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About 19,378 results

MERS-CoV endoribonuclease and accessory proteins jointly evade host innate immunity dur...
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2123208119
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Comar CE, Otter CJ et. al.

May 21st, 2022 - SignificanceMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes highly lethal respiratory disease. MERS-CoV encodes innate immune antagonists, including accessory proteins NS4a and NS4b, unique to the merbeco lineage of betacoronaviruses, and the nsp15 protein endoribonuclease (EndoU), conserved among all coronaviruses. While mutation of each antagonist protein alone has little effec...

Pathological Characteristics of Echovirus 30 Infection in a Mouse Model.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9093115
Journal of Virology; Li J, Zhang G et. al.

Apr 15th, 2022 - Echovirus 30 (E30), a member of species B enterovirus, is associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis and has become a global health emergency. However, the pathogenesis of E30 remains poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we established a mouse infection model to explore the pathogenicity of E30. The 2-day-old IFNAR-/- mice infected with E30 strain ...

Two Conserved Phenylalanine Residues in the E1 Fusion Loop of Alphaviruses Are Essentia...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9093095
Journal of Virology; Lucas CJ, Davenport BJ et. al.

Apr 14th, 2022 - Alphaviruses infect cells by a low pH-dependent fusion reaction between viral and host cell membranes that is mediated by the viral E1 glycoprotein. Most reported alphavirus E1 sequences include two phenylalanines (F87 and F95) in the fusion loop, yet the role of these residues in viral infectivity remains to be defined. Following introduction of wild type (WT), E1-F87A, and E1-F95A chikungunya...

Distinctive Roles of Furin and TMPRSS2 in SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9044946
Journal of Virology; Essalmani R, Jain J et. al.

Mar 29th, 2022 - The spike protein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) directs infection of the lungs and other tissues following its binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. For effective infection, the S protein is cleaved at two sites: S1/S2 and S2'. The "priming" of the surface S protein at S1/S2 (PRRAR685↓) [the underlined basic amino acids refer to cr...

The C terminus of the mycobacterium ESX-1 secretion system substrate ESAT-6 is required...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8931374
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Osman MM, Shanahan JK et. al.

Mar 11th, 2022 - SignificanceTuberculosis (TB), an ancient disease of humanity, continues to be a major cause of worldwide death. The causative agent of TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its close pathogenic relative Mycobacterium marinum, initially infect, evade, and exploit macrophages, a major host defense against invading pathogens. Within macrophages, mycobacteria reside within host membrane-bound compar...

Deep learning guided optimization of human antibody against SARS-CoV-2 variants with br...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8931377
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Shan S, Luo S et. al.

Mar 4th, 2022 - SignificanceSARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve through emerging variants, more frequently observed with higher transmissibility. Despite the wide application of vaccines and antibodies, the selection pressure on the Spike protein may lead to further evolution of variants that include mutations that can evade immune response. To catch up with the virus's evolution, we introduced a deep learning appr...

CD164 is a host factor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8915965
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Bakkers MJG, Moon-Walker A et. al.

Mar 3rd, 2022 - Significance Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is the prototypic arenavirus and has been utilized for decades as a model to understand the host immune response against viral infection. LCMV infection can lead to fatal meningitis in immunocompromised people and can lead to congenital birth defects and spontaneous abortion if acquired during pregnancy. Using a genetic screen, we uncover h...

Omicron: What Makes the Latest SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern So Concerning?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8941872
Journal of Virology; Jung C, Kmiec D et. al.

Mar 1st, 2022 - Emerging strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, that show increased transmission fitness and/or immune evasion are classified as "variants of concern" (VOCs). Recently, a SARS-CoV-2 variant first identified in November 2021 in South Africa has been recognized as a fifth VOC, termed "Omicro...

Transmission of and Infection With COVID-19 Among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Attendees...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8881767
JAMA Network Open; Wienkes H, Vilen K et. al.

Feb 26th, 2022 - Characterizing rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons with the same exposure is critical to understanding the association of vaccination with the risk of infection with the Delta variant. Additionally, evidence of Delta variant transmission by children to vaccinated adults has important public health implications. To characterize transmission and infection of SA...

Chromosome splitting of Plasmodium berghei using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8870493
PloS One; Addo-Gyan D, Matsushita H et. al.

Feb 25th, 2022 - Spatial arrangement of chromosomes is responsible for gene expression in Plasmodium parasites. However, methods for rearranging chromosomes have not been established, which makes it difficult to investigate its role in detail. Here, we report a method for splitting chromosome in rodent malaria parasite by CRISPR/Cas9 system using fragments in which a telomere and a centromere were incorporated....

The role of probiotics in children with autism spectrum disorders: A study protocol for...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8870536
PloS One; Zhang L, Xu Y et. al.

Feb 25th, 2022 - Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental condition that begins in infancy or earlier and lasts through the individual's lifetime. The aetiology and mechanisms of ASD are not yet fully understood, and current treatment comprises mainly education and rehabilitation, without significant improvement in the core symptoms. Recent studies suggest that microbiota change in chi...

Audio Interview: Understanding the Omicron Variant of SARS-CoV-2.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2202699
The New England Journal of Medicine; Rubin EJ, Baden LR et. al.

Feb 24th, 2022 - Audio Interview: Understanding the Omicron Variant of SARS-CoV-2.|2022|Rubin EJ,Baden LR,Morrissey S,|blood,epidemiology,immunology,transmission,virology,history,genetics,pathogenicity,physiology,epidemiology,immunology,

Population Immunity and Covid-19 Severity with Omicron Variant in South Africa.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8908853
The New England Journal of Medicine; Madhi SA, Kwatra G et. al.

Feb 24th, 2022 - The B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified on November 25, 2021, in Gauteng province, South Africa. Data regarding the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in Gauteng before the fourth wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), in which the omicron variant was dominant, are needed. We conducted a seroepidemiologic survey fr...

Uptake of infant and preschool immunisations in Scotland and England during the COVID-1...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8863286
PLoS Medicine; McQuaid F, Mulholland R et. al.

Feb 23rd, 2022 - In 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic and lockdown control measures threatened to disrupt routine childhood immunisation programmes with early reports suggesting uptake would fall. In response, public health bodies in Scotland and England collected national data for childhood immunisations on a weekly or monthly basis to allow for rapid analysis of trends. The aim of this study was to use...

Rough and smooth variants of Mycobacterium abscessus are differentially controlled by h...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8854618
Nature Communications; Kam JY, Hortle E et. al.

Feb 19th, 2022 - Prevalence of Mycobacterium abscessus infections is increasing in patients with respiratory comorbidities. After initial colonisation, M. abscessus smooth colony (S) variants can undergo an irreversible genetic switch into highly inflammatory, rough colony (R) variants, often associated with a decline in pulmonary function. Here, we use an adult zebrafish model of chronic infection with R and S...

Cell specific peripheral immune responses predict survival in critical COVID-19 patients.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8847593
Nature Communications; Amrute JM, Perry AM et. al.

Feb 17th, 2022 - SARS-CoV-2 triggers a complex systemic immune response in circulating blood mononuclear cells. The relationship between immune cell activation of the peripheral compartment and survival in critical COVID-19 remains to be established. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing and Cellular Indexing of Transcriptomes and Epitomes by sequence mapping to elucidate cell type specific transcriptional sig...

Immunogenic properties of empty pcDNA3 plasmid against zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8846536
PloS One; Montakhab-Yeganeh H, Shafiei R et. al.

Feb 16th, 2022 - Leishmania (L) parasite, the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), effectively stimulates the mammalian cells to mount strong humoral responses by enhancing T-helper-2 (Th2)-associated cytokines for its survival. The best strategy to decrease the intensity of infection in the host is induction of cellular immunity. We evaluated the effects of the empty bacterial pcDNA3 plas...

Superantigens promote Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection by eliciting pathogen...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8872782
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Tuffs SW, Goncheva MI et. al.

Feb 16th, 2022 - Staphylococcus aureus is a foremost bacterial pathogen responsible for a vast array of human diseases. Staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs) constitute a family of exotoxins from S. aureus that bind directly to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and T cell receptors to drive extensive T cell activation and cytokine release. Although these toxins have been implicated in serious diseas...

Host tissue proteomics reveal insights into the molecular basis of Schistosoma haematob...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8846513
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases; Osakunor DNM, Ishida K et. al.

Feb 16th, 2022 - Urogenital schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern worldwide. In response to egg deposition, the host bladder undergoes gross and molecular morphological changes relevant for disease manifestation. However, limited mechanistic studies to date imply that the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology are not well-defined. We leveraged a mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis to p...

Human SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to increase U content and reduce genome size.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8824384
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules; Wang Y, Chen XY et. al.

Feb 13th, 2022 - Infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 have brought great harm to human health. After transmission for over two years, SARS-CoV-2 has diverged greatly and formed dozens of different lineages. Understanding the trend of its genome evolution could help foresee difficulties in controlling transmission of the virus. In this study, we conducted an extensive monthly survey and in-depