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Vaccines That Reduce Viral Shedding Do Not Prevent Transmission of H1N1 Pandemic 2009 S...
https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01787-20
Journal of Virology; Everett HE, van Diemen PM et. al.

Dec 3rd, 2020 - Swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infection causes substantial economic loss and disease burden in humans and animals. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza A virus is now endemic in both populations. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of different vaccines in reducing nasal shedding in pigs following pH1N1 virus challenge. We also assessed transmission from immunized and challenged to na...

Comparison of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, H7N9 and H1N1.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00781-5
Infectious Diseases of Poverty; Deng LS, Yuan J et. al.

Dec 2nd, 2020 - There is an urgent need to better understand the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), for that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. This paper was to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases such as avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) viru...

COVID-19 Infection: Data Gaps for Diagnostic Laboratory Preparedness and Tasks on Hand.
https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2020.0147
Viral Immunology; Biswas S, Ghosh P et. al.

Dec 2nd, 2020 - Emergence of the 2019 novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) and its spread, with life-threatening outcomes, have caused a pandemic burden worldwide. Studies of emerging diseases under outbreak conditions have focused on the complete spectrum of pathogens, transmissibility, shedding kinetics in relation to infectivity, epidemiological causes, and interv...

A multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and to...
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242763
PloS One; Chen CP, Lin YC et. al.

Dec 2nd, 2020 - In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) via a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a retrospective study. Subjects admitted to 11 designated public hospitals in Taiwan between April 1 and May 31, 2020, with COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed by pharyngeal real-time RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, were randomized at a 2:1 ratio and strat...

Dynamic changes in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovery ...
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19943-y
Nature Communications; Li K, Huang B et. al.

Nov 28th, 2020 - Deciphering the dynamic changes in antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is essential for understanding the immune response in COVID-19 patients. Here we analyze the laboratory findings of 1,850 patients to describe the dynamic changes of the total antibody, spike protein (S)-, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-, and nucleoprotein (N)-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) levels during SARS-CoV-2 inf...

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) superspreader events.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685932
The Journal of Infection; Majra D, Benson J et. al.

Nov 27th, 2020 - A significant number of reported COVID-19 cases can be traced back to superspreader events (SSEs), where a disproportionally large number of secondary cases relative to the standard reproductive rate, R0, are initiated. Although a superspreader is an individual who undergoes more viral shedding and transmission than others, it appears likely that environmental factors have a substantial role in...

Inference of Active Viral Replication in Cases with Sustained Positive RT-PCRs for SARS...
https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02277-20
Journal of Clinical Microbiology; Rodríguez-Grande C, Adán-Jiménez J et. al.

Nov 26th, 2020 - The purpose of this study was to detect COVID-19 cases with persistent positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2, for which viable virus can be inferred, due to the presence of subgenomic (SG) viral RNA, which is expressed only in replicating viruses. RNA remnants, purified from diagnostic nasopharyngeal specimens, were used as templates for RT-PCR specific detection of SG E gene RNA. As controls,...

Impact of age on duration of viral RNA shedding in patients with COVID-19.
https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.104114
Aging Zhou C, Zhang T et. al.

Nov 23rd, 2020 - The aim of this study was to investigate the host factors of patients with COVID-19 that were associated with delayed viral RNA clearance in specimens obtained from the upper respiratory tract. A median of a 32-day period of viral RNA shedding was observed, ranging from 4 days to 111 days. On multivariate analysis, elderly age was independently associated with prolonged viral shedding (OR = 1.0...

Characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cance...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680712
International Journal of Clinical Oncology; Nakamura S, Kanemasa Y et. al.

Nov 23rd, 2020 - Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an international outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), data on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with cancer are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes including mortality and viral shedding period in COVID-19 patients with cancer in Japan. We retr...

A case of extremely prolonged viral shedding: could cell cultures be a diagnostic tool ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679112
International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases; Mileto D, Foschi A et. al.

Nov 23rd, 2020 - This study addresses the case of a patient with prolonged viral shedding reported by Real-Time PCR, until 71 days from symptoms onset. However, viral culture got negative results after 30 days from symptoms onset. Viral culture may thus be a worthwhile test for patients discharge, in particular for those presenting prolonged viral shedding.

