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First weeks back to school: An uneasy transition
https://www.mdedge.com/pediatrics/article/257001/mental-health/first-weeks-back-school-uneasy-transition
Barbara J. Howard, MD

Aug 12th, 2022 - Parents are relieved when school starts up again in the fall. Kids also are eager to see their friends and go on to the next level of learning.

Several Cities in China Add COVID Curbs as Millions Still Under Lockdown
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979051

Aug 12th, 2022 - Reducing people's unnecessary movement for a few days - a softer type of lockdown - as soon as dozens of new cases emerge is a key practice of China's "dynamic COVID-zero" strategy. The aim is to avoid turning efforts to halt an outbreak into the extended nightmares seen in Shanghai and Wuhan. The uncertainty over how long such smaller lockdowns may last - because Omicron's high transmissibilit...

COVID-19 Reinfections
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2500144-overview

Aug 12th, 2022 - Practice Essentials The definition of COVID-19 reinfection has evolved since early 2021. Fundamentally, it describes an infected individual who has been fully vaccinated, with or without a booster or boosters, and who becomes infected with COVID-19 again. The CDC more precisely defines it as COVID-19 infection of a given person with 2 different viral strains occurring at least 45 days apart. Al...

COVID-19 Reinfections
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2500144-overview

Aug 12th, 2022 - Practice Essentials The definition of COVID-19 reinfection has evolved since early 2021. Fundamentally, it describes an infected individual who has been fully vaccinated, with or without a booster or boosters, and who becomes infected with COVID-19 again. The CDC more precisely defines it as COVID-19 infection of a given person with 2 different viral strains occurring at least 45 days apart. Al...

COVID-19 Reinfections
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2500144-print

Aug 12th, 2022 - The definition of COVID-19 reinfection has evolved since early 2021. Fundamentally, it describes an infected individual who has been fully vaccinated, with or without a booster or boosters, and who becomes infected with COVID-19 again. The CDC more precisely defines it as COVID-19 infection of a given person with 2 different viral strains occurring at least 45 days apart. Alternately, it may re...

Aspen COVID Vaccine Lines Risk Going Idle as J&J Orders Dwindle
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979035

Aug 11th, 2022 - JOHANNESBURG (Reuters) -South Africa's Aspen Pharmacare's COVID-19 vaccine production lines may soon go idle, and without any new orders it could be forced to pivot to manufacturing other products, a senior executive said on Wednesday. Aspen currently produces vaccines for Johnson & Johnson and, in March, it struck a deal to produce, price, and sell its own-brand version of the shot for African...

FDA Expands Home Testing Guidelines for COVID Exposures
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979100

Aug 11th, 2022 - Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center. It might be a good time to stock up on home COVID-19 tests. Today, the FDA issued new guidance on at-home COVID testing. It still recommends repeat testing after a negative result, but is also recommending that people who have no symptoms but think they have been exposed take three tests instead...

CDC Ends Some COVID Safety Rules, Emphasizes Personal Risk
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979109

Aug 11th, 2022 - Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center. The CDC today announced that because the risk of "medically significant" COVID-19 has decreased, some overall public health measures the agency initially recommended may no longer be necessary. For example, CDC recommendations on social distancing, quarantining and testing children for COVID-19 ...

CDC Says More Is Needed to Protect Infants From Hepatitis B
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979110

Aug 11th, 2022 - Progress has occurred in reducing maternal-to-child transmission of hepatitis B but is still lagging, particularly in Africa, according to a recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV). By December 2020, 190 (98%) of 194 World Health Organization (WHO) member states had introduced universal infant va...

Study: Long COVID Patients Have Immune System Differences
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979097

Aug 11th, 2022 - Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center. Using immune profiling, a small but intense study found that people with long COVID have increased antibody responses to other non-COVID viruses, like Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), as well as significantly lowered cortisol levels compared with people without long COVID. The study — which is still a ...

Latest on the Worldwide Spread of the Coronavirus
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979063

Aug 11th, 2022 - (Reuters) - North Korea's Kim Jong Un declared victory in the battle against COVID-19 on Thursday, with the leader's sister indicating that he too caught the virus while vowing "deadly retaliation" against South Korea which the North blames for causing the outbreak. DEATHS AND INFECTIONS Eikon users, click on COVID-19: MacroVitals for a case tracker and summary of news. cpurl://apps.cp./cms/?na...

