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About 26,570 results

Coronin 2B Regulates Neuronal Migration via Rac1-Dependent Multipolar-Bipolar Transition.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9838710
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of The... Chen Y, Xu Z et. al.

Jan 15th, 2023 - In the developing cortex, excitatory neurons migrate along the radial fibers to their final destinations and build up synaptic connection with each other to form functional circuitry. The shaping of neuronal morphologies by actin cytoskeleton dynamics is crucial for neuronal migration. However, it is largely unknown how the distribution and assembly of the F-actin cytoskeleton are coordinated. ...

FtsEX-independent control of RipA-mediated cell separation in Corynebacteriales.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2214599119
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Gaday Q, Megrian D et. al.

Dec 6th, 2022 - The bacterial cell wall is a multi-layered mesh, whose major component is peptidoglycan (PG), a sugar polymer cross-linked by short peptide stems. During cell division, a careful balance of PG synthesis and degradation, precisely coordinated both in time and space, is necessary to prevent uncontrolled destruction of the cell wall. In Corynebacteriales, the D,L endopeptidase RipA has emerged as ...

Regenerative failure of intrahepatic biliary cells in Alagille syndrome rescued by elev...
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2201097119
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Zhao C, Matalonga J et. al.

Dec 6th, 2022 - Despite the robust healing capacity of the liver, regenerative failure underlies numerous hepatic diseases, including the JAG1 haploinsufficient disorder, Alagille syndrome (ALGS). Cholestasis due to intrahepatic duct (IHD) paucity resolves in certain ALGS cases but fails in most with no clear mechanisms or therapeutic interventions. We find that modulating jag1b and jag2b allele dosage is suff...

Human fetal cerebellar cell atlas informs medulloblastoma origin and oncogenesis.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05487-2
Nature Luo Z, Xia M et. al.

Dec 1st, 2022 - Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant childhood brain tumour1,2, yet the origin of the most aggressive subgroup-3 form remains elusive, impeding development of effective targeted treatments. Previous analyses of mouse cerebella3-5 have not fully defined the compositional heterogeneity of MBs. Here we undertook single-cell profiling of freshly isolated human fetal cerebella to establ...

LncRNA and mRNA profiles of human milk-derived exosomes and their possible roles in pro...
https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo01866g
Food & Function; Yan X, Liu L et. al.

Dec 1st, 2022 - Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most severe diseases commonly afflicting premature infants. Our previous studies suggests that human milk-derived exosomes (HM-Exos) have a potential therapeutic effect on NEC. In this study, we investigate the potentially therapeutic role of HM-Exos in an NEC animal model via comprehensive lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles. A rat model of NEC was...

A spatiotemporally resolved single-cell atlas of the Plasmodium liver stage.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05406-5
Nature Afriat A, Zuzarte-Luís V et. al.

Nov 10th, 2022 - Malaria infection involves an obligatory, yet clinically silent liver stage1,2. Hepatocytes operate in repeating units termed lobules, exhibiting heterogeneous gene expression patterns along the lobule axis3, but the effects of hepatocyte zonation on parasite development at the molecular level remain unknown. Here we combine single-cell RNA sequencing4 and single-molecule transcript imaging5 to...

Maturation and circuit integration of transplanted human cortical organoids.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9556304
Nature Revah O, Gore F et. al.

Oct 13th, 2022 - Self-organizing neural organoids represent a promising in vitro platform with which to model human development and disease1-5. However, organoids lack the connectivity that exists in vivo, which limits maturation and makes integration with other circuits that control behaviour impossible. Here we show that human stem cell-derived cortical organoids transplanted into the somatosensory cortex of ...

An LKB1-mitochondria axis controls TH17 effector function.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9844518
Nature Baixauli F, Piletic K et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - CD4+ T cell differentiation requires metabolic reprogramming to fulfil the bioenergetic demands of proliferation and effector function, and enforce specific transcriptional programmes1-3. Mitochondrial membrane dynamics sustains mitochondrial processes4, including respiration and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism5, but whether mitochondrial membrane remodelling orchestrates CD4+ T cell ...

A kinase-independent function of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 promotes outer radial glia e...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9499540
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Wang L, Park JY et. al.

Sep 13th, 2022 - The neocortex, the center for higher brain function, first emerged in mammals and has become massively expanded and folded in humans, constituting almost half the volume of the human brain. Primary microcephaly, a developmental disorder in which the brain is smaller than normal at birth, results mainly from there being fewer neurons in the neocortex because of defects in neural progenitor cells...

CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis Drives the Chemotaxis and Differentiation of B Cells in Bullous Pemph...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2022.08.041
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology; Fang H, Xue K et. al.

Sep 9th, 2022 - Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous skin disease characterized by autoantibodies against the hemidesmosomal proteins in the skin and mucous membranes. The efficiency of B-cell‒targeting biologics in BP indicates the important role of B cells in its pathogenesis. However, abnormal B-cell migration and differentiation in BP require further elucidation. We showed that the number of an...

