About 56,830 results

Network machine learning maps phytochemically rich "Hyperfoods" to fight COVID-19.
Human Genomics; Laponogov I, Gonzalez G et. al.

Jan 2nd, 2021 - In this paper, we introduce a network machine learning method to identify potential bioactive anti-COVID-19 molecules in foods based on their capacity to target the SARS-CoV-2-host gene-gene (protein-protein) interactome. Our analyses were performed using a supercomputing DreamLab App platform, harnessing the idle computational power of thousands of smartphones. Machine learning models were ini...

Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Wilson MR, Naccache SN et. al.

Jun 4th, 2014 - A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 se...

Spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Ashley EA, Dhorda M et. al.

Jul 30th, 2014 - Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in Southeast Asia and now poses a threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Mapping the geographic extent of resistance is essential for planning containment and elimination strategies. Between May 2011 and April 2013, we enrolled 1241 adults and children with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an open-label trial at 15...

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and culture conversion with bedaquiline.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diacon AH, Pym A et. al.

Aug 20th, 2014 - Bedaquiline (Sirturo, TMC207), a diarylquinoline that inhibits mycobacterial ATP synthase, has been associated with accelerated sputum-culture conversion in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, when added to a preferred background regimen for 8 weeks. In this phase 2b trial, we randomly assigned 160 patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to re...

Four-month moxifloxacin-based regimens for drug-sensitive tuberculosis.
The New England Journal of Medicine; Gillespie SH, Crook AM et. al.

Sep 9th, 2014 - Early-phase and preclinical studies suggest that moxifloxacin-containing regimens could allow for effective 4-month treatment of uncomplicated, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to test the noninferiority of two moxifloxacin-containing regimens as compared with a control regimen. One group of patients received isoni...

Synergistic activity of rifampicin and ethambutol against slow-growing nontuberculous m...
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents; van Ingen J, Hoefsloot W et. al.

May 14th, 2013 - A key issue in the treatment of disease caused by slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is the limited association between in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and the in vivo outcome of treatment with these drugs. Combined susceptibility testing to rifampicin and ethambutol could provide a more realistic view of the efficacy of these drugs. In...

Human papillomavirus outcomes in an access-to-care laryngeal cancer cohort.
Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal ... Stephen JK, Chen KM et. al.

Jan 23rd, 2012 - Human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, is a causative agent for 25% of head and neck squamous cell cancer, including laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC). HPV-positive (HPV+ve) patients, particularly those with oropharyngeal SCC, have improved prognosis. For LSCC patients, this remains to be established. The goal was to determine stage and survival outcomes in LSCC in the context of H...

Update on rapid diagnostic testing for malaria.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews; Murray CK, Gasser RA et. al.

Jan 18th, 2008 - To help mitigate the expanding global impact of malaria, with its associated increasing drug resistance, implementation of prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed. Malaria is diagnosed predominantly by using clinical criteria, with microscopy as the current gold standard for detecting parasitemia, even though it is clearly inadequate in many health care settings. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) h...

Enterovirus and Parechovirus Surveillance - United States, 2014-2016.
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Abedi GR, Watson JT et. al.

May 10th, 2018 - Infections caused by enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (PeV), members of the Picornaviridae family, are associated with various clinical manifestations, including hand, foot, and mouth disease; respiratory illness; myocarditis; meningitis; and sepsis; and can result in death. The genus Enterovirus includes four species of enterovirus (A-D) known to infect humans, and the genus Parechovirus ...

Microbiologic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium tetani i...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; Campbell JI, Lam TM et. al.

May 1st, 2009 - Clostridium tetani is the etiologic agent of the muscle-spasming disease tetanus. Despite an effective vaccine, tetanus is an ongoing problem in some developing countries. Diagnosis by bacterial culture is not done because it is generally unnecessary and the entry of route of the bacteria can be inapparent. We attempted to isolate and evaluate C. tetani from the wounds of 84 patients with tetan...

Clostridium difficile pancolitis in adults with cystic fibrosis.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis : Official Journal of the Euro... Barker HC, Haworth CS et. al.

