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Immunity passports to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic: controversies and public hea...
https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdaa125
Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England); Liew CH, Flaherty GT

Aug 4th, 2020 - As countries emerge from pandemic lockdown, many countries are relaxing international travel restrictions. Commercially available serologic tests for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are being performed. The concept of an 'immunity passport' has gained popularity, whereby evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody production would signal immunity to reinfection. For an immunity certificate to be validated for t...

Is Pregnancy an Immunological Contributor to Severe or Controlled COVID-19 Disease?
https://doi.org/10.1111/aji.13317
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989); Hanna N, Hanna M et. al.

Aug 4th, 2020 - Since its emergence in Wuhan as a novel coronavirus disease, it has taken only a few months since January 2020 for it to be recognized as a wide spread COVID-19 pandemic which has contributed to global health devastation. As pointed out by health experts, it is a once in a century pandemic of our times. Clinical observations so far indicate that the older population and immune compromised indiv...

Abnormal immunity of non-survivors with COVID-19: predictors for mortality.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396941
Infectious Diseases of Poverty; Zhao Y, Nie HX et. al.

Aug 4th, 2020 - The number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has rapidly increased all over the world. Specific information about immunity in non-survivors with COVID-19 is scarce. This study aimed to analyse the clinical characteristics and abnormal immunity of the confirmed COVID-19 non-survivors. In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 125 patients with COVID-19 w...

A cytokine super cyclone in COVID-19 patients with risk factors: the therapeutic potent...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328575
Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews; Johnson BS, Laloraya M

Aug 4th, 2020 - The seventh human coronavirus SARS-CoV2 belongs to the cluster of extremely pathogenic coronaviruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which can cause fatal lower respiratory tract infection. Likewise, SARS-CoV2 infection can be fatal as the disease advances to pneumonia, followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The development of lethal clinical symptons is associated with an exa...

Considerations in treating patients with advance lung cancer during the epidemic outbre...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396726
Medical Oncology (Northwood, London, England); Cai Y, Xu Y et. al.

Aug 4th, 2020 - The outbreak of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 quickly escalated into a global health emergency. Since its outbreak until the 29th of April 2020, the pandemic has affected more than 3 million of people and caused 207,973 deaths globally. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the β-coronavirus genus of the Coronavirus family, and it shares the same subfami...

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes First Tests that Estimate a Patient’s Antibodies from Past SARS-CoV-2 Infection | FDA
https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-first-tests-estimate-patients-antibodies-past-sars-cov-2

Aug 4th, 2020 - For Immediate Release: July 31, 2020 Español Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized the first two COVID-19 serology tests that display an estimated quantity of antibodies present in the individual’s blood. Both tests from Siemens, the ADVIA Centaur COV2G and Atellica IM COV2G, are what are known as “semi-quantitative” tests, meaning that they do not display a precise measuremen...

COVID-19 associated coagulopathy and inflammatory response: what do we know already and...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7389937
Anesthesia and Analgesia; Görlinger K, Dirkmann D et. al.

Aug 2nd, 2020 - Patients with COVID-19 frequently experience a coagulopathy associated with a high incidence of thrombotic events leading to poor outcomes. Here, biomarkers of coagulation (such as D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelet count), inflammation (such as interleukin-6) and immunity (such as lymphocyte count) as well as clinical scoring systems (such as SOFA, ISTH DIC and SIC score) can be helpful in predicti...

The African-American population with a low allele frequency of SNP rs1990760 (T allele)...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394703
Immunogenetics Maiti AK

Aug 1st, 2020 - Covid-19 has caused worldwide devastation. IFIH1 is a pattern recognition receptor that senses coronavirus RNA and triggers interferon production as a first line of viral immune defense. The role of IFIH1 polymorphism, rs1990760 (C>T; aaA946T) in the epidemiology of viral infection is well studied, and the minor allele T resists viral infection. Knock-in mice with mutated IFIH1 protein (946T) f...

Masks Do More Than Protect Others During COVID-19: Reducing the Inoculum of SARS-CoV-2 ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393808
Journal of General Internal Medicine; Gandhi M, Beyrer C et. al.

Aug 1st, 2020 - Although the benefit of population-level public facial masking to protect others during the COVID-19 pandemic has received a great deal of attention, we discuss for one of the first times the hypothesis that universal masking reduces the "inoculum" or dose of the virus for the mask-wearer, leading to more mild and asymptomatic infection manifestations. Masks, depending on type, filter out the m...

Activation and evasion of type I interferon responses by SARS-CoV-2.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17665-9
Nature Communications; Lei X, Dong X et. al.