German Officials Resist Call to End Quarantine Requirement
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979070

Aug 11th, 2022 - During the surge in coronavirus infections this summer, the chief executive of the German National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KBV), Andreas Gassen, MD, called for the isolation and quarantine requirement to be lifted for people infected with the coronavirus. "We cannot hide from the virus forever. We have to return to normality. If you are ill, stay at home. If you fe...

Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease Soared With COVID-19
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979054

Aug 11th, 2022 - Alcohol abuse and the liver disease that results from it both accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic, a review of the research shows. The emotional stress and social isolation of the pandemic combined with reduced access to mental health services worsened trends in alcohol-related disease, according to lead author Sasha Deutsch-Link, MD, a gastroenterology fellow at the University of North Ca...

Plasma Biomarkers Predict COVID Neurologic Complications
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979083

Aug 11th, 2022 - SAN DIEGO – Even after recovery of an acute COVID-19 infection, some patients experience extended or even long-term symptoms that can range from mild to debilitating. Some of these symptoms are neurological: headaches, brain fog, cognitive impairment, loss of taste or smell, and even cerebrovascular complications such stroke. There are even hints that COVID-19 infection could lead to future neu...

Large Study Confirms COVID Vaccines Safe for Pregnant Women
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979114

Aug 11th, 2022 - Pregnant women should feel confident that Pfizer's and Moderna's vaccines against COVID-19 are safe, according to a large new study published today. In fact, pregnant vaccinated women had lower odds of a significant health event, compared with nonpregnant vaccinated women, after both doses of either mRNA vaccination, the researchers reported in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases. This s...

Plasma biomarkers predict COVID’s neurological sequelae
https://www.mdedge.com/neurology/article/256960/covid-19-updates/plasma-biomarkers-predict-covids-neurological-sequelae
Jim Kling

Aug 10th, 2022 - SAN DIEGO – Even after recovery of an acute COVID-19 infection, some patients experience extended or even long-term symptoms that can range from mild to debilitating. Some of these symptoms are neurological: headaches, brain fog, cognitive impairment, loss of taste or smell, and even cerebrovascular complications such stroke.

In one state, pandemic tamped down lice and scabies cases
https://www.mdedge.com/dermatology/article/256939/infectious-diseases/one-state-pandemic-tamped-down-lice-and-scabies-cases
Heidi Splete

Aug 10th, 2022 - The incidence of lice and scabies decreased significantly among children and adults in North Carolina during the confinement period of the COVID-19 pandemic, between March 2020 and February 2021, according to a report in Pediatric Dermatology. When COVID-19 was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in March 2020, many countries including the United States enacted l.

Durability of Heterologous and Homologous COVID-19 Vaccine Boosts
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2794985?resultClick=3
JAMA Network Open; Tan CS, Collier AY et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines for COVID-19 have demonstrated outstanding short-term immunogenicity and protective efficacy.1,2 However, neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses have been reported to wane by 3 to 6 months after primary immunization.3-7 Following a third mRNA dose, Omicron-specific NAbs were induced,8-11 but these antibody responses and clinical effectiveness also declined after 3 t...

Will ‘Centaurus’ be the next global coronavirus variant? Indian cases offers clues
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-02154-4
Nature Callaway E.

Aug 10th, 2022 - As countries await the end of COVID-19 surges caused by the variant BA.5, researchers are on the lookout for what will come next. An Omicron subvariant called BA.2.75 — and nicknamed ‘Centaurus’ by some on social media — is rising fast in India. A few scientists are sounding the alarm, whereas others say it’s too early to tell whether the variant will spread widely. In India, it doesn’t yet ...

Climate Change Puts Lyme Disease in Focus for France's Valneva After COVID Blow
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/978788

Aug 10th, 2022 - LONDON (Reuters) - With climate change spurring more cases of tick-borne Lyme disease, drugmaker Valneva is betting big on a vaccine as it looks beyond disappointing sales of its COVID shot. Although Valneva secured European Union and British regulatory approval, both walked away from contracts worth more than a billion dollars combined, wiping nearly 40% off the value of Valneva's share price ...

