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Movement Symptoms: Dyskinesia
https://www.parkinson.org/Understanding-Parkinsons/Symptoms/Movement-Symptoms/Dyskinesia

Dyskinesias are involuntary, erratic, writhing movements of the face, arms, legs or trunk. They are often fluid and dance-like, but they may also cause rapid jerking or slow and extended muscle spasms. They are not a symptom of Parkinson's itself. Rather, they are a complication from some Parkinson's medications.

Patient Education on COVID & Agoraphobia
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/agoraphobia-and-covid-19

The COVID-19 pandemic can trigger anxious feelings in anyone. However, people with an anxiety disorder such as agoraphobia may find that the pandemic has heightened their anxiety even further.

CDC Symptoms of Coronavirus (COVID-19)
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention;

People with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported – ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness.

Johns Hopkins Patient Information & Resources During COVID-19
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/coronavirus/for-johns-hopkins-patients.html

At Johns Hopkins Medicine, your health and safety are our very highest priorities. During the COVID-19 pandemic and as our communities begin to reopen, we are here and ready to care for you in our hospitals, surgery centers and through in-person clinic and online video visits. Learn how we are keeping you safe and protected so that you can get the care you need.

Preparing for Coronavirus
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/landing/preparing-for-coronavirus
Cleveland Clinic

While the coronavirus is still in our communities and is still contagious, Cleveland Clinic is among the safest places in healthcare today. Concerns about COVID-19 and want to speak to a provider? Coming in for your first visit in a few months? You should feel confident we're keeping your family — and our caregivers — safe.

2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)
https://patiented.solutions.aap.org/handout.aspx?gbosid=535624

COVID-19, discovered in December 2019, has now spread throughout the world. While there is currently no vaccine to prevent COVID-19, doctors and researchers are learning more about it every day. Here’s what we know now and how you can protect your family and others.

#StoptheSpread: A Patient Guide to the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)
https://www.emergencyphysicians.org/globalassets/emphysicians/all-pdfs/ac_palrt_covid-19-patient-faq-dc_2012_0320.pdf

Nasopharyngeal culture
https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003747.htm

Nasopharyngeal culture is a test that examines a sample of secretions from the uppermost part of the throat, behind the nose, to detect organisms that can cause disease.

Tips For Social Distancing, Quarantine, And Isolation During An Infectious Disease Outbreak
https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/tips-social-distancing-quarantine-isolation-031620.pdf

In the event of an infectious disease outbreak, local officals may require the public to take measures to limit and control the spread of the disease. This tip sheet provides information about social distancing, quarantine, and isolation. The government has the right to enforce federal and state laws related to public health if people within the country get sick with highly contagious di...

Finding the Right Words to Talk with Children and Teens about Coronavirus
https://www.cstsonline.org/assets/media/documents/CSTS_FS_Finding_Right_Words_Talk_Children_Teens_Coronavirus.pdf

Discussing Coronavirus with Your Children
https://www.cstsonline.org/assets/media/documents/CSTS_FS_Discussing_Coronavirus_w_Your_Children.pdf

Coronavirus (COVID-19)
https://weillcornell.org/coronavirus

Health and safety are always among our top priorities at Weill Cornell Medicine. We are closely watching updates from trusted healthcare organizations and governmental recommendations about the new coronavirus (COVID-19), and will continue to keep you informed.

Resources for Helping Kids and Parents Cope Amidst COVID-19
https://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Resource_Libraries/covid-19/resources_helping_kids_parents_cope.aspx

When Family Members are Hospitalized due to COVID-19
https://www.cstsonline.org/assets/media/documents/CSTS_FS_When_Family_Members_are_Hospitalized_due_to_COVID19.pdf

What is COVID-19? Patient Health Information Series
https://www.thoracic.org/patients/patient-resources/resources/coronavirus-patient.pdf

The number of cases has been increasing quickly and is considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This means that the virus is being spread simultaneously in more than three different geographical regions in the world. For up to date information on this outbreak, go to https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019- ncov/about/index.html

Coronavirus: What People with Cancer Should Know
https://www.cancer.gov/contact/emergency-preparedness/coronavirus

