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About 3,533 results

Safety and efficacy of bexarotene in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple scleros...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00179-4
The Lancet. Neurology; Brown JWL, Cunniffe NG et. al.

Aug 22nd, 2021 - Progressive disability in multiple sclerosis occurs because CNS axons degenerate as a late consequence of demyelination. In animals, retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma agonists promote remyelination. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a non-selective retinoid X receptor agonist in promoting remyelination in people with multiple sclerosis. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controll...

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Alters Group 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Differentiation from a Commo...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429221
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950); Lordo MR, Wu KG et. al.

Aug 22nd, 2021 - NK cells are known to be developmentally blocked and functionally inhibited in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), resulting in poor clinical outcomes. In this study, we demonstrate that whereas NK cells are inhibited, closely related type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) are enriched in the bone marrow of leukemic mice and in patients with AML. Because NK cells and ILC1s share a common ...

The effect of Gö6976 on chronic myeloid leukemia in vitro and in vivo.
https://doi.org/10.1080/16078454.2021.1945235
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands); Cao ZR, Chen XP et. al.

Aug 6th, 2021 - Objectives: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant tumor of the blood system. Gö6976, as a type of indolocarbazole and shows strong antitumor effects, but there have been no reports on the effect of Gö6976 on CML. The objectives of this research were: (1) to explore the impact of Gö6976 on CML in vitro and in vivo; and (2) to explore the drug toxicity of Gö6976 to normal cells and animal...

Romiplostim in children with newly diagnosed or persistent primary immune thrombocytope...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310729
Annals of Hematology; Grainger JD, Kühne T et. al.

Jul 27th, 2021 - Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease of heterogenous origin characterized by low platelet counts and an increased bleeding tendency. Three disease phases have been described: newly diagnosed (≤ 3 months after diagnosis), persistent (> 3-12 months after diagnosis), and chronic (> 12 months after diagnosis). The majority of children with ITP have short-lived disease and will not need treatm...

N-acylethanolamine regulation of TLR3-induced hyperthermia and neuroinflammatory gene e...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243641
Journal of Neuroimmunology; Flannery LE, Kerr DM et. al.

Jul 16th, 2021 - Increasing evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, is associated with increased risk of developing neurological or psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety or dementia. While the precise mechanism underlying this association is unknown, aberrant activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)3, a viral recognizing pattern recognition receptor, may pl...

Effectiveness and safety of romiplostim among patients with newly diagnosed, persistent...
https://doi.org/10.1080/16078454.2021.1948209
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands); Skopec B, Sninska Z et. al.

Jul 10th, 2021 - The objective of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness and safety of romiplostim in the real-world by duration of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): <3 ('newly diagnosed'), 3-12 ('persistent'), and >12 ('chronic') months. This was a post-hoc analysis of the PLATON single-arm, observational cohort study of adults from five Central and Eastern European countries receiving ≥1 romiplost...

The liver X receptor agonist LXR 623 restricts flavivirus replication.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259867
Emerging Microbes & Infections; Mlera L, Offerdahl DK et. al.

Jun 25th, 2021 - The vector-borne flaviviruses (VBFVs) are well known for causing great misery and death in humans worldwide. The VBFVs include those transmitted by mosquitos, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus; and those transmitted by ticks including the tick-borne flavivirus serocomplex and Powassan virus (POWV). Two of our recent reports showed that intracranial POWV infection in the reservoir host, Pe...

Nebulized curcumin protects neonatal lungs from antenatal insult in rats.
https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00195.2021
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecul... Guillier C, Carrière D et. al.

Jun 24th, 2021 - Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), one of the major complications of prematurity. Antenatal low-protein diet (LPD) exposure in rats induces IUGR and mimics BPD-related alveolarization disorders. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) plays a key role in normal lung development and was found deregulated following LPD expos...

Management of Symptomatic Uterine Leiomyomas: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 228.
https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004401
Obstetrics and Gynecology;

May 21st, 2021 - Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common solid and symptomatic neoplasm in women. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy (1, 2), which is a definitive and effective surgical treatment for leiomyoma. However, many patients benefit from and seek out management options other than hysterectomy because they desire future childbearing or wish to retain their uterus. The purpose of ...

Targeting Treg cells with GITR activation alleviates resistance to immunotherapy in mur...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113440
Nature Communications; Amoozgar Z, Kloepper J et. al.

May 13th, 2021 - Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have failed in all phase III glioblastoma (GBM) trials. Here, we show that regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in GBM resistance to ICBs in experimental gliomas. Targeting glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related receptor (GITR) in Treg cells using an agonistic antibody (αGITR) promotes CD4 Treg cell differentiation into CD4 effector T cells, alleviates Treg c...