EU Regulator Begins Review of Pfizer-BioNTech's Variant-Adapted COVID Shot
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/978901

Aug 10th, 2022 - LONDON (Reuters) -The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has started a rolling review of a variant-adapted COVID-19 vaccine from Pfizer and BioNTech, it said on Tuesday. The so-called bivalent vaccine targets two strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus behind COVID - the original strain first identified in China, and the Omicron offshoots BA.4/5 that are currently behind most cases in Europe. A rolling re...

China Races to Contain COVID Outbreaks in Tourism Hubs Tibet, Hainan
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/978902

Aug 10th, 2022 - SHANGHAI/BEIJING (Reuters) -China raced on Tuesday to stamp out COVID-19 outbreaks in the tourist hubs of Tibet and Hainan, with the authorities launching more rounds of mass testing and closing venues to contain the highly transmissible Omicron variant. Mainland China reported 828 new domestically transmitted cases across more than a dozen provinces and regions for Aug. 8, with over half of th...

Children and COVID: Severe Illness Rising as Vaccination Effort Stalls
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979011

Aug 10th, 2022 - Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center. New cases of COVID-19 rose among children for the fourth consecutive week, but the size of the increase declined for the second consecutive week, based on data from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Children's Hospital Association. After new child cases jumped by 22% during the week of ...

Pandemic Tamped Down Lice and Scabies Cases in North Carolina, Study Finds
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979022

Aug 10th, 2022 - The incidence of lice and scabies decreased significantly among children and adults in North Carolina during the confinement period of the COVID-19 pandemic, between March 2020 and February 2021, according to a report in Pediatric Dermatology. When COVID-19 was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in March 2020, many countries including the United States enacted l...

COVID vs Monkeypox: A Tale of Two Pandemics
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/978655

Aug 10th, 2022 - Welcome to Impact Factor, your weekly dose of commentary on a new medical study. I'm Dr F. Perry Wilson of the Yale School of Medicine. Toward the end of 2019, we all took a crash course in virology and infectious disease epidemiology as we struggled with what was, for many of us, the first major pandemic of our lifetimes. We've learned a lot since then — we've upped our game when it comes to t...

Drugmaker Gilead to Help Fund Monkeypox Education for LGBTQ+ Groups
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/978913

Aug 10th, 2022 - (Reuters) - Drugmaker Gilead Sciences plans to announce on Tuesday that it will provide up to $5 million in grants to help a coalition of LGBTQ+ and human rights advocacy groups craft public health responses to monkeypox outbreaks, the company said. Outside of Africa, where the virus is endemic, new cases have largely occurred among gay and bisexual men. Experts warn that the virus could spread...

Physicians React: Mistakes and Successes in Building Wealth
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979000

Aug 10th, 2022 - 2021 was a transitional year, with physicians still reeling from the financial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Fortunately, physicians' average compensation rose and their financial prospects began to brighten, as noted in the Medscape Physician Wealth & Debt Report 2022. Respondents' comments in the survey and readers' comments on the results humanize the trends affecting physicians' family ...

Regular Fasting Linked to Less Severe COVID: Study
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979036

Aug 10th, 2022 - Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center. Intermittent fasting was not linked with a smaller chance of getting COVID-19, but it was linked with getting a less severe infection, according to the findings of a new study. The study was done on men and women in Utah who were, on average, in their 60s and got COVID before vaccines were avail...

Long COVID's Grip Will Likely Tighten as Infections Continue
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979040

Aug 10th, 2022 - COVID-19 is far from done in the United States, with more than 111,000 new cases being recorded a day in the second week of August, according to Johns Hopkins University, and 625 deaths being reported every day. And as that toll grows, experts are worried about a second wave of illnesses from long COVID, a condition that already has affected between 7.7 million and 23 million Americans, accordi...

Biden Now Has Cough, but Not COVID
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979038

Aug 10th, 2022 - Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center. President Joe Biden continues to test negative for COVID-19 but has a lingering effect of the virus, namely a cough. Biden coughed several times during a speech on the South Lawn of the White House on Tuesday, which made him stop a few times and turn his head or sip water, according to Reuters. ...

Effectiveness and Safety of Enoxaparin Versus Unfractionated Heparin as Thromboprophyla...
https://doi.org/10.1177/10600280221115299
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy; AlLehaibi LH, Alomar M et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients are at risk of thrombosis. Literature that compares the effectiveness of enoxaparin to unfractionated heparin (UFH) in COVID-19 patients is scarce. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of enoxaparin compared with UFH when used at their standard/intermediate dosing in COVID-19 patients. This was a retrospective study conducted at a large COVID-19...

Humoral responses after inactivated COVID-19 vaccination in individuals with and withou...
https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.28055
Journal of Medical Virology; Jia M, Wang X et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - We evaluated and compared humoral immune responses after inactivated COVID-19 vaccination among naïve individuals, asymptomatically infected individuals, and recovered patients with varying severity. In this multicenter, prospective cohort study, blood samples from 666 participants were collected before and after two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccination. Among 392 SARS-CoV-2-naïve individu...

Cervical ripening as an outpatient procedure in the pandemic - minimizing the inpatient...
https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2022-0196
Journal of Perinatal Medicine; Kummer J, Koenigbauer JT et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - With an increasing incidence of labor induction the socioeconomic costs are increasing and the burden on hospital capacities is rising. In addition, the worldwide SARS-CoV-2 pandemic asks for improvements in patient care during pregnancy and delivery while decreasing the patient-staff contact. Here, we are retrospectively analyzing and comparing a mechanical ripening device that is utilized as ...

Service Workers' Experience and Perceptions of Workplace Protective Measures During the...
https://doi.org/10.1177/21650799221101001
Workplace Health & Safety; Rosemberg MS, Adams M et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - The Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents a unique burden specifically for workers in service industries. However, limited research on service worker's experience during the onset of COVID-19 exists. We aimed to describe the experiences and concerns of service industry workers during the pandemic's onset. This is a mixed-method study. Participants were recruited through social media and...

Frequency of Abnormally Low Neuropsychological Scores in Post-COVID-19 Syndrome: the Ge...
https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acac068
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology : the Official Journ... Voruz P, Jacot de Alcântara I et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - Several studies have reported poor long-term neuropsychological performances in patients following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but none has yet considered the effect of administering multiple intercorrelated neuropsychological tests and assessed the frequency of cognitive deficits in a normative population. Our aim was therefore to assess the presence...

Update on Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.
https://doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000974
Current Opinion in Critical Care; Tabah A, Laupland KB

Aug 10th, 2022 - To review recently published evidence relevant to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen causing co-infections and superinfections in patients with COVID-19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia ratios have sharply risen during the pandemic. SAB mortality is 18% at 1 month and 27% at 3 months but has gradually decreased...

D-dimer Thresholds to Exclude Pulmonary Embolism among COVID-19 Patients in the Emergen...
https://doi.org/10.1177/10760296221117997
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis : Official Jou... Bledsoe JR, Knox D et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - To derive and validate a D-dimer cutoff for ruling out pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). A retrospective cohort study was performed in an integrated healthcare system including 22 adult ED's between March 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021. Results were validated among patients enrolled in the RECOVER Registry, representing data from 154 ED's f...

Solid organ transplantation from COVID positive donors in the United States: Analysis o...
https://doi.org/10.1111/tid.13925
Transplant Infectious Disease : an Official Journal of Th... Dhand A, Okumura K et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - Significant uncertainties remain regarding the utilization of organs for solid organ transplantation (SOT) from donors with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to assess the trends in utilization of organs from donors with COVID-19 and their short-term outcomes. Deceased donors between March 2020 and December 2021 with a positive COVID nucleic acid test from respirato...

Delayed urologic cancer care in the COVID-19 pandemic: Patients' experiences.
https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13677
European Journal of Cancer Care; Glick H, Sarin A et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - To understand experiences of patients with genitourinary cancer who experienced delayed cancer care due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a mixed methods study with an explanatory sequential design. Qualitative findings are reported here. Patients with muscle invasive bladder, advanced prostate or kidney cancer were eligible. Participants were selected for interviews if they self-reported ...

A Framework for Pediatric Health Care Providers to Promote Active Play in Nature for Ch...
https://doi.org/10.1177/21501319221114842
Journal of Primary Care & Community Health; Tandon PS, Hafferty K et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - Time outdoors and contact with nature are positively associated with a broad range of children's health outcomes. Pediatricians are uniquely positioned to promote active play in nature (APN) but may face challenges to do so during well child visits. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to children's APN, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and how health care providers co...

