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A Patient’s Guide to Opioid Tapering
https://www.hss.edu/conditions_patient-guide-opioid-tapering.asp

May 20th, 2018 - Treating acute pain caused by orthopedic surgery has improved drastically over the past few years. This is due in part to the use of multimodal analgesic strategies (balancing the use of multiple non-opioid pain medications) and an increase in regional anesthesia in orthopedic procedures.

Endovascular Stent Graft: Aortic Aneurysm Repair
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/16964-endovascular-stent-graft-aortic-aneurysm-repair

How are aortic aneurysms treated? The best method to repair an aneurysm depends upon several factors, including the location and shape of the aneurysm as well as the physical condition of the patient. What is endovascular grafting? Endovascular grafting is a minimally invasive method to treat an aortic aneurysm. Instead of an open aneurysm repair in which your chest/abdomen are surgically opene...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ankylosing-spondylitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354808?p=1

ew Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disease that, over time, can cause some of the vertebrae in your spine to fuse. This fusing makes the spine less flexible and can result in a hunched-forward posture. If ribs are affected, it can be difficult to breathe deeply. Ankylosing spondylitis affects men more often than women. Signs and symptoms typically begin in early adulthood. Inflammatio...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bed-wetting/symptoms-causes/syc-20366685?p=1

ew Bed-wetting — also called nighttime incontinence or nocturnal enuresis — is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which staying dry at night can be reasonably expected. Soggy sheets and pajamas — and an embarrassed child — are a familiar scene in many homes. But don't despair. Bed-wetting isn't a sign of toilet training gone bad. It's often just a normal part of a child's devel...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351844?p=1

sis Blood tests can reveal if your body has made antibodies to a hantavirus. Your doctor may order other laboratory tests to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms. Treatment Specific treatment options for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are limited. But the prognosis improves with early recognition, immediate hospitalization and adequate support for breathing. Supportive therapy People ...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ear-infections/symptoms-causes/syc-20351616?p=1

ew An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that contains the tiny vibrating bones of the ear. Children are more likely than adults to get ear infections. Ear infections frequently are painful because of inflammation and buildup of fluids in the middle ear. Because ear infections often...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/reactive-arthritis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354838?p=1

ew Reactive arthritis is joint pain and swelling triggered by an infection in another part of your body — most often your intestines, genitals or urinary tract. Reactive arthritis usually targets your knees and the joints of your ankles and feet. Inflammation also can affect your eyes, skin and urethra. Previously, reactive arthritis was sometimes called Reiter's syndrome, which was characteriz...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/klinefelter-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353954?p=1

sis Your doctor will likely do a thorough physical exam and ask detailed questions about symptoms and health. This may include examining the genital area and chest, performing tests to check reflexes, and assessing development and functioning. The main tests used to diagnose Klinefelter syndrome are: Hormone testing. Blood or urine samples can reveal abnormal hormone levels that are a sign of K...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/long-qt-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20352518?p=1

ew Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heart rhythm condition that can potentially cause fast, chaotic heartbeats. These rapid heartbeats might trigger a sudden fainting spell or seizure. In some cases, the heart can beat erratically for so long that it causes sudden death. You can have a genetic mutation that puts you at risk of being born with congenital long QT syndrome. In addition, certain medica...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sheehans-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351852?p=1

sis Diagnosing Sheehan's syndrome can be difficult. Many of the symptoms overlap with those of other conditions. To diagnose Sheehan's, your doctor likely will: Collect a thorough medical history. It's important to mention any childbirth complications you've had, no matter how long ago you gave birth. Also, be sure to tell your doctor if you didn't produce breast milk or you failed to start men...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sty/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20378022?p=1

sis Your doctor will usually diagnose a sty just by looking at your eyelid. Your doctor may use a light and a magnifying device to examine your eyelid. Treatment In most cases, a sty doesn't require specific treatment. A sty typically goes away on its own. Recurrences are common. For a sty that persists, your doctor may recommend treatments, such as: Antibiotics. Your doctor may prescribe antib...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rebound-headaches/symptoms-causes/syc-20377083?p=1

ew Rebound headaches (medication-overuse headaches) are caused by regular, long-term use of medication to treat headaches, such as migraine. Pain relievers offer relief for occasional headaches. But if you take them more than a couple of days a week, they may trigger rebound headaches. It appears that any medication taken for pain relief can cause rebound headaches, but only if you already have...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/broken-ankle-broken-foot/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355498?p=1

sis During the physical exam, your doctor will check for points of tenderness in your foot and ankle. The precise location of your pain can help determine its cause. He or she may move your foot into different positions, to check your range of motion. You may be asked to walk for a short distance so that your doctor can examine your gait. Imaging tests If your signs and symptoms suggest a break...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dresslers-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371815?p=1

sis Your doctor will conduct a thorough physical examination, including listening to your heart with a stethoscope. Certain characteristic sounds can indicate that your pericardium is inflamed or that fluid has accumulated around your heart. Your doctor might then recommend tests, such as: Echocardiogram. Sound waves produce an image of your heart, helping your doctor to see if fluid is collect...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cluster-headache/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20352084?p=1

sis Cluster headache has a characteristic type of pain and pattern of attacks. A diagnosis depends on your description of the attacks, including your pain, the location and severity of your headaches, and associated symptoms. How often your headaches occur and how long they last also are important factors. Your doctor will likely try to pinpoint the type and cause of your headache using certain...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/carcinoid-tumors/symptoms-causes/syc-20351039?p=1

ew Carcinoid tumors are a type of slow-growing cancer that can arise in several places throughout your body. Carcinoid tumors, which are one subset of tumors called neuroendocrine tumors, usually begin in the digestive tract (stomach, appendix, small intestine, colon, rectum) or in the lungs. Carcinoid tumors often don't cause signs and symptoms until late in the disease. Carcinoid tumors can p...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/melanoma/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20374888?p=1

sis Skin cancer screening Ask your doctor whether you should consider periodic screening for skin cancer. You and your doctor may consider screening options such as: Skin exams by a trained professional. During a skin exam, your doctor conducts a head-to-toe inspection of your skin. Skin exams you do at home. A self-exam may help you learn the moles, freckles and other skin marks that are norma...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/restless-legs-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20377168?p=1

ew Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a condition that causes an uncontrollable urge to move your legs, usually because of an uncomfortable sensation. It typically happens in the evening or nighttime hours when you're sitting or lying down. Moving eases the unpleasant feeling temporarily. Restless legs syndrome, now known as restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), can begin at any a...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hamstring-injury/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372990?p=1

sis During the physical exam, your doctor will check for swelling and points of tenderness along the back of your thigh. The location and intensity of your pain can help determine the extent and nature of the damage. Your doctor might also move your injured leg into a variety of positions to help pinpoint which muscle has been injured and if you also have any ligament or tendon damage. Imaging ...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/shin-splints/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354110?p=1

sis Shin splints are usually diagnosed based on your medical history and a physical exam. In some cases, an X-ray or other imaging studies can help identify other possible causes for your pain, such as a stress fracture. Treatment In most cases, you can treat shin splints with simple self-care steps: Rest. Avoid activities that cause pain, swelling or discomfort — but don't give up all physical...