PPARγ agonists promote the resolution of myelofibrosis in preclinical models.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159700
The Journal of Clinical Investigation; Lambert J, Saliba J et. al.

Apr 30th, 2021 - Myelofibrosis (MF) is a non-BCR-ABL myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with poor outcomes. Current treatment has little effect on the natural history of the disease. MF results from complex interactions between (a) the malignant clone, (b) an inflammatory context, and (c) remodeling of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Each of these points is a potential target of PPARγ activation. Her...

Hsa-miR-107 regulates chemosensitivity and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carc...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109096
Aging Chen HA, Li CC et. al.

Apr 27th, 2021 - Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common type of liver cancer. Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is a major problem in cancer therapy. MicroRNAs have been reported in cancer development and tumor growth; however, the relationship between chemoresistance and hepatocellular carcinoma needs to be fully investigated. Here, we treated hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HA22T) with a histone deacety...

From nicotine to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex - Can nicotine alleviate the ...
https://doi.org/10.1080/1547691X.2021.1875085
Journal of Immunotoxicology; Gauthier AG, Lin M et. al.

Apr 17th, 2021 - The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 of 2019 (COVID-19) causes a pandemic that has been diagnosed in more than 70 million people worldwide. Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms include coughing, fever, myalgia, shortness of breath, and acute inflammatory lung injury (ALI). In contrast, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure occur in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19. ARDS ...

Naturally-occurring spinosyn A and its derivatives function as argininosuccinate syntha...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050083
Nature Communications; Zou Z, Hu X et. al.

Apr 17th, 2021 - Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) is a ubiquitous enzyme in mammals that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinate from citrulline and aspartate. ASS1 genetic deficiency in patients leads to an autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder citrullinemia, while its somatic silence or down-regulation is very common in various human cancers. Here, we show that ASS1 functions as a tumor suppressor in ...

Central nervous system involvement in adult-onset relapsing hemophagocytic lymphohistio...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577552
Journal of Neuroimmunology; Hiraldo JDG, Domínguez-Mayoral A et. al.

Apr 13th, 2021 - A 43 year-old male presented with a relapsing and progressive systemic inflammatory disorder with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. After a two years follow up, he was diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), based on clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Treatment was started with anakinra, a recombinant humanised interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist. Clin...

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is essential for the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hyper...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980441
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Masaki T, Okazawa M et. al.

Apr 11th, 2021 - Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by arteriopathy in the small to medium-sized distal pulmonary arteries, often accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a nuclear receptor/transcription factor, detoxifies xenobiotics and regulates the differentiation and function of various immune cells. However, the role of A...

Lipocalin 2 mediates appetite suppression during pancreatic cancer cachexia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024334
Nature Communications; Olson B, Zhu X et. al.

Apr 8th, 2021 - Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) was recently identified as an endogenous ligand of the type 4 melanocortin receptor (MC4R), a critical regulator of appetite. However, it remains unknown if this molecule influences appetite during cancer cachexia, a devastating clinical entity characterized by decreased nutrition and progressive wasting. We demonstrate that LCN2 is robustly upregulated in murine models of pa...

STING Agonist Mitigates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Stimulating Type I...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406342
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950); Johnson BM, Uchimura T et. al.

Apr 7th, 2021 - The cGAS-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP)-stimulator of IFN genes (STING) pathway induces a powerful type I IFN (IFN-I) response and is a prime candidate for augmenting immunity in cancer immunotherapy and vaccines. IFN-I also has immune-regulatory functions manifested in several autoimmune diseases and is a first-line therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However, it is only moderately eff...

Glatiramer acetate attenuates depressive/anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive deficits ...
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Psychopharmacology Salihu SA, Ghafari H et. al.

Apr 3rd, 2021 - Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder with adverse effects on mood, memory, and quality of life. In this study, the antidepressant potential of glatiramer acetate (GA), a drug used in the management of multiple sclerosis, was investigated in acute and chronic models of depression in male mice. The acute antidepressant screening was performed with the forced swim (FST) and t...

The Toll-Like Receptor 5 agonist flagellin prevents Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009382
PloS One; Pérez-Cruz M, Koné B et. al.

Mar 31st, 2021 - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The major bacterial cause of COPD exacerbations is non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). 25 to over 80% of cases are associated with NTHi. This susceptibility to infection involves a defective production of interleukin (IL)-22 which plays an important role in mucosal defense. Prophylactic a...