Lulled into a false sense of security: Mortality for vulnerable populations may remain ...
https://doi.org/10.1002/jhm.12934
Journal of Hospital Medicine; Sata SS, Greysen SR

Aug 10th, 2022 - Lulled into a false sense of security: Mortality for vulnerable populations may remain elevated even during the lull between COVID-19 waves.|2022|Sata SS,Greysen SR,|

Stay alert about coagulation parameters - implications of thrombosis treatment in COVID...
https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000003264
Journal of Hypertension;

Aug 10th, 2022 - Stay alert about coagulation parameters - implications of thrombosis treatment in COVID-19: Erratum.|2022||

Implementing telepsychiatry in an early psychosis service during COVID-19: Experiences ...
https://doi.org/10.1111/eip.13342
Early Intervention in Psychiatry; Randall LA, Raisin C et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our early psychosis program rapidly transitioned to telepsychiatry. This study examined the change in health service utilization and experiences of young people and clinicians in response to the implementation of telepsychiatry. Mixed methodology and triangulation of evidence drawn from health service databases and survey data. Using a retrospective observa...

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vaccine Boosters: An Influenza Vaccine ...
https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usac243
Military Medicine; Sayers DR

Aug 10th, 2022 - Changes to severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine guidance since their initial authorization may lead to confusion and hesitancy. Suggested recommendations for an annual SARS-CoV-2 vaccine naturally draw comparisons with the influenza vaccine program. Considering viral and vaccine characteristics between these pathogens provides an important perspective that can help increase ...

Palliative paramedicine: Comparing clinical practice through guideline quality appraisa...
https://doi.org/10.1177/02692163221110419
Palliative Medicine; Juhrmann ML, Anderson NE et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - Palliative care is an emerging scope of practice for paramedicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the opportunity for emergency settings to deliver palliative and end-of-life care to patients wishing to avoid intensive life-sustaining treatment. However, a gap remains in understanding the scope and limitations of current ambulance services' approach to palliative and end-of-life care. To...

Telemedicine for Children With Medical Complexity During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implica...
https://doi.org/10.1177/00099228221116707
Clinical Pediatrics; Lakhaney D, Matiz LA

Aug 10th, 2022 - Telemedicine for Children With Medical Complexity During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Practice.|2022|Lakhaney D,Matiz LA,|

Extrapulmonary Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2: A Report of 3 Cases and a Literature Review.
https://doi.org/10.12659/AOT.935874
Annals of Transplantation; Barbachowska A, Gozdowska J et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - BACKGROUND COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been one of the greatest challenges in modern medicine. It is mostly known to affect the pulmonary system, leading to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but there is a growing body of evidence of extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 disease. CASE REPORT This article presents 3 cases of various extrapulmonary s...

Male reproductive health after 3 months from SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicentric study.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-022-01887-3
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation; Paoli D, Pallotti F et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - While SARS-CoV-2 infection appears not to be clinically evident in the testes, indirect inflammatory effects and fever may impair testicular function. To date, few long-term data of semen parameters impairment after recovery and comprehensive andrological evaluation of recovered patients has been published. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection affect male re...

The spike receptor-binding motif G496S substitution determines the replication fitness ...
https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2111977
Emerging Microbes & Infections; Liang R, Ye ZW et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - AbstractThe replication and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 is comparable to that of BA.1 in experimental animal models. However, BA.2 has rapidly emerged to overtake BA.1 to become the predominant circulating SARS-CoV-2 variant worldwide. Here, we compared the replication fitness of BA.1 and BA.2 in cell culture and in the Syrian hamster model of COVID-19. Using a reverse genetics app...

NVX-CoV2373 vaccination induces functional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell res...
https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI160898
The Journal of Clinical Investigation; Rydyznski Moderbacher C, Kim CJ et. al.

Aug 10th, 2022 - NVX-CoV2373 is an adjuvanted recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer protein vaccine demonstrated to be protective against COVID-19 in efficacy trials. Here we demonstrate that vaccinated subjects made CD4+ T cell responses after one and two doses of NVX-CoV2373, and a subset of individuals made CD8+ T cell responses. Characterization of the vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells demonstrated IF...