. Prospective cohort study conducted in 5 ICU...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Seifert M, Georghiou SB et. al.
May 5th, 2017 - Previous retrospective and in vitro studies suggest that use of later-generation fluoroquinolones may reduce mortality risk and improve treatment outcomes for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) patients, including individuals resistant to a fluoroquinolone. Meta-analysis results are mixed and few studies have examined this relationship prospectively. As part of a comparative diagnostic study, we ...
Lancet (London, England); Vestbo J, Papi A et. al.
Apr 7th, 2017 - Limited data are available for the efficacy of triple therapy with two long-acting bronchodilators and an inhaled corticosteroid in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We compared treatment with extrafine beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium bromide (BDP/FF/GB; fixed triple) with tiotropium, and BDP/FF plus tiotropium (open triple). For this double-blind...
JAMA Kawazoe Y, Miyamoto K et. al.
Mar 22nd, 2017 - Dexmedetomidine provides sedation for patients undergoing ventilation; however, its effects on mortality and ventilator-free days have not been well studied among patients with sepsis. To examine whether a sedation strategy with dexmedetomidine can improve clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis undergoing ventilation. Open-label, multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted at 8 intensive...
Annals of Emergency Medicine; Fuller BM, Ferguson IT et. al.
Mar 5th, 2017 - We evaluated the efficacy of an emergency department (ED)-based lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol for the prevention of pulmonary complications. This was a quasi-experimental, before-after study that consisted of a preintervention period, a run-in period of approximately 6 months, and a prospective intervention period. The intervention was a multifaceted ED-based mechanical ventil...
JAMA Jonas DE, Amick HR et. al.
Jan 24th, 2017 - Many adverse health outcomes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To review primary care-relevant evidence on screening adults for OSA, test accuracy, and treatment of OSA, to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through October 2015, references, and experts, with surveillance of the literature through October 5, 201...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Shah NS, Auld SC et. al.
Jan 18th, 2017 - Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is neede...
Neurology Haba-Rubio J, Marti-Soler H et. al.
Dec 31st, 2016 - To assess the association between sleep structure and cognitive impairment in the general population. Data stemmed from 580 participants aged >65 years of the population-based CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study (Lausanne, Switzerland) who underwent complete sleep evaluation (HypnoLaus). Evaluations included demographic characteristics, personal and treatment history, sleep complaints and habits (using vali...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; Lewinsohn DM, Leonard MK et. al.
Dec 9th, 2016 - Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. A task force supported by the American T...
Chest Aksamit TR, O'Donnell AE et. al.
Nov 27th, 2016 - We sought to describe the characteristics of adult patients with bronchiectasis enrolled in the US Bronchiectasis Research Registry (BRR). The BRR is a database of patients with non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) enrolled at 13 sites in the United States. Baseline demographic, spirometric, imaging, microbiological, and therapeutic data were entered into a central Internet-based database....
JAMA Metersky ML, Wang Y et. al.
Nov 11th, 2016 - Trend in Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Rates Between 2005 and 2013.|2016|Metersky ML,Wang Y,Klompas M,Eckenrode S,Bakullari A,|epidemiology,epidemiology,
The New England Journal of Medicine; , Albert RK et. al.
Oct 26th, 2016 - Long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen has unknown efficacy in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and resting or exercise-induced moderate desaturation. We originally designed the trial to test whether long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen would result in a longer time to death than no use of supplemental oxygen among patients who had stable COPD with...
JAMA Hernández G, Vaquero C et. al.
Oct 18th, 2016 - High-flow conditioned oxygen therapy delivered through nasal cannulae and noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) may reduce the need for reintubation. Among the advantages of high-flow oxygen therapy are comfort, availability, lower costs, and additional physiopathological mechanisms. To test if high-flow conditioned oxygen therapy is noninferior to NIV for preventing postextubation respirato...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Roberts CT, Owen LS et. al.
Sep 22nd, 2016 - Treatment with nasal high-flow therapy has efficacy similar to that of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) when used as postextubation support in neonates. The efficacy of high-flow therapy as the primary means of respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory distress has not been proved. In this international, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned 5...
Lancet (London, England); FitzGerald JM, Bleecker ER et. al.
Sep 9th, 2016 - Benralizumab is a humanised, afucosylated, anti-interleukin-5 receptor α monoclonal antibody that induces direct, rapid, and nearly complete depletion of eosinophils. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of benralizumab as add-on therapy for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma and elevated blood eosinophil counts. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled,...
Lancet (London, England); Bleecker ER, FitzGerald JM et. al.
Sep 9th, 2016 - Eosinophilia is associated with worsening asthma severity and decreased lung function, with increased exacerbation frequency. We assessed the safety and efficacy of benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5 receptor α that depletes eosinophils by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma with eosinophilia. We did a randomised, d...
JAMA Kahwati LC, Feltner C et. al.
Sep 6th, 2016 - Five to ten percent of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progress to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Identifying and treating LTBI is a key component of the strategy for reducing the burden of TB disease. To review the evidence about targeted screening and treatment for LTBI among adults in primary care settings to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating ...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Vestbo J, Leather D et. al.
Sep 6th, 2016 - Evidence for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comes from closely monitored efficacy trials involving groups of patients who were selected on the basis of restricted entry criteria. There is a need for randomized trials to be conducted in conditions that are closer to usual clinical practice. In a controlled effectiveness trial conducted in 75 general practices, we ...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Peters SP, Bleecker ER et. al.
Aug 31st, 2016 - Concerns remain about the safety of adding long-acting β2-agonists to inhaled glucocorticoids for the treatment of asthma. In a postmarketing safety study mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, we evaluated whether the addition of formoterol to budesonide maintenance therapy increased the risk of serious asthma-related events in patients with asthma. In this multicenter, double-blind, 26...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Stempel DA, Szefler SJ et. al.
Aug 31st, 2016 - Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) have been shown to increase the risk of asthma-related death among adults and the risk of asthma-related hospitalization among children. It is unknown whether the concomitant use of inhaled glucocorticoids with LABAs mitigates those risks. This trial prospectively evaluated the safety of the LABA salmeterol, added to fluticasone propionate, in a fixed-dose comb...
The New England Journal of Medicine; Stein MM, Hrusch CL et. al.
Aug 15th, 2016 - The Amish and Hutterites are U.S. agricultural populations whose lifestyles are remarkably similar in many respects but whose farming practices, in particular, are distinct; the former follow traditional farming practices whereas the latter use industrialized farming practices. The populations also show striking disparities in the prevalence of asthma, and little is known about the immune respo...
JAMA Internal Medicine; Uranga A, España PP et. al.
Jul 27th, 2016 - The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been well established. To validate Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines for duration of antibiotic treatment in hospitalized patients with CAP. This study was a multicenter, noninferiority randomized clinical trial performed at 4 teaching hospitals in Spain from Jan...