About 19,745 results

Regulatory basis for reproductive flexibility in a meningitis-causing fungal pathogen.
Nature Communications; Hu P, Ding H et. al.

Dec 25th, 2022 - Pathogenic fungi of the genus Cryptococcus can undergo two sexual cycles, involving either bisexual diploidization (after fusion of haploid cells of different mating type) or unisexual diploidization (by autodiploidization of a single cell). Here, we construct a gene-deletion library for 111 transcription factor genes in Cryptococcus deneoformans, and explore the roles of these regulatory netwo...

SARS-CoV-2 infection and persistence in the human body and brain at autopsy.
Nature Stein SR, Ramelli SC et. al.

Dec 15th, 2022 - Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause multi-organ dysfunction1-3 during acute infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with some patients experiencing prolonged symptoms, termed post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (refs. 4,5). However, the burden of infection outside the respiratory tract and time to viral clearance are not well characterized, p...

In vitro production of infectious Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites.
Nature Eappen AG, Li T et. al.

Dec 9th, 2022 - An effective vaccine is needed for the prevention and elimination of malaria. The only immunogens that have been shown to have a protective efficacy of more than 90% against human malaria are Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ) manufactured in mosquitoes (mPfSPZ)1-7. The ability to produce PfSPZ in vitro (iPfSPZ) without mosquitoes would substantially enhance the production of PfSPZ ...

Pathogenicity and Structural Basis of Zika Variants with Glycan Loop Deletions in the E...
Journal of Virology; Cheng ML, Yang YX et. al.

Nov 16th, 2022 - The glycan loop of Zika virus (ZIKV) envelope protein (E) contains the glycosylation site and has been well documented to be important for viral pathogenesis and transmission. In the present study, we report that deletions in the E glycan loop, which were recorded in African ZIKV strains previously, have re-emerged in their contemporary Asian lineages. Here, we generated recombinant ZIKV contai...

Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 isolates in rodents.
Nature Uraki R, Halfmann PJ et. al.

Nov 3rd, 2022 - The BA.2 sublineage of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has become dominant in most countries around the world; however, the prevalence of BA.4 and BA.5 is increasing rapidly in several regions. BA.2 is less pathogenic in animal models than previously circulating variants of concern1-4. Compared with BA.2, however, BA.4 and BA.5 possess additional substitutions in the spike protein, which play a ...

Evolution of immune genes is associated with the Black Death.
Nature Klunk J, Vilgalys TP et. al.

Oct 20th, 2022 - Infectious diseases are among the strongest selective pressures driving human evolution1,2. This includes the single greatest mortality event in recorded history, the first outbreak of the second pandemic of plague, commonly called the Black Death, which was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis3. This pandemic devastated Afro-Eurasia, killing up to 30-50% of the population4. To identify loci...

SARS-CoV-2 disrupts host epigenetic regulation via histone mimicry.
Nature Kee J, Thudium S et. al.

Oct 6th, 2022 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged at the end of 2019 and caused the devastating global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in part because of its ability to effectively suppress host cell responses1-3. In rare cases, viral proteins dampen antiviral responses by mimicking critical regions of human histone proteins4-8, particularly those containing ...

Beta Human Papillomavirus 8 E6 Induces Micronucleus Formation and Promotes Chromothripsis.
Journal of Virology; Dacus D, Stancic S et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Cutaneous beta genus human papillomaviruses (β-HPVs) are suspected to promote the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) by destabilizing the host genome. Multiple studies have established the genome destabilizing capacities of β-HPV proteins E6 and E7 as a cofactor with UV. However, the E6 protein from β-HPV8 (HPV8 E6) induces tumors in mice without UV exposure. Here, we examined a UV-i...

Common human genetic variants of APOE impact murine COVID-19 mortality.
Nature Ostendorf BN, Patel MA et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Clinical outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are highly heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The factors underlying this heterogeneity remain insufficiently understood. Genetic association studies have suggested that genetic variants contribute to the heterogeneity of COVID-19 outcomes, but the under...

The Spike-Stabilizing D614G Mutation Interacts with S1/S2 Cleavage Site Mutations To Pr...
Journal of Virology; Gellenoncourt S, Saunders N et. al.

Sep 20th, 2022 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remained genetically stable during the first 3 months of the pandemic, before acquiring a D614G spike mutation that rapidly spread worldwide and then generating successive waves of viral variants with increasingly high transmissibility. We set out to evaluate possible epistatic interactions between the early-occurring D614G mutation a...

How deadly is monkeypox? What scientists know.
Nature Kozlov M

Sep 14th, 2022 - How deadly is monkeypox? What scientists know.|2022|Kozlov M,|mortality,virology,pathogenicity,

Identification of trypsin-degrading commensals in the large intestine.
Nature Li Y, Watanabe E et. al.

Sep 8th, 2022 - Increased levels of proteases, such as trypsin, in the distal intestine have been implicated in intestinal pathological conditions1-3. However, the players and mechanisms that underlie protease regulation in the intestinal lumen have remained unclear. Here we show that Paraprevotella strains isolated from the faecal microbiome of healthy human donors are potent trypsin-degrading commensals. Mec...

The Amino Acid at Position 95 in the Matrix Protein of Rabies Virus Is Involved in Anti...
Journal of Virology; Kojima I, Onomoto K et. al.

Sep 8th, 2022 - Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic structures that store cytosolic messenger ribonucleoproteins. SGs have recently been shown to serve as a platform for activating antiviral innate immunity; however, several pathogenic viruses suppress SG formation to evade innate immunity. In this study, we investigated the relationship between rabies virus (RABV) virulence and SG formation, using viral strains...

Dysregulated naive B cells and de novo autoreactivity in severe COVID-19.
Nature Woodruff MC, Ramonell RP et. al.

Sep 1st, 2022 - Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection1 has been associated with highly inflammatory immune activation since the earliest days of the COVID-19 pandemic2-5. More recently, these responses have been associated with the emergence of self-reactive antibodies with pathologic potential6-10, although their origins and resolution have remained unclear11. Previously, we and others have identified extrafollicular B...

SARS-CoV-2 variant spike and accessory gene mutations alter pathogenesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... McGrath ME, Xue Y et. al.

Aug 31st, 2022 - The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health crisis. Despite the development and deployment of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pandemic persists. The continued spread of the virus is largely driven by the emergence of viral variants, which can evade the current vaccines through mutations in the spike protein. Although these difference...

The Omicron Variant BA.1.1 Presents a Lower Pathogenicity than B.1 D614G and Delta Vari...
Journal of Virology; Martins M, do Nascimento GM et. al.

Aug 25th, 2022 - Omicron (B.1.1.529) is the most recent SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, which emerged in late 2021 and rapidly achieved global predominance by early 2022. In this study, we compared the infection dynamics, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 D614G (B.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron BA.1.1 (B.1.1.529) variants in a highly susceptible feline model of infection. Altho...

Pandemic-scale phylogenomics reveals the SARS-CoV-2 recombination landscape.
Nature Turakhia Y, Thornlow B et. al.

Aug 12th, 2022 - Accurate and timely detection of recombinant lineages is crucial for interpreting genetic variation, reconstructing epidemic spread, identifying selection and variants of interest, and accurately performing phylogenetic analyses1-4. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, genomic data generation has exceeded the capacities of existing analysis platforms, thereby crippling real-time analysis of viral ev...

DOCK2 is involved in the host genetics and biology of severe COVID-19.
Nature Namkoong H, Edahiro R et. al.

Aug 9th, 2022 - Identifying the host genetic factors underlying severe COVID-19 is an emerging challenge1-5. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 2,393 cases of COVID-19 in a cohort of Japanese individuals collected during the initial waves of the pandemic, with 3,289 unaffected controls. We identified a variant on chromosome 5 at 5q35 (rs60200309-A), close to the dedicator of cyt...

Dysfunction of Ras-GAP protein AfgapA contributes to hypoxia fitness in Aspergillus fum...
Current Genetics; Bian C, Kusuya Y et. al.

Aug 9th, 2022 - The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important pathogenic fungus among Aspergillus species associated with aspergillosis. A. fumigatus must adapt to hypoxic microenvironments to survive and thrive in human lungs. To gain further insights into hypoxic adaptation, we generated a laboratory-evolved strain (Afs35-G20) harboring hypoxia fitness, and identified a nonsense mutation...

Coronaviruses exploit a host cysteine-aspartic protease for replication.
Nature Chu H, Hou Y et. al.

Aug 4th, 2022 - Highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (refs. 1,2) (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus3 (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-1 (ref. 4), vary in their transmissibility and pathogenicity. However, infection by all three viruses results in substantial apoptosis in cell culture5-7 and in patient tissues8-10, suggesting a potential link ...