Jun 30th, 2008 - We report three cases of Clostridium difficile pancolitis in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) in whom the presenting symptoms were atypical. All three required treatment with systemic steroids, in addition to oral vancomycin and metronidazole to achieve resolution of the colitis. This experience suggests that C. difficile colitis should be considered in individuals with CF presenting with non-s...

Mycobacterium xenopi clinical relevance and determinants, the Netherlands.
Emerging Infectious Diseases; van Ingen J, Boeree MJ et. al.

Mar 7th, 2008 - In the Netherlands, isolation of Mycobacterium xenopi is infrequent, and its clinical relevance is often uncertain. To determine clinical relevance and determinants, we retrospectively reviewed medical files of all patients in the Netherlands in whom M. xenopi was isolated from January 1999 through March 2005 by using diagnostic criteria for nontuberculous mycobacterial infection published by t...

Clinical outcomes in infants with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (...
Pediatric Pulmonology; Ren CL, Desai H et. al.

May 3rd, 2011 - An unavoidable outcome of cystic fibrosis newborn screening (CF NBS) programs is the detection of infants with an indeterminate diagnosis. The United States CF Foundation recently proposed the term cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator related metabolic syndrome (CRMS) to describe infants with elevated immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) on NBS who do not meet diagnostic criteria for...

Mycobacterial genotypes are associated with clinical manifestation and progression of l...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Shin SJ, Choi GE et. al.

Mar 20th, 2013 - Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense, which cause lung disease, are variable in their clinical manifestation and progression. We hypothesized that mycobacterial genotypes represent their pathogenic phenotypes, which would result in particular genotypes being associated with disease progression. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci were selected to establish a genotype assa...

Risk of Buruli ulcer and detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in mosquitoes in southeast...
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases; Lavender CJ, Fyfe JA et. al.

Sep 28th, 2011 - Buruli ulcer (BU) is a destructive skin condition caused by infection with the environmental bacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans. The mode of transmission of M. ulcerans is not completely understood, but several studies have explored the role of biting insects. In this study, we tested for an association between the detection of M. ulcerans in mosquitoes and the risk of BU disease in humans in an...

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Caused by Maripa Virus in French Guiana, 2008-2016.
Emerging Infectious Diseases; Matheus S, Kallel H et. al.

Sep 20th, 2017 - We report 5 human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome found during surveillance in French Guiana in 2008-2016; of the 5 patients, 4 died. This pathogen should continue to be monitored in humans and rodents in effort to reduce the occurrence of these lethal infections in humans stemming from ecosystem disturbances.

Micafungin treatment and eradication of candiduria among hospitalized patients.
International Urology and Nephrology; Gabardi S, Martin S et. al.

Sep 2nd, 2016 - In high-risk patients, candiduria may be associated with the development of urinary tract infections (UTI) and invasive candidiasis. The triazole antifungals achieve good urine concentrations, but their use is limited by the emergence of non-albicans Candida spp. with low-triazole susceptibility. The echinocandins remain fungicidal against many azole-resistant Candida spp., but low urine concen...

Congenital and opportunistic infections: Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis.
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine; Waites KB, Schelonka RL et. al.

Dec 25th, 2008 - There is strong evidence from clinical and experimental animal studies that ureaplasmas can invade the amnionic sac and induce an inflammatory response resulting in chorioamnionitis, preterm labor and neonatal lung injury. The ability of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis to cause pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis in newborns can no longer be questioned. The association of Ureaplasma sp...

Clinical features of cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients.
American Journal of Ophthalmology; Chee SP, Bacsal K et. al.

Feb 7th, 2008 - To describe the clinical presentation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients. Retrospective, interventional case series. HIV-negative patients with anterior uveitis associated with elevated intraocular pressure (hypertensive anterior uveitis) seen at the Singapore National Eye Centre had their aqueous analyzed for viral deoxyribonucleic...

Global burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children: a mathematical modelling study.
The Lancet. Infectious Diseases; Dodd PJ, Sismanidis C et. al.

Jun 27th, 2016 - After infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, children are at an increased risk of progression to tuberculosis disease; a condition that can be challenging to diagnose. New estimation approaches for children have highlighted the gap between incidence and notifications of M tuberculosis, and suggest there are more cases of isoniazid-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) disease than are ide...