A RORγt+ cell instructs gut microbiota-specific Treg cell differentiation.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05089-y
Nature Kedmi R, Najar TA et. al.

Sep 8th, 2022 - The mutualistic relationship of gut-resident microbiota and the host immune system promotes homeostasis that ensures maintenance of the microbial community and of a largely non-aggressive immune cell compartment1,2. The consequences of disturbing this balance include proximal inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn's disease, and systemic illnesses. This equilibrium is achieved in part through t...

The Effect of Yes-Associated Protein on the Interaction Between the MEK/Extracellular S...
https://doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000008115
The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery; Dong X, Zhang M et. al.

Aug 31st, 2022 - C342Y (Cys342Tyr) point mutation of FGFR2 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 2) is closely associated with the pathogenesis of Crouzon syndrome. The dura mater plays an important role in mediating the closure of cranial sutures. However, the underlying mechanisms of these pathological processes have been rarely investigated. in this study, the authors analyzed the effects of dura cells with FGF...

Patient-associated mutations in Drosophila Alk perturb neuronal differentiation and pro...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9403751
Disease Models & Mechanisms; Pfeifer K, Wolfstetter G et. al.

Aug 17th, 2022 - Activating anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) mutations occur in pediatric neuroblastoma and are associated with poor prognosis. To study ALK-activating mutations in a genetically controllable system, we employed CRIPSR/Cas9, incorporating orthologs of the human oncogenic mutations ALKF1174L and ALKY1278S in the Drosophila Alk locus. AlkF1251L and AlkY1355S mutant D...

Mechanosensitive cation currents through TRPC6 and Piezo1 channels in human pulmonary a...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9485000
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology; Zhao T, Parmisano S et. al.

Aug 16th, 2022 - Mechanosensitive cation channels and Ca2+ influx through these channels play an important role in the regulation of endothelial cell functions. Transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) is a diacylglycerol-sensitive nonselective cation channel that forms receptor-operated Ca2+ channels in a variety of cell types. Piezo1 is a mechanosensitive cation channel activated by membrane s...

Secreted fungal virulence effector triggers allergic inflammation via TLR4.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05005-4
Nature Dang EV, Lei S et. al.

Jul 28th, 2022 - Invasive fungal pathogens are major causes of human mortality and morbidity1,2. Although numerous secreted effector proteins that reprogram innate immunity to promote virulence have been identified in pathogenic bacteria, so far, there are no examples of analogous secreted effector proteins produced by human fungal pathogens. Cryptococcus neoformans, the most common cause of fungal meningitis a...

Persistent Maintenance of Intermediate Memory B Cells Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection an...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9364791
Journal of Virology; Pušnik J, König J et. al.

Jul 22nd, 2022 - Robust population-wide immunity will help to curb the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. To maintain the immunity at protective levels, the quality and persistence of the immune response elicited by infection or vaccination must be determined. We analyzed the dynamics of B cell response during 12 months following SARS-CoV-2 infection on an individual level. In contrast to antibodies, memory B cells specific...

Cell atlas of the human ocular anterior segment: Tissue-specific and shared cell types.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9303934
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... van Zyl T, Yan W et. al.

Jul 21st, 2022 - The anterior segment of the eye consists of the cornea, iris, ciliary body, crystalline lens, and aqueous humor outflow pathways. Together, these tissues are essential for the proper functioning of the eye. Disorders of vision have been ascribed to defects in all of them; some disorders, including glaucoma and cataract, are among the most prevalent causes of blindness in the world. To character...

The administration of amnion-derived multipotent cell secretome ST266 protects against ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9448291
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Live... Sodhi CP, Ahmad R et. al.

Jul 13th, 2022 - Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and is steadily rising in frequency. Patients who develop NEC have a very high mortality, illustrating the importance of developing novel prevention or treatment approaches. We and others have shown that NEC arises in part from exaggerated signaling via the bacterial receptor, Toll-l...

B-cell repopulation dynamics and drug pharmacokinetics impact SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effica...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9349816
European Journal of Neurology; Asplund Högelin K, Ruffin N et. al.

Jul 10th, 2022 - Recent findings document a blunted humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients on anti-CD20 treatment. Although most patients develop a cellular response, it is still important to identify predictors of seroconversion to optimize vaccine responses. We determined antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a real-world cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (n = 94) treated with...

Deciphering the immunopeptidome in vivo reveals new tumour antigens.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04839-2
Nature Jaeger AM, Stopfer LE et. al.

Jun 16th, 2022 - Immunosurveillance of cancer requires the presentation of peptide antigens on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules1-5. Current approaches to profiling of MHC-I-associated peptides, collectively known as the immunopeptidome, are limited to in vitro investigation or bulk tumour lysates, which limits our understanding of cancer-specific patterns of antigen presentation in viv...