Clinical characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019...
https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26684
Journal of Medical Virology REFERENCES; Alsharrah D, Alhaddad F et. al.

Nov 21st, 2020 - Clinical presentation of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic to severe and life-threatening. National-level registries found that children, generally, have less severe disease when compared with adults. However, most asymptomatically infected children will not present to hospital and may be missed. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics in pediatric COVID-19 ...

Efficacy and Safety of Favipiravir, an Oral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Inhibitor, in ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668212
International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases; Udwadia ZF, Singh P et. al.

Nov 19th, 2020 - To assess efficacy and safety of favipiravir in adults with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. In this randomized, open-label, parallel-arm, multicenter, Phase 3 trial, adults (18-75 years) with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and mild-to-moderate symptoms (including asymptomatic) were randomized 1:1 to oral favipiravir (Day 1: 1800 mg BID; Days 2-14: 800 mg BID) plus standard supportive care versus supporti...

Can a COVID-19 Vaccine Stop the Spread? Good Question.
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/941388

Nov 19th, 2020 - Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center. Scientists involved in oversight of the Operation Warp Speed COVID-19 vaccine trials are tempering excitement about efficacy, noting that the studies haven't shown yet whether the products can prevent transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. "We don't know if people can become infected and thus als...

Persistent viral shedding despite seroconversion in a kidney transplant recipient with ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654101
BMJ Case Reports; Italiano J, Bush R et. al.

Nov 10th, 2020 - Renal transplant (RT) recipients are at increased risk for infectious complications. The clinical course of COVID-19 has been described in several RT recipients with varying clinical outcomes. Most present with pulmonary manifestations, however extrapulmonary presentations are not uncommon. Also, the timing and efficacy of seroconversion in transplant recipients is not well known. This report d...

Effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on male sex-related hormones in recovering patients.
https://doi.org/10.1111/andr.12942
Andrology REFERENCES; Xu H, Wang Z et. al.

Nov 5th, 2020 - A novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causing the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may attack testes by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. To assess whether SARS-CoV-2 infection can affect sex-related hormones and testicular function in recovering patients. The patients were separately classified according to the duration of viral ...

Infection, screening, and psychological stress of health care workers with COVID-19 in ...
https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.428
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness; Wang G, Guan JL et. al.

Nov 4th, 2020 - To investigate risk factors and psychological stress of health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 in a non-frontline clinical department. Data of 2 source patients and all HCWs with infection risk were obtained in a department in Wuhan from January to February 2020. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate psychological stress of COVID-19 on HCWs. The overall infection rate was 4.8% in HCWs. 10 ...

"Impact of Corticosteroids in COVID-19 Outcomes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598533
Chest Cano EJ, Fuentes XF et. al.

Nov 1st, 2020 - Since its appearance in late 2019, infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have created unprecedented challenges for health systems worldwide. Multiple therapeutic options have been explored including corticosteroids (CS); preliminary results of CS in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are encouraging, however, the role of CS is still controversial. Wh...

Asymptomatic COVID-19 in hospital visitors: The underestimated potential of viral shedd...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592020
International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases; Passarelli VC, Faico-Filho K et. al.

Nov 1st, 2020 - In a single day, six of 150 (4%) asymptomatic visitors were diagnosed with COVID-19 at a hospital with a universal masking policy. Two inpatients (contacts) subsequently developed symptoms. More rigorous protective measures during visitation periods may need to be included in infection control practices to reduce nosocomial transmissions.

Comparison of antiviral effect for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 cases between lopinavir/ri...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590837
International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases; Choi MJ, Kang M et. al.

Oct 31st, 2020 - We aimed to compare the antiviral effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in patients with COVID-19. Nationwide retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare the effect of HCQ and LPV/r on viral shedding duration among patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 using the reimbursement data of National Health Insurance Service. After propensity score matching ...

Measuring the Serologic Response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: Me...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414299
Clinics in Laboratory Medicine; Pecora ND, Zand MS

Oct 30th, 2020 - The entire spectrum of diagnostic testing, from reagent supply to test performance, has been a major focus during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The hope for serologic testing is that it will provide both epidemiologic information about seroprevalence as well as individual information about previous infection. This information is particularly helpful for high-risk individuals...