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About 17,675 results

A novel class of TMPRSS2 inhibitors potently block SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV viral entry ...
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2108728118
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Mahoney M, Damalanka VC et. al.

Oct 13th, 2021 - The host cell serine protease TMPRSS2 is an attractive therapeutic target for COVID-19 drug discovery. This protease activates the Spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and of other coronaviruses and is essential for viral spread in the lung. Utilizing rational structure-based drug design (SBDD) coupled to substrate specificity screening of TMPRSS2, we ha...

Hamster organotypic modeling of SARS-CoV-2 lung and brainstem infection.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490365
Nature Communications; Ferren M, Favède V et. al.

Oct 6th, 2021 - SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic of COVID-19 since its emergence in December 2019. The infection causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome and may also spread to central nervous system leading to neurological sequelae. We have developed and characterized two new organotypic cultures from hamster brainstem and lung tissues that offer a unique opportunity to study the early steps of viral...

Metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease and coronavirus disease 2019: clin...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487451
Lipids in Health and Disease; Xu Y, Yang X et. al.

Oct 5th, 2021 - The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) w...

Human commensal gut Proteobacteria withstand type VI secretion attacks through immunity...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8486750
Nature Communications; Flaugnatti N, Isaac S et. al.

Oct 3rd, 2021 - While the major virulence factors for Vibrio cholerae, the cause of the devastating diarrheal disease cholera, have been extensively studied, the initial intestinal colonization of the bacterium is not well understood because non-human adult animals are refractory to its colonization. Recent studies suggest the involvement of an interbacterial killing device known as the type VI secretion syste...

Possible future waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection generated by variants of concern with a r...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484271
Nature Communications; Dyson L, Hill EM et. al.

Oct 2nd, 2021 - Viral reproduction of SARS-CoV-2 provides opportunities for the acquisition of advantageous mutations, altering viral transmissibility, disease severity, and/or allowing escape from natural or vaccine-derived immunity. We use three mathematical models: a parsimonious deterministic model with homogeneous mixing; an age-structured model; and a stochastic importation model to investigate the effec...

Genomic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in Rwanda reveals the importance of incoming travelers...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481346
Nature Communications; Butera Y, Mukantwari E et. al.

Oct 1st, 2021 - COVID-19 transmission rates are often linked to locally circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe 203 SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences analyzed from strains circulating in Rwanda from May 2020 to February 2021. In particular, we report a shift in variant distribution towards the emerging sub-lineage A.23.1 that is currently dominating. Furthermore, we report the detection of the firs...

Toxoplasmosis is a risk factor for acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and a severe course o...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477627
Parasites & Vectors; Flegr J

Sep 30th, 2021 - Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. a lifelong infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, affects about a third of the human population worldwide. In the past 10 years, numerous studies have shown that infected individuals have a significantly higher incidence of mental and physical health problems and are more prone to exhibiting the adverse effects of various diseases. A cross-sectional ...

Dialogue between Neuroinflammation and Neurodegenerative Diseases in COVID-19.
https://doi.org/10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2021038365
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncolo... Chowdhury B, Sharma A et. al.

Sep 30th, 2021 - It has now been almost a year since the emergence of the deadly SARS-CoV-2 with millions of people losing their lives due to resultant COVID-19. Apart from the well-known consequences of respiratory illnesses, it has even effortlessly mapped itself into the nervous system through routes like blood, CSF, neurons, and olfactory cells. Interestingly, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the nervous ...

Targeting novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with phytoconstituents of Momordic...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8474883
Journal of Ovarian Research; Singh SK, Singh S et. al.

Sep 29th, 2021 - Infections by the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 are presently a global emergency. The current vaccination effort may reduce the infection rate, but strain variants are emerging under selection pressure. Thus, there is an urgent need to find drugs that treat COVID-19 and save human lives. Hence, in this study, we identified phytoconstituents of an edible vegetable, Bitter melon (Momordica ch...

Characterization and structural basis of a lethal mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476561
Nature Communications; Sun S, Gu H et. al.

Sep 29th, 2021 - There is an urgent need for animal models to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Here, we generate and characterize a novel mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain, MASCp36, that causes severe respiratory symptoms, and mortality. Our model exhibits age- and gender-related mortality akin to severe COVID-19. Deep sequencing identified three amino acid substitutions, N501Y, Q493H, and K417N, at the receptor b...

Development of a model-inference system for estimating epidemiological characteristics ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458278
Nature Communications; Yang W, Shaman J

Sep 24th, 2021 - To support COVID-19 pandemic planning, we develop a model-inference system to estimate epidemiological properties of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern using case and mortality data while accounting for under-ascertainment, disease seasonality, non-pharmaceutical interventions, and mass-vaccination. Applying this system to study three variants of concern, we estimate that B.1.1.7 has a 46.6% (9...

Orthogonal genome-wide screens of bat cells identify MTHFD1 as a target of broad antivi...
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2104759118
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Anderson DE, Cui J et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2021 - Bats are responsible for the zoonotic transmission of several major viral diseases, including those leading to the 2003 SARS outbreak and likely the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While comparative genomics studies have revealed characteristic adaptations of the bat innate immune system, functional genomic studies are urgently needed to provide a foundation for the molecular dissection of the viral...

Effects of endurance training on the expression of host proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440939
Physiological Reports; Tamura Y, Jee E et. al.

Sep 16th, 2021 - The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is threatening people's lives and impacting their health. It is still unclear whether people engaged in physical activity are at an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe forms of COVID-19. In order to provide data to help answer this question, we, therefore, inve...

Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine against malaria in infants in west...
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01470-y 10.1038/nature15535 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001685 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60721-8 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00239-X 10.1126/science.1241800 10.1038/nm.4110 10.1126/science.1211548 10.1073/pnas.1615324114 10.1038/nature21060 10.1126/science.1704150 10.1084/jem.151.6.1504 10.1073/pnas.85.2.573 10.4049/jimmunol.1700314 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30104-4 10.1172/jci.insight.89154 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0835 10.4049/jimmunol.1202438 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002389 10.1186/s12936-019-2702-5 10.1038/s41598-017-10624-3 10.4049/jimmunol.172.3.1637 10.1038/s41591-018-0315-0 10.4269/ajtmh.17-1014 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2006.00479.x 10.1038/nri3384 10.1038/nri2781 10.1016/S0140-6736(72)90569-7 10.1093/infdis/153.4.763 10.1038/312449a0 10.1093/cid/ciz925 10.1186/1475-2875-10-223 10.1128/JCM.00565-14 10.1016/S0166-6851(01)00379-6 10.1016/j.jim.2016.08.009 10.1002/cyto.a.24189 10.1093/bioinformatics/btw191 10.1093/aje/kwh090 10.1214/aos/1176345976
Nature Medicine; Oneko M, Steinhardt LC et. al.

Sep 15th, 2021 - The radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) vaccine provides protection against P. falciparum infection in malaria-naïve adults. Preclinical studies show that T cell-mediated immunity is required for protection and is readily induced in humans after vaccination. However, previous malaria exposure can limit immune responses and vaccine efficacy (VE) in adults. We hypothesiz...

RS-5645 attenuates inflammatory cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416739
International Journal of Biological Sciences; Liu T, Wu J et. al.

Sep 14th, 2021 - An inflammatory cytokine storm is considered an important cause of death in severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients, however, the relationship between the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and the host's inflammatory cytokine storm is not clear. Here, the qPCR results indicated that S protein induced a significantly elevated expression of multiple inflammatory factor mRNAs in peripheral blood ...

Global adoption of personal and social mitigation behaviors during COVID-19: The role o...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425551
PloS One; Jones P, Menon A et. al.

Sep 9th, 2021 - What influences the adoption of SARS-CoV-2 mitigation behaviors-both personal, such as mask wearing and frequent handwashing, and social, such as avoiding large gatherings and physical contact-across countries? Understanding why some individuals are more willing to change their behavior to mitigate the spread of a pandemic will not only help us to address the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic but als...

Time-series analyses of directional sequence changes in SARS-CoV-2 genomes and an effic...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.100038
Gene Wada K, Wada Y et. al.

Sep 9th, 2021 - We first conducted time-series analysis of mono- and dinucleotide composition for over 10,000 SARS-CoV-2 genomes, as well as over 1500 Zaire ebolavirus genomes, and found clear time-series changes in the compositions on a monthly basis, which should reflect viral adaptations for efficient growth in human cells. We next developed a sequence alignment free method that extensively searches for adv...

SARS-CoV-2 infections among Australian passengers on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423262
PloS One; Walker LJ, Codreanu TA et. al.

Sep 8th, 2021 - Prolonged periods of confined living on a cruise ship increase the risk for respiratory disease transmission. We describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Australian passengers on the Diamond Princess cruise ship and provide recommendations to mitigate future cruise ship outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Australian passengers who tr...

Mental Health Issues During and After COVID-19 Vaccine Era.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414813
Brain Research Bulletin; Pandey K, Thurman M et. al.

Sep 7th, 2021 - The COVID-19 pandemic has persisted for more than a year, and post-COVID-19 sequelae of neurological complications, including direct and indirect effects on the central nervous system (CNS), have been recognized. There is a plethora of evidence for neurological, cognitive, and emotional deficits in COVID-19 patients. Acute neurological symptoms like neuroinflammation, cognitive impairment, loss...

Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484067
Nature Microbiology; Sulaiman I, Chung M et. al.

Sep 2nd, 2021 - Respiratory failure is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. There are no validated lower airway biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections were associated with poor clinical outcome of COVID-19 in a prospective, observational cohort of 589 critically ill adults, all of whom required mechanical ventilation. For a subset o...