COVID-19 Resources: Care Recommendations for Home‑Based Ventilation Patients
https://foundation.chestnet.org/patient-education-resources/covid-19-resources-care-recommendations-home-based-ventilation-patients/

As COVID-19 continues to affect our daily lives, it’s critical that we try to limit the spread of the virus as much as possible. This is especially applicable for patients who use noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV), mechanical airway clearance devices, or are supported by home ventilation for other chronic respiratory failure syndromes.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Women’s Health Care: A Message for Patients
https://www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/womens-health/coronavirus-and-womens-health-care

Experts are learning more every day about the new coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) is following the situation closely. This page will be updated as ACOG learns more about how the spread of COVID-19 affects health care for women. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you can find more information at Coronavirus (COVID-19), Pregnancy...

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Top 10 Tips From Your Family Doctor
https://familydoctor.org/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-top-10-tips-from-your-family-doctor/

ADA COVID-19 FAQ
https://www.diabetes.org/covid-19-faq

The lowdown on eye exercises
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/the-lowdown-on-eye-exercises?utm_source=delivra&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=GB20200520-AgingEye&utm_id=2176844&dlv-emuid=22ccc528-35ec-421e-8d26-c66574e6d9d8&dlv-mlid=2176844
Harvard Health Publishing;

May 5th, 2020 - If you wear glasses or contacts, chances are you've been at least a little bit tempted to investigate the infomercials and books promoting eye exercises to improve your eyesight without surgery. Some programs even claim that faithful adherents may be able to give up their glasses. If this sounds too good to be true, that's because it is.

Heartburn Medication Update
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/heartburn-medication-update?utm_source=delivra&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=WR20200612-Heartburn&utm_id=2238983&dlv-emuid=22ccc528-35ec-421e-8d26-c66574e6d9d8&dlv-mlid=2238983
Harvard Health Publishing;

May 31st, 2020 - Millions of people turn to prescription and over-the-counter medications to cope with heartburn from gastroesophageal reflux disease or other stomach conditions. But navigating the risks of heartburn remedies can leave a sour taste in your mouth, since some have been tied to health concerns. Here's what you need to know about two mainstays of treatment, and how the latest developments may affec...

Body Weight Planner: Balancing Your Food and Activity
https://www.niddk.nih.gov/bwp
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Starting Information Enter your starting information, including your weight, sex, age, height, and physical activity level. Physical Activity Level Click the "Estimate Your Level" button to find your physical activity level.

COVID-19: At-Home Testing
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/testing/at-home-testing.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Feb 15th, 2021 - You and your healthcare provider might consider either an at-home collection kit or an at-home test if you have signs and symptoms of COVID-19 and if you can’t get tested by a healthcare provider. At-home collection kits and tests are available either by prescription or over the counter in a pharmacy or retail store without a prescription. Currently available at-home tests look for current i...

COVID-19 Vaccine: Helps protect you from getting COVID-19
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/index.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Get a COVID-19 vaccine, wear a mask, stay at least 6 feet apart, avoid crowds, and wash your hands to protect against COVID-19.

Recipient Education: Talking to Recipients about COVID-19 Vaccines
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/hcp/index.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Many people have questions about the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. As vaccine recipients’ most-trusted source of information on vaccines, you play a critical role in helping them understand the importance of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as if and when it is likely to be recommended for them.

Dyskinesia
https://www.michaeljfox.org/news/dyskinesia?dyskinesia=

Dyskinesia is uncontrolled, involuntary movement that may occur with long-term levodopa use and longer time with Parkinson's. Not everyone will develop this complication, and the experience of dyskinesia varies. New and emerging treatments aim to help avoid dyskinesia.

Managing PD Mid-Stride: A Treatment Guide to Parkinson's Disease
https://www.parkinson.org/sites/default/files/attachments/MidStride.pdf
Parkinson's Foundation

Every person’s Parkinson’s disease (PD) journey is unique. No two people have exactly the same symptoms or progression, let alone lifestyle and genetics. However, it is common that once you begin a treatment regimen after diagnosis, you can live life for a while with nearly complete relief from symptoms and few side effects. Eventually, though, after several years of being treated with le...

