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Prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in faecal samples

We present severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time RT-PCR results of all respiratory and faecal samples from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China, throughout the course of their illness and obligated quarantine period.

A retrospective cohort study of methylprednisolone therapy in severe patients with COVID-19 pneumonia

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in late December 2019, in Wuhan, China. There are over 1,800,000 confirmed cases worldwide.1 The pathological process of severe COVID-19 pneumonia is an inflammation reaction characterized by the destruction of the deep airway and alveolar.2 It is currently considered that lung injury is not only associated with the direct virus-induced da...

Dexamethasone treatment for the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

There is no proven specific pharmacological treatment for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of corticosteroids in ARDS remains controversial. We aimed to assess the effects of dexamethasone in ARDS, which might change pulmonary and systemic inflammation and result in a decrease in duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality.

Heparin therapy improving hypoxia in COVID-19 patients: a case series

Elevated D-dimer is a predictor of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients and heparin use during in-hospital stay has been associated with decreased mortality. COVID19 patient autopsies have revealed thrombi in the microvasculature, suggesting intravascular coagulation as a prominent feature of organ failure in these patients. Interestingly, in COVID19, pulmonary compliance is preserved ...

Update Alert: Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Coronavirus Infection in Health Care Workers

This is the first monthly update alert for a living review on the epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infections in health care workers (HCWs) (1). Searches were updated from 24 April 2020 to 24 May 2020, using the same search strategies as the original review, and we identified 1125 citations. Applying the same inclusion criteria, we identified 37 additional studies for this updat...

COVID-19 Risk Factors Among Health Workers: A Rapid Review

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) poses an important occupational health risk to health workers (HWs) that has attracted global scrutiny. To date, several thousand HWs globally have been reported as infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus that causes the disease. It is therefore a public health priority for policymakers to understand risk factors for this vulne...

Surgical Treatment of Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease

The treatment of motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially a trade-off between adequate relief of motor symptoms and prevention and control of motor complications, particularly levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Progression of PD is paralleled by a progressive difficulty in achieving the balance. Functional neurosurgical procedures provide sustained relief of LID in carefu...

Cerebellar Connectivity in Parkinson's Disease With Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia

The precise pathogenesis or neural correlates underlying levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) remains poorly understood. There is growing evidence of the involvement of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study evaluated the role of motor cerebellar connectivity in determining vulnerability to LID.

Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections

The seasonal cycle of respiratory viral diseases has been widely recognized for thousands of years, as annual epidemics of the common cold and influenza disease hit the human population like clockwork in the winter season in temperate regions. Moreover, epidemics caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 occur during ...

Dietary health and CVD: implications for dietary policy in England
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society;

CVD is a major burden on the health system in the UK. On average, diets are not aligned with current dietary recommendations, including those for salt, saturated fat, fibre, fruit and vegetables. Obesity prevalence is high and the majority of the population is consuming more energy than required. Addressing these issues would reduce the burden of CVD and help reduce inequalities in health. Ther...

Considerations for Obesity, Vitamin D, and Physical Activity Amid the COVID‐19 Pandemic

As the biomedical community races to disentangle the unknowns associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus responsible for causing coronavirus disease, the link between diminished immune function and individuals with obesity raises important questions about the possibility for greater viral pathogenicity in this population. Increased adiposity may undermine the pul...

An international physical activity and public health research agenda to inform COVID-19 policies and practices

Physical activity (PA) has strong relevance for limiting the harms to human health and well-being due to the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Active muscles produce chemicals that improve immune functioning, which in turn reduces the extent of infections, and decreases inflammation, and these are the main causes of the lung damage from SARS-CoV-2 infection. PA is a powerful preventive and therapeutic interv...

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Physical Activity

The SARS-CoV-2-caused COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a devastating threat to human society in terms of health, economy, and lifestyle. Although the virus usually first invades and infects the lung and respiratory track tissue, in extreme cases, almost all major organs in the body are now known to be negatively impacted often leading to severe systemic failure in some people. Unfortunately, t...

SARS-CoV-2 and Nervous System - Neurological Manifestations in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Coronavirus (CoV) is a virus infectious disease with a considerable spectrum of clinical presentations. Symptoms ranged from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia that may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and several clinical complications. Neurologic symptoms related to CoV have been described recently in the literature. The relationship between SARS-Co...

Potential neurological effects of severe COVID-19 infection

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large positive stranded enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause enteric and respiratory diseases in humans and in animals. Most human CoVs have recently attracted global attention to their lethal potential and great infectious capacity. A highly pathogenic CoV, called COVID-19 or SARS‐CoV2, dramatically emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. This new CoV has cause...

Pathophysiology of the COVID-19 – entry to the CNS through the nose

During the recent weeks, anosmia without nasal or other symptoms has been recognized as an alarming sign of early-stage COVID-19 [1]. This might indicate that SARS-CoV-2, when entering the body via the nose, may be neurotropic, have affinity for the olfactory epithelium and advance along the olfactory nerve into the CNS, causing early-stage CNS infection. This route is a known shortcut for infl...

Fulminant Cerebral Edema as a Lethal Manifestation of COVID-19

The contribution of neurological symptomatology to morbidity and mortality after infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus (SARS CoV II), is ill-defined. We hereby present a case of a 57-year old male patient, in excellent physical condition, who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), with respiratory distress duo to SARS CoV II-induced bilateral pneumonia....

Real-time assessment of COVID-19 prevalence among multiple sclerosis patients: a multicenter European study

We assessed the prevalence and impact of COVID-19 among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients across Europe by leveraging participant data collected as part of the ongoing EU IMI2 RADAR-CNS major programme aimed at finding new ways of monitoring neurological disorders using wearable devices and smartphone technology. In the present study, 399 patients of RADAR-MS have been included (mean age 43.9 ye...

Meningoencephalitis associated with COVID-19: A systematic review

With the growing number of COVID-19 cases in recent times, the varied range of presentations is progressively becoming an addressing issue among clinicians. A significant set of patients with extra pulmonary symptoms has been reported worldwide. Neurological involvement in the form of altered mental status, loss of consciousness in considerable amounts has drawn attention of physicians all a...

Early neurological manifestations of hospitalized COVID-19 patients

Neurological manifestations can occur during coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Several pathogenic mechanisms have been hypothesized, without conclusive results. In this study, we evaluated the most frequent neurological symptoms in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and also investigated the possible relationship between plasmatic inflammatory indices and olfactory disorders (ODs) and...