Jul 31st, 2020 - The pandemic of COVID-19 has posed an unprecedented threat to global public health. However, the interplay between the viral pathogen of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and host innate immunity is poorly understood. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 induces overt but delayed type-I interferon (IFN) responses. By screening 23 viral proteins, we find that SARS-CoV-2 NSP1, NSP3, NSP12, NSP13, NSP14, ORF3, ORF6 a...

MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Vitamin D and COVID-19.
https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-0665
European Journal of Endocrinology; Bilezikian JP, Bikle D et. al.

Jul 31st, 2020 - The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has generated an explosion of interest both in the mechanisms of infection leading to dissemination and expression of this disease, and in potential risk factors that may have a mechanistic basis for disease propagation or control. Vitamin D has emerged as a factor that may be involved in these two areas. The focus of this article is to...

SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients: humoral versus cell-mediated immunity.
https://doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-000862
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer; Wei J, Zhao J et. al.

Jul 30th, 2020 - The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic placed unprecedented pressure on various healthcare systems, including departments that use immunotherapies such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and immunosuppression therapy in organ transplantation units. The true impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on immunocompromised CAR T-cell t...

Impact of lockdown on COVID-19 epidemic in Île-de-France and possible exit strategies.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391016
BMC Medicine; Di Domenico L, Pullano G et. al.

Jul 30th, 2020 - More than half of the global population is under strict forms of social distancing. Estimating the expected impact of lockdown and exit strategies is critical to inform decision makers on the management of the COVID-19 health crisis. We use a stochastic age-structured transmission model integrating data on age profile and social contacts in Île-de-France to (i) assess the epidemic in the region...

Papain-like protease regulates SARS-CoV-2 viral spread and innate immunity.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2601-5
Nature Shin D, Mukherjee R et. al.

Jul 29th, 2020 - The papain-like protease PLpro is an essential coronavirus enzyme required for processing viral polyproteins to generate a functional replicase complex and enable viral spread1,2. PLpro is also implicated in cleaving proteinaceous post-translational modifications on host proteins as an evasion mechanism against host anti-viral immune responses3-5. Here, we provide biochemical, structural and fu...

A vaccine targeting the RBD of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces protective immunity.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2599-8
Nature Yang J, Wang W et. al.

Jul 29th, 2020 - The novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory illness called COVID-19 leading to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As the most critical step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses its Spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) to engage with the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)1,2. Here we showed that a recombinant ...

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) and Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs):...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366221
Mediators of Inflammation; Cicco S, Cicco G et. al.

Jul 29th, 2020 - COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that mostly affects the respiratory system. The consequent inflammation is not able to clear viruses. The persistent excessive inflammatory response can build up a clinical picture that is very difficult to manage and potentially fatal. Modulating the immune response plays a key role in fighting the disease. One of the main...

Clinical characteristics of 31 hemodialysis patients with 2019 novel coronavirus: a ret...
https://doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2020.1796705
Renal Failure; Zhang J, Cao F et. al.

Jul 29th, 2020 - Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has become pandemic. It brings serious threat to hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, we carried out a study on the clinical characteristics of HD patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 31 HD patients with COVID-19. The clinical features of patients include epidemiology, clinical symptoms, laboratory and imaging test, treatment a...

Rapid Screening Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assays Using Z-Scores to Standardize Results.
https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2610.202632
Emerging Infectious Diseases; Das MK, Chaudhary A et. al.

Jul 28th, 2020 - Many serologic tests are now available for measuring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies to evaluate potential protective immunity and for seroprevalence studies. We describe an approach to standardizing positivity thresholds and quantitative values for different assays that uses z-scores to enable rapid and efficient comparison of serologic test performance.

The antiviral protein viperin interacts with the viral N protein to inhibit proliferati...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382991
Archives of Virology; Wu J, Chi H et. al.

Jul 28th, 2020 - In the early stage of virus infection, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathway of the host cell is activated to induce interferon production, activating interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that encode antiviral proteins that exert antiviral effects. Viperin is one of the innate antiviral proteins that exert broad-spectrum antiviral effects by various mechanisms. Porcine epidemic...

Lessons for COVID-19 Immunity from Other Coronavirus Infections.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359787
Immunity Sariol A, Perlman S

Jul 27th, 2020 - A key goal to controlling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is developing an effective vaccine. Development of a vaccine requires knowledge of what constitutes a protective immune response and also features that might be pathogenic. Protective and pathogenic aspects of the response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not well understood, partly because the viru...