The Voice of the Patient: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.fda.gov/media/124392/download
FDA

Patient Privacy Information
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/privacy/patients.html

Jan 27th, 2019 - Johns Hopkins is committed to protecting your health information. Our Notice of Privacy Practices explains how all members of the Johns Hopkins organizations will safeguard your privacy. Information relating to the privacy/confidentiality of patient health information found on this website relates only to the Johns Hopkins activities in the United States of America.

Water & Nutrition | Drinking Water | Healthy Water | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/nutrition/index.html

Oct 4th, 2016 - Education and information about camping water, hiking water, travel water, backcountry water treatment, safe drinking water, safe recreational water, drinking water treatment, emergency disinfection, sanitation, bottled water, travel diseases, travel illness, travel injury, nutrition, water and nutrition, and daily fluids.

Metformin (Oral Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/metformin-oral-route/proper-use/drg-20067074

Jan 31st, 2019 - This medicine usually comes with a patient information insert. Read the information carefully and make sure you understand it before taking this medicine. If you have any questions, ask your doctor.

NCCN Quick Guide™ | Metastatic Breast Cancer
https://www.nccn.org/patients/guidelines/quick_guides/breast/stage_iv/index.html

Jan 1st, 2018 - NCCN QUICK GUIDE tm Breast Cancer – Metastatic, 2018 PAT-N-1075-0618 What are the treatment options? Hormone-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer „„ Chemotherapy may be given first if the cancer is quickly growing within internal organs

How to Prepare for Your Colonoscopy Using MiraLAX
https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/patient-education/how-prepare-your-colonoscopy-using-miralax

Aug 5th, 2019 - This information will help you get ready for your colonoscopy using polyethylene glycol (MiraLAX®). A colonoscopy is an exam of your colon (large intestine). Your doctor will use a colonoscope (flexible tube with a camera on the end) to see the inside of your colon on a video monitor. During your procedure, your doctor can:

Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month
https://healthfinder.gov/NHO/MarchToolkit.aspx

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States and the second leading cause of death from cancers that affect both men and women. Colorectal cancer affects people in all racial and ethnic groups and is most common in people age 50 and older.

A Patient’s Guide to Opioid Tapering
https://www.hss.edu/conditions_patient-guide-opioid-tapering.asp

May 20th, 2018 - Treating acute pain caused by orthopedic surgery has improved drastically over the past few years. This is due in part to the use of multimodal analgesic strategies (balancing the use of multiple non-opioid pain medications) and an increase in regional anesthesia in orthopedic procedures.

If You Suffer From Dry Mouth, Biotène Can Help
https://www.gskhealthpartner.com/content/dam/cf-consumer-healthcare/health-professionals/en_US/pdf/SM10060%20Biotene%20Patient%20Education%20Leave%20Piece%20PORTRAIT%2010%20PRINT.pdf

If you find your mouth is sometimes dry or uncomfortable and if it’s difficult to swallow food, you may be suffering from a condition called xerostomia – also known as dry mouth.

When You Have Dry Mouth, Turn To Biotène For Help
https://www.gskhealthpartner.com/content/dam/cf-consumer-healthcare/health-professionals/en_US/pdf/Biotene_Oncology_PatientEducation_NOSAMPLE.pdf

Cancer treatments may cause your mouth to become dry, leading to discomfort and even difficulty speaking and swallowing. Symptoms can be hard to manage, particularly at night and on the go, but you don’t need to suffer needlessly.

Preparing for a colonoscopy
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/preparing-for-a-colonoscopy

Aug 12th, 2019 - If you shudder at the thought of having a colonoscopy to check for hidden colon cancer, chances are it's the "prep" that's stoking your apprehension. It's certainly a major inconvenience: getting ready for the procedure takes much longer — an average of 16 hours, according to one study — than the three hours or so you'll spend at a medical center the day of your colonoscopy. But what's most off...

