About 441,340 results
Working to Improve Immunotherapy for Lung Cancer
NIH.gov NIH Director

Feb 2nd, 2020 - For those who track cancer statistics, this year started off on a positive note with word that lung cancer deaths continue to decline in the United States [1]. While there’s plenty of credit to go around for that encouraging news—and continued reduction in smoking is a big factor—some of this progress likely can be ascribed to a type of immunotherapy, called PD-1 inhibitors. This revolutionary ...

Association Between Body Mass Index and Overall Survival With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy for Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
JAMA Oncology; Kichenadasse, et al

Dec 25th, 2019 - Is high body mass index associated with survival outcomes with atezolizumab therapy, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, in patients with non–small cell lung cancer?

Hair dye and chemical straightener use and breast cancer risk in a large US population of black and white women
International Journal of Cancer; Carolyn E. Eberle et al

Dec 4th, 2019 - Many hair products contain endocrine‐disrupting compounds and carcinogens potentially relevant to breast cancer. Products used predominately by black women may contain more hormonally‐active compounds. In a national prospective cohort study, we examined the association between hair dye and chemical relaxer/straightener use and breast cancer risk by ethnicity.

Immune Status and Associated Mortality After Cancer Treatment Among Individuals With HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era
JAMA Oncology; Calkins KL, et al

Dec 4th, 2019 - What is the association between cancer treatment and CD4 count and HIV RNA level, and how are these markers associated with all-cause mortality among people with HIV?

Hereditary Cancer Syndromes and Risk Assessment ACOG COMMITTEE OPINION, Number 793
Obstetrics & Gynecology; ACOG

Nov 30th, 2019 - A hereditary cancer syndrome is a genetic predisposition to certain types of cancer, often with onset at an early age, caused by inherited pathogenic variants in one or more genes. Most hereditary cancer syndromes exhibit autosomal dominant inheritance. The most common hereditary cancer syndromes related to women’s cancer include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, Li...

Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis: A Synopsis of the European Breast Guidelines
Annals of Internal Medicine; Holger J. Schünemann, et al

Nov 30th, 2019 - This synopsis of the European Breast Guidelines provides recommendations regarding organized screening programs for women aged 40 to 75 years who are at average risk. The recommendations address digital mammography screening and the addition of hand-held ultrasonography, automated breast ultrasonography, or magnetic resonance imaging compared with mammography alone. The recommendations also dis...

Anticoagulation-Related Major Bleeding in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation
Circulation Adam J. Nelson et al

Nov 30th, 2019 - Antithrombotic therapy for cardiovascular disease revolves around balancing 2 key outcomes—reducing ischemic events without increasing bleeding. There has been a subtle but progressive shift away from a dominant focus on reducing ischemic events to a more balanced and explicit interest in avoiding bleeding. Bleeding is common and, in part, an expected result of the increased use of anticoagulan...

Association of Testosterone Therapy With Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Among Men With and Without Hypogonadism
JAMA Internal Medicine; Rob F. Walker, et al

Nov 30th, 2019 - Testosterone therapy is increasingly prescribed in patients without a diagnosis of hypogonadism. This therapy may be associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) through several mechanisms, including elevated hematocrit levels, which increase blood viscosity.

Quantitative Blood Loss in Obstetric Hemorrhage - ACOG COMMITTEE OPINION, Number 794
Obstetrics & Gynecology;

Nov 30th, 2019 - Postpartum hemorrhage causes approximately 11% of maternal deaths in the United States and is the leading cause of death that occurs on the day of birth. Importantly, 54–93% of maternal deaths due to obstetric hemorrhage may be preventable. Studies that have evaluated factors associated with identification and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage have found that imprecise health care provider est...

Some melanomas may start in hair follicles

Nov 30th, 2019 - A rare form of skin cancer may sometimes start with cancer-causing mutations in hair follicle stem cells. A better understanding of how melanoma arises may lead to ways to detect and treat the disease earlier.

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer, Version 1.2020
JNCCN Ettinger DS, et al

Nov 30th, 2019 - The NCCN Guidelines for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) address all aspects of management for NSCLC. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates in immunotherapy. For the 2020 update, all of the systemic therapy regimens have been categorized using a new preference stratification system; certain regimens are now recommended as “preferred interventions,” whereas others are categori...

Testicular Cancer, Version 2.2020, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology
JNCCN Gilligan T, et al

Nov 30th, 2019 - Testicular cancer is relatively uncommon and accounts for <1% of all male tumors. However, it is the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years, and the global incidence has been steadily rising over the past several decades. Several risk factors for testicular cancer have been identified, including personal or family history of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism. Test...

Pelvic Organ Prolapse ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 214
Obstetrics & Gynecology;

Nov 29th, 2019 - Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common, benign condition in women. For many women it can cause vaginal bulge and pressure, voiding dysfunction, defecatory dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction, which may adversely affect quality of life. Women in the United States have a 13% lifetime risk of undergoing surgery for POP (1). Although POP can occur in younger women, the peak incidence of POP sympto...

Supplemental MRI Screening for Women with Extremely Dense Breast Tissue
NEJM Bakker MF, et al

Nov 27th, 2019 - Extremely dense breast tissue is a risk factor for breast cancer and limits the detection of cancer with mammography. Data are needed on the use of supplemental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to improve early detection and reduce interval breast cancers in such patients.

Sequential Ipilimumab After Chemoradiotherapy in Curative-Intent Treatment of Patients With Node-Positive Cervical Cancer
JAMA Oncology; Mayadev JS, et al

Nov 26th, 2019 - Is immunotherapy after chemoradiotherapy in node-positive cervical cancer tolerable?

Clinical Implications of the New York Heart Association Classification
Journal of the American Heart Association; Caraballo C, et al

Nov 26th, 2019 - The New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification has served as a fundamental tool for risk stratification of heart failure (HF) and determines clinical trial eligibility and candidacy for drugs and devices. However, its ability to adequately stratify risk is unclear.

Association Between Marijuana Use and Risk of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA Network Open; Ghasemiesfe M, et al

Nov 26th, 2019 - What is the association between marijuana use and cancer development in adults with at least 1 joint-year exposure (equivalent to 1 joint per day for 1 year)?

Fasting Triglycerides & Glucose Index: A Useful Screening Test for Assessing Insulin Resistance in Patients Diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis & Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome; Contreras-Haro B, et al

Nov 26th, 2019 - Insulin resistance (IR) is frequently observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In clinical practice, IR assessment is limited to a low proportion of patients due to cost and equipment and technical expertise requirements. The surrogate index of triglycerides and glucose (TyG index) has been validated in non-rheumatic populations, showing adequat...

Searching for Atrial Fibrillation Poststroke: A White Paper of the AF-SCREEN International Collaboration
Circulation Schnabel RB, et al

Nov 25th, 2019 - Cardiac thromboembolism attributed to atrial fibrillation (AF) is responsible for up to one-third of ischemic strokes. Stroke may be the first manifestation of previously undetected AF. Given the efficacy of oral anticoagulants in preventing AF-related ischemic strokes, strategies of searching for AF after a stroke using ECG monitoring followed by oral anticoagulation (OAC) treatment have been ...

A Population-based Study of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk in US Cancer Patients
European Heart Journal; Sturgeon KM, et al

Nov 24th, 2019 - This observational study characterized cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk for multiple cancer sites, with respect to the following: (i) continuous calendar year, (ii) age at diagnosis, and (iii) follow-up time after diagnosis.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus — Another Emergent Arbovirus in the United States
New England Journal of Medicine; David M. Morens, M.D. et. al.

Nov 24th, 2019 - Humans have always lived in intimate association with arthropods that transmit pathogens between humans or from animals to humans. About 700,000 deaths due to vectorborne diseases occur globally each year, according to World Health Organization estimates. In the summer and fall of 2019, nine U.S. states have reported 36 human cases (14 of them fatal) of one of the deadliest of these diseases: e...

Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. An Official ATS/CDC/ERS/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Payam Nahid et al

Nov 20th, 2019 - The American Thoracic Society, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Respiratory Society, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored this new practice guideline on the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). The document includes recommendations on the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) as well as isoniazid-resistant but rifampin-suscept...

The Management of Stroke Rehabilitation: A Synopsis of the 2019 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and U.S. Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline
Annals of Internal Medicine; James Sall, et al

Nov 20th, 2019 - In June 2019, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) approved an update of the joint clinical practice guideline for rehabilitation after stroke. This synopsis summarizes the key recommendations from this guideline.

Recent Trends in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus Incidence & Mortality in the United States, 2001-2015
J National Cancer Institute; Deshmukh AA, et al

Nov 18th, 2019 - Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) incidence is rising in the United States (US). Study of incidence trends by stage at diagnosis, age-specific and birth cohort patterns, and trends in mortality could provide evidence for a true increase and etiological clues for this rise.

New Clinical Trial Aims to Reduce Malnutrition Among Patients with Lung Cancer
Cancer Network; Slater H

Nov 17th, 2019 - The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC-James), along with Tufts Medical Center, Fox Chase Cancer Center, and MD Anderson Cancer Center, announced a new clinical trial aiming to reduce malnutrition among patients with lung cancer by offering nutritional counseling and medically tailored meals to patie...

Update on the Management of Constipation

Nov 16th, 2019 - Chronic constipation is very common. The most recent estimate of clinician visits attributable to constipation were from 2001 to 2004 and reported more than 8 million clinician visits in the United States, with most occurring in adult primary care settings (33%) followed by pediatric (21%) and gastroenterologist (14%) offices.1 These encounters result in large expenditures for nonprescription l...

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment
American Family Physician; Selph SS et al

Nov 16th, 2019 - he prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in adolescents 12 years and older should be conducted annually using a validated instrument, such as the Patient Health Que...

2019 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations: Summary From the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; P...
Circulation Soar J et al

Nov 16th, 2019 - The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed, published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the third annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. It addresses the m...

2019 American Heart Association Focused Update on Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support: Use of Advanced Airways, Vasopressors, and Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation During Cardiac Arrest...
Circulation Panchal AR et al

Nov 16th, 2019 - The fundamentals of cardiac resuscitation include the immediate provision of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation combined with rapid defibrillation (as appropriate). These mainstays of therapy set the groundwork for other possible interventions such as medications, advanced airways, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and post–cardiac arrest care, including targeted temperature...

Efficacy and Safety of Low-Dose Colchicine after Myocardial Infarction
New England Journal of Medicine; Tardif JC et al

Nov 16th, 2019 - Experimental and clinical evidence support the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis and its complications. Colchicine is an orally administered, potent antiinflammatory medication that is indicated for the treatment of gout and pericarditis.

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: Recommendation Statement

Nov 16th, 2019 - Summary of Recommendation and Evidence The USPSTF recommends that clinicians offer preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with effective antiretroviral therapy to persons who are at high risk of HIV acquisition (Table 1). A recommendation.

Subclinical and Device-Detected Atrial Fibrillation: Pondering the Knowledge Gap: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
Circulation Peter A. Noseworthy, et al.

Nov 14th, 2019 - The widespread use of cardiac implantable electronic devices and wearable monitors has led to the detection of subclinical atrial fibrillation in a substantial proportion of patients. There is evidence that these asymptomatic arrhythmias are associated with increased risk of stroke. Thus, detection of subclinical atrial fibrillation may offer an opportunity to reduce stroke risk by initiating a...

Biggest Threats and Data 2019 AR Threats Report CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019

Nov 14th, 2019 - CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (2019 AR Threats Report) includes the latest national death and infection estimates that underscore the continued threat of antibiotic resistance in the U.S. According to the report, more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the U.S. each year, and more than 35,000 people die as a result. In addition, 223,900...

Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in HIV Controller & Long‐term Nonprogressor Populations
HIV Medicine; Brusca RM, et al

Nov 13th, 2019 - Elite controllers (ECs), viraemic controllers (VCs), and long‐term nonprogressors (LTNPs) control HIV viral replication or maintain CD4 T‐cell counts without antiretroviral therapy, but may have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared to HIV‐uninfected persons. We evaluated subclinical carotid and coronary atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarker levels among HIV controllers, LTN...

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma
Cancer Therapy Advisor; Thomas M. Habermann

Nov 13th, 2019 - Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive lymphoma that is potentially curable. DLBCL is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) representing about 30% of all cases of NHL in the United States of America (USA) and Europe. There are over 76 different types of lymphoma. It is essential to establish the correct histological diagnosis prior to treatment.

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Kidney Cancer, Version 2.2020
JNCCN Motzer RJ, et al.

Nov 13th, 2019 - The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with clear cell and non–clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel discussions for the 2020 update to the guidelines regarding initial management and first-lin...

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines
Annals of Oncology; Tilly H et al

Nov 13th, 2019 - Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is relatively common and represents 30%–58% of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The updated ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines provide information on the current management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma including recommendations for screening and diagnosis, staging and risk assessment and stage-matched therapeutic strategies including specific recommendations for young a...