Protecting Your Privacy & Security
https://www.healthit.gov/topic/protecting-your-privacy-security

Dec 16th, 2018 - Protecting the Privacy and Security of Your Health Information: The privacy and security of patient health information is a top priority for patients and their families, health care providers and professionals, and the government. Federal laws require many of the key persons and organizations that handle health information to have policies and security safeguards in place to protect your health...

Improving Antibiotic Use
https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/pdfs/aaw/au_improving-antibiotics-infographic_8_5x11_508.pdf

Aug 21st, 2019 - Do I really need antibiotics? SAY YES TO ANTIBIOTICS when needed for certain infections caused by bacteria.

Resources for Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus & Caregivers | Talk SLE
http://www.talksle.com/resources/patients-caregivers.html

The need for healthcare providers to effectively engage with patients with SLE is ongoing and the stakes are high. Even when patients have no complaints and no visual signs of disease, organ damage can be occurring. We've developed these tools to help both you and your patients communicate and be vigilant.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Patient Version
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65917/
NIH PDQ Cancer Information Summaries; PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board.

Oct 15th, 2019 - This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. NSCLC

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version
https://www.cancer.gov/types/lung/patient/non-small-cell-lung-treatment-pdq
Cancer.gov National Cancer Institute

Oct 15th, 2019 - General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NSCLC

Metformin: MedlinePlus Drug Information
https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a696005.html

May 14th, 2018 - Metformin: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus.

Easier hepatitis C treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hepatitis-c/in-depth/easier-hepatitis-c-treatment/art-20109998

Heart Failure Resources
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17076-heart-failure-resources

Heart Failure Society of America, Inc. www.hfsa.org American Heart Association www.heart.org International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation www.ishlt.org National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ National Institutes of Health (NIH) www.nih.gov Cleveland Clinic Web Chats – Calendar of Events and Transcripts chat.clevelandclinic.org Next: Important Phone Numbers S...

Stroke | Cleveland Clin
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17518-stroke

What is a stroke? A stroke, sometimes called a "brain attack," occurs when blood flow to an area in the brain is cut off. The brain cells, deprived of the oxygen and glucose needed to survive, die. If not caught early, permanent brain damage can result. How does a stroke occur? There are two types of stroke. Ischemic stroke is similar to a heart attack, except it occurs in the blood vessels of ...

Hydrocephalus | Cleveland Clin
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17111-hydrocephalus

The Mission of the Cleveland Clinic Aging Brain Clinic Aging patients… to provide comprehensive integrated diagnostic and therapeutic care for the mental function of aging and elderly individuals. Basic brain research… to perform basic and transitional research on the aging brain. Clinical advances… to develop and perform clinical research trials to benefit the maturing brain. Patient’s Guide t...

Colorectal Cancer Survival Rates & Prognosis
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9717-colorectal-cancer-prognosisoutlook

Nov 18th, 2014 - Next: Outlook / Prognosis Share Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email Print Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Pulmonary Hypertension & Lifestyle
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/12775-living-with-pulmonary-hypertension-dietary-and-lifestyle-changes

Aug 28th, 2014 - Next: Management and Treatment Share Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email Print Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Endovascular Stent Graft: Aortic Aneurysm Repair
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/16964-endovascular-stent-graft-aortic-aneurysm-repair

How are aortic aneurysms treated? The best method to repair an aneurysm depends upon several factors, including the location and shape of the aneurysm as well as the physical condition of the patient. What is endovascular grafting? Endovascular grafting is a minimally invasive method to treat an aortic aneurysm. Instead of an open aneurysm repair in which your chest/abdomen are surgically opene...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/uterine-fibroids/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354294?p=1

sis Uterine fibroids are frequently found incidentally during a routine pelvic exam. Your doctor may feel irregularities in the shape of your uterus, suggesting the presence of fibroids. If you have symptoms of uterine fibroids, you doctor may order these tests: Ultrasound. If confirmation is needed, your doctor may order an ultrasound. It uses sound waves to get a picture of your uterus to con...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353017?p=1

sis Diagnostic tests include: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/undescended-testicle/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20352000?p=1

sis If your son has an undescended testicle, his doctor might recommend surgery for diagnosis and potential treatment: Laparoscopy. A small tube containing a camera is inserted through a small incision in your son's abdomen. Laparoscopy is done to locate an intra-abdominal testicle. The doctor might be able to fix the undescended testicle during the same procedure, but an additional surgery mig...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/angiosarcoma/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350248?p=1

sis Tests and procedures used in angiosarcoma diagnosis include: Physical exam. Your doctor will thoroughly examine you to understand your condition. Removing a sample of tissue for testing (biopsy). Your doctor will remove a sample of suspicious tissue for laboratory testing. Analysis in the lab can detect cancer cells and determine certain characteristics of your cancer cells that may help gu...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/farsightedness/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372499?p=1

sis Farsightedness is diagnosed by a basic eye exam, which includes a refraction assessment and an eye health exam. A refraction assessment determines if you have vision problems such as nearsightedness or farsightedness, astigmatism, or presbyopia. Your doctor may use various instruments and ask you to look through several lenses to test your distance and close-up vision. Your eye doctor likel...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ankylosing-spondylitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354808?p=1

ew Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disease that, over time, can cause some of the vertebrae in your spine to fuse. This fusing makes the spine less flexible and can result in a hunched-forward posture. If ribs are affected, it can be difficult to breathe deeply. Ankylosing spondylitis affects men more often than women. Signs and symptoms typically begin in early adulthood. Inflammatio...

Care at Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urinary-incontinence/care-at-mayo-clinic/mac-20352819?p=1

y incontinence care at Mayo Clinic Your Mayo Clinic care team Mayo Clinic has doctors with extra training in bladder and urinary function. They specialize in diagnosing and treating urinary incontinence and have experience treating people who have had previous, unsuccessful treatment. Extensive experience Each year, Mayo Clinic specialists treat nearly 10,000 people with urinary incontinence. A...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bed-wetting/symptoms-causes/syc-20366685?p=1

ew Bed-wetting — also called nighttime incontinence or nocturnal enuresis — is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which staying dry at night can be reasonably expected. Soggy sheets and pajamas — and an embarrassed child — are a familiar scene in many homes. But don't despair. Bed-wetting isn't a sign of toilet training gone bad. It's often just a normal part of a child's devel...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351844?p=1

sis Blood tests can reveal if your body has made antibodies to a hantavirus. Your doctor may order other laboratory tests to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms. Treatment Specific treatment options for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are limited. But the prognosis improves with early recognition, immediate hospitalization and adequate support for breathing. Supportive therapy People ...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ear-infections/symptoms-causes/syc-20351616?p=1

ew An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that contains the tiny vibrating bones of the ear. Children are more likely than adults to get ear infections. Ear infections frequently are painful because of inflammation and buildup of fluids in the middle ear. Because ear infections often...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bladder-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20356109?p=1

sis Diagnosing bladder cancer Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include: Cystoscopy. To perform cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small, narrow tube (cystoscope) through the urethra. The cystoscope has a lens that allows your doctor to see the inside of your urethra and bladder, to examine these structures for signs of disease. Biopsy. During cystoscopy, your doctor may p...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/trichotillomania/symptoms-causes/syc-20355188?p=1

ew Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body, despite trying to stop. Hair pulling from the scalp often leaves patchy bald spots, which causes significant distress and can interfere with social or work functioning. People wi...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/reactive-arthritis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354838?p=1

ew Reactive arthritis is joint pain and swelling triggered by an infection in another part of your body — most often your intestines, genitals or urinary tract. Reactive arthritis usually targets your knees and the joints of your ankles and feet. Inflammation also can affect your eyes, skin and urethra. Previously, reactive arthritis was sometimes called Reiter's syndrome, which was characteriz...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/typhoid-fever/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20378665?p=1

sis Medical and travel history Your doctor is likely to suspect typhoid fever based on your symptoms and your medical and travel history. But the diagnosis is usually confirmed by identifying Salmonella typhi in a culture of your blood or other body fluid or tissue. Body fluid or tissue culture For the culture, a small sample of your blood, stool, urine or bone marrow is placed on a special med...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/klinefelter-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353954?p=1