Risk-Adapted Starting Age of Screening for Relatives of Patients With Breast Cancer
JAMA Oncology; Mukama T, et al

Nov 13th, 2019 - At what age should women with differing family histories of breast cancer start screening?

Association Between Recreational Marijuana Legalization in the United States and Changes in Marijuana Use and Cannabis Use Disorder From 2008 to 2016
JAMA Psychiatry; Cerda M, et al

Nov 12th, 2019 - This study’s findings suggest that possible increases in the risk for cannabis use disorder among adolescent users and increases in frequent use and cannabis use disorder among adults after legalization of recreational marijuana use may raise public health concerns and warrant ongoing study.

2019 AHA/ACC Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Adults With High Blood Pressure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes; Casey E, et al.

Nov 12th, 2019 - In 2018, the Task Force convened the writing committee to begin the process of revising the existing performance measures set for hypertension that had been released in 2011.3 The writing committee also was charged with the task of developing new measures to evaluate the care of patients in accordance with the 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines.4 The writing committee developed a...

Is There a Difference in Breast Cancer Recurrence Rates After Surgery With Regional vs General Anesthesia?
ASCO Post; Stenger M

Nov 11th, 2019 - In a trial reported in The Lancet, Sessler et al found no difference in breast cancer recurrence after surgery with regional anesthesia-analgesia using paravertebral block and propofol vs general anesthesia with the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane and opioid analgesia. They also found no difference in persistent incisional pain between approaches.

Short-Term Survival in Patients Aged 85 Years and Older After Colorectal Cancer Surgery
ASCO Post;

Nov 11th, 2019 - Results from a preliminary research study showed the majority of patients aged 85 years and older were still alive in the short-term after undergoing segmental colectomy for stage II and III colon cancer. Kaur et al presented these findings at the American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress 2019.

Can We Use Structural Knowledge to Design a Protective Vaccine Against HIV‐1?
HLA Bjorkman PJ

Nov 11th, 2019 - HIV/AIDS remains one of the most important current threats to global public health. Since its identification in the early 1980s, at least 75 million people have been infected with HIV‐1, the virus that causes AIDS. Although anti‐retroviral drugs are effective at prolonging life after infection in the developed world, they are associated with significant side effects and are not in widespread us...

Addition of Durvalumab to Etoposide Plus Platinum Chemotherapy for Extensive-Stage SCLC
ASCO Post;

Nov 10th, 2019 - This week, we’ll review an interim analysis of the CASPIAN trial, which evaluated the addition of durvalumab to etoposide plus platinum chemotherapy for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. Then, we’ll talk about two recently issued guidelines on screening for colorectal cancer. Lastly, we’ll summarize some recent FDA approvals and announcements.

Commonly Abused Drugs Charts

Nov 9th, 2019 - Many misused drugs can alter a person’s thinking and judgment, leading to health risks, including addiction, drugged driving and infectious disease. Most drugs could potentially harm an unborn baby; pregnancy-related issues are listed in the chart below for drugs where there is enough scientific evidence to connect the drug use to specific negative effects. Commonly Abused Drugs.

Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology; Davies C, et al

Nov 7th, 2019 - Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are heterogeneous and often debilitating conditions that contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. The introduction of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in the 1950s revolutionised the treatment of psychotic disorders and they remain the mainstay of our treatment arsenal for psychosis. However, traditional antipsychotics are associated wi...

High-protein Diet is Bad for Kidney Health: Unleashing the Taboo
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation; Kalantar-Zadeh K, et al

Nov 6th, 2019 - How often have you been told to eat more protein and less carbohydrates to stay healthy? This is not an emerging food culture but rather a prevailing dogma in our society. Physicians, dietitians and other health care professionals tell us constantly about the advantages of a high-protein diet (HPD), such as losing weight rapidly, burning calories, diminishing appetite, preventing obesity, manag...

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
Lymphoma Research Foundation;

Nov 6th, 2019 - Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the United States and worldwide, accounting for about 22 percent of newly diagnosed cases of B-cell NHL in the United States. More than 18,000 people are diagnosed with DLBCL each year.

Publication Rate and Characteristics of Lung Cancer Clinical Trials
JAMA Network Open; Al-Shbool G, et al

Nov 5th, 2019 - Clinical trials play a crucial role in shaping the practice of medicine. Nonreporting of clinical trial results affects the validity of the literature and can negatively affect patient care. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and worldwide. Studies assessing reporting of clinical trial results in thoracic oncology are lacking. We sought to investig...