sis Your doctor will likely do a thorough physical exam and ask detailed questions about symptoms and health. This may include examining the genital area and chest, performing tests to check reflexes, and assessing development and functioning. The main tests used to diagnose Klinefelter syndrome are: Hormone testing. Blood or urine samples can reveal abnormal hormone levels that are a sign of K...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/long-qt-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20352518?p=1

ew Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heart rhythm condition that can potentially cause fast, chaotic heartbeats. These rapid heartbeats might trigger a sudden fainting spell or seizure. In some cases, the heart can beat erratically for so long that it causes sudden death. You can have a genetic mutation that puts you at risk of being born with congenital long QT syndrome. In addition, certain medica...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sheehans-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351852?p=1

sis Diagnosing Sheehan's syndrome can be difficult. Many of the symptoms overlap with those of other conditions. To diagnose Sheehan's, your doctor likely will: Collect a thorough medical history. It's important to mention any childbirth complications you've had, no matter how long ago you gave birth. Also, be sure to tell your doctor if you didn't produce breast milk or you failed to start men...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dry-skin/symptoms-causes/syc-20353885?p=1

ew Dry skin isn't usually serious, but it can be uncomfortable and unsightly. Serious dry skin conditions — an inherited group of disorders called ichthyosis — can sometimes be disfiguring and upsetting. Fortunately, most dry skin is caused by environmental factors that can be at least partially controlled. These factors include hot or cold weather, low humidity, and soaking in hot water. You c...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sty/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20378022?p=1

sis Your doctor will usually diagnose a sty just by looking at your eyelid. Your doctor may use a light and a magnifying device to examine your eyelid. Treatment In most cases, a sty doesn't require specific treatment. A sty typically goes away on its own. Recurrences are common. For a sty that persists, your doctor may recommend treatments, such as: Antibiotics. Your doctor may prescribe antib...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/plague/symptoms-causes/syc-20351291?p=1

ew Plague is a serious bacterial infection that's transmitted by fleas. Known as the Black Death during medieval times, today plague occurs in fewer than 5,000 people a year worldwide. It can be deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics. The organism that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, lives in small rodents found most commonly in rural and semirural areas of Africa, Asia and the United ...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/transient-ischemic-attack/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355684?p=1

sis A prompt evaluation of your symptoms is vital in diagnosing the cause of your TIA and deciding on a method of treatment. To help determine the cause of your TIA and to assess your risk of a stroke, your doctor may rely on the following: Physical examination and tests. Your doctor may check for risk factors of a stroke, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, diabetes and hig...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pseudocholinesterase-deficiency/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354545?p=1

ent If you have a family history of PD or a family member who has problems with anesthesia, tell your doctor prior to any surgery. You can prevent problems by being tested before using the drug. If you have PD, you may want to wear a medical bracelet identifying your condition. Tell family members to be tested prior to surgery as well. While there is no cure for PD, treatments are available. If...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rebound-headaches/symptoms-causes/syc-20377083?p=1

ew Rebound headaches (medication-overuse headaches) are caused by regular, long-term use of medication to treat headaches, such as migraine. Pain relievers offer relief for occasional headaches. But if you take them more than a couple of days a week, they may trigger rebound headaches. It appears that any medication taken for pain relief can cause rebound headaches, but only if you already have...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/broken-ankle-broken-foot/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355498?p=1

sis During the physical exam, your doctor will check for points of tenderness in your foot and ankle. The precise location of your pain can help determine its cause. He or she may move your foot into different positions, to check your range of motion. You may be asked to walk for a short distance so that your doctor can examine your gait. Imaging tests If your signs and symptoms suggest a break...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ringworm-scalp/symptoms-causes/syc-20354918?p=1

ew Ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis) is a fungal infection of the scalp and hair shafts. The signs and symptoms of ringworm of the scalp may vary, but it usually appears as itchy, scaly, bald patches on the head. Ringworm of the scalp, a highly contagious infection, is most common in toddlers and school-age children. Treatment for ringworm of the scalp includes medications taken by mouth to...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pagets-disease-of-the-breast/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351084?p=1

sis Tests to evaluate your condition may include: Clinical breast exam and physical exam. During this exam, your doctor physically checks for unusual areas in both breasts, noting the appearance of the skin on and around your nipples and feeling for any lumps or areas of thickening. Mammogram. A mammogram — an X-ray exam of your breast tissue — may indicate whether the nipple and skin changes a...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dresslers-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371815?p=1

sis Your doctor will conduct a thorough physical examination, including listening to your heart with a stethoscope. Certain characteristic sounds can indicate that your pericardium is inflamed or that fluid has accumulated around your heart. Your doctor might then recommend tests, such as: Echocardiogram. Sound waves produce an image of your heart, helping your doctor to see if fluid is collect...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cluster-headache/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20352084?p=1

sis Cluster headache has a characteristic type of pain and pattern of attacks. A diagnosis depends on your description of the attacks, including your pain, the location and severity of your headaches, and associated symptoms. How often your headaches occur and how long they last also are important factors. Your doctor will likely try to pinpoint the type and cause of your headache using certain...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/poison-ivy/symptoms-causes/syc-20376485?p=1

ew Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin called urushiol (u-ROO-she-ol). This oil is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your skin right away if you come into contact with this oil, unless you know you're not sensitive to it. Washing off the oil may reduce your chances of getting a poison ivy rash. If you develop a rash, i...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/carcinoid-tumors/symptoms-causes/syc-20351039?p=1

ew Carcinoid tumors are a type of slow-growing cancer that can arise in several places throughout your body. Carcinoid tumors, which are one subset of tumors called neuroendocrine tumors, usually begin in the digestive tract (stomach, appendix, small intestine, colon, rectum) or in the lungs. Carcinoid tumors often don't cause signs and symptoms until late in the disease. Carcinoid tumors can p...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/recurrent-breast-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20377141?p=1

sis If your doctor suspects you may have recurrent breast cancer based on results of a mammogram or physical exam, or because of signs and symptoms, he or she may recommend additional tests to confirm the diagnosis. Tests and procedures may include: Imaging tests. What imaging tests you'll undergo will depend on your specific situation. Imaging tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353309?p=1

sis Your doctor will likely diagnose Crohn's disease only after ruling out other possible causes for your signs and symptoms. There is no one test to diagnose Crohn's disease. Your doctor will likely use a combination of tests to help confirm a diagnosis of Crohn's disease, including: Blood tests Tests for anemia or infection. Your doctor may suggest blood tests to check for anemia — a conditio...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/melanoma/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20374888?p=1

sis Skin cancer screening Ask your doctor whether you should consider periodic screening for skin cancer. You and your doctor may consider screening options such as: Skin exams by a trained professional. During a skin exam, your doctor conducts a head-to-toe inspection of your skin. Skin exams you do at home. A self-exam may help you learn the moles, freckles and other skin marks that are norma...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/restless-legs-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20377168?p=1

ew Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a condition that causes an uncontrollable urge to move your legs, usually because of an uncomfortable sensation. It typically happens in the evening or nighttime hours when you're sitting or lying down. Moving eases the unpleasant feeling temporarily. Restless legs syndrome, now known as restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), can begin at any a...

Care at Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/barretts-esophagus/care-at-mayo-clinic/mac-20352849?p=1

t's esophagus care at Mayo Clinic Your Mayo Clinic care team Specialists in digestive diseases, throat diseases and surgery work together as needed to solve your problem. Advanced diagnosis and treatment Mayo Clinic researchers are working to improve diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus. Specific efforts involve: Novel imaging techniques to detect precancerous changes that may indicat...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/jet-lag/symptoms-causes/syc-20374027?p=1

ew Jet lag, also called jet lag disorder, is a temporary sleep problem that can affect anyone who quickly travels across multiple time zones. Your body has its own internal clock, or circadian rhythms, that signals your body when to stay awake and when to sleep. Jet lag occurs because your body's clock is still synced to your original time zone, instead of to the time zone where you've traveled...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cerebral-palsy/symptoms-causes/syc-20353999?p=1

ew Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by damage that occurs to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth. Signs and symptoms appear during infancy or preschool years. In general, cerebral palsy causes impaired movement associated with abnormal reflexes, floppiness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, abnormal posture, involuntary movemen...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rotavirus/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351306?p=1

sis Rotavirus is often diagnosed based on symptoms and a physical exam. A stool sample may be analyzed in a lab to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment There's no specific treatment for a rotavirus infection. Antibiotics and antivirals won't help a rotavirus infection. Usually, the infection resolves within three to seven days. Preventing dehydration is the biggest concern. To prevent dehydration w...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hamstring-injury/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372990?p=1

sis During the physical exam, your doctor will check for swelling and points of tenderness along the back of your thigh. The location and intensity of your pain can help determine the extent and nature of the damage. Your doctor might also move your injured leg into a variety of positions to help pinpoint which muscle has been injured and if you also have any ligament or tendon damage. Imaging ...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/shin-splints/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354110?p=1

sis Shin splints are usually diagnosed based on your medical history and a physical exam. In some cases, an X-ray or other imaging studies can help identify other possible causes for your pain, such as a stress fracture. Treatment In most cases, you can treat shin splints with simple self-care steps: Rest. Avoid activities that cause pain, swelling or discomfort — but don't give up all physical...

Care at Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/idiopathic-thrombocytopenic-purpura/care-at-mayo-clinic/mac-20352333?p=1

thic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) care at Mayo Clinic Your Mayo Clinic care team. Your multidisciplinary team of experts will include hematology doctors, pathologists who specialize in diseases of the blood and blood cells (hematopathologists), and other specialists as needed. They collaborate to provide coordinated care. Advanced diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clinic doctors have deep experie...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pulmonary-edema/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20377014?p=1

sis Because pulmonary edema requires prompt treatment, you'll initially be diagnosed on the basis of your symptoms and a physical exam, electrocardiogram and chest X-ray. Once your condition is more stable, your doctor will ask about your medical history, especially whether you have ever had cardiovascular or lung disease. Tests that may be done to diagnose pulmonary edema or to determine why y...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tetanus/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351631?p=1

sis Doctors diagnose tetanus based on a physical exam, medical and immunization history, and the signs and symptoms of muscle spasms, stiffness and pain. Laboratory tests generally aren't helpful for diagnosing tetanus. Treatment Since there's no cure for tetanus, treatment consists of wound care, medications to ease symptoms and supportive care. Wound care Cleaning the wound is essential to pr...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chickenpox/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351287?p=1

sis Doctors generally diagnose chickenpox based on the telltale rash. If there's any doubt about the diagnosis, chickenpox can be confirmed with laboratory tests, including blood tests or a culture of lesion samples. Treatment In otherwise healthy children, chickenpox typically requires no medical treatment. Your doctor may prescribe an antihistamine to relieve itching. But for the most part, t...

Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/transient-ischemic-attack/symptoms-causes/syc-20355679?p=1

ew A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is like a stroke, producing similar symptoms, but usually lasting only a few minutes and causing no permanent damage. Often called a ministroke, a transient ischemic attack may be a warning. About 1 in 3 people who have a transient ischemic attack will eventually have a stroke, with about half occurring within a year after the transient ischemic attack. A tr...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/endocarditis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20352582?p=1

sis Your doctor may suspect endocarditis based on your medical history, signs and symptoms you're experiencing, and your test results. A diagnosis of endocarditis is usually based on several factors instead of a single positive test result or symptom. Your doctor may order several tests to help make a positive diagnosis, including: Blood tests. A blood culture test is used to identify any bacte...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/addisons-disease/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350296?p=1

sis Your doctor will talk to you first about your medical history and your signs and symptoms. If your doctor thinks that you may have Addison's disease, you may undergo some of the following tests: Blood test. Measuring your blood levels of sodium, potassium, cortisol and ACTH gives your doctor an initial indication of whether adrenal insufficiency may be causing your signs and symptoms. A blo...

Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372903?p=1

sis Tests to help diagnose gout may include: Joint fluid test. Your doctor may use a needle to draw fluid from your affected joint. Urate crystals may be visible when the fluid is examined under a microscope. Blood test. Your doctor may recommend a blood test to measure the levels of uric acid and creatinine in your blood. Blood test results can be misleading, though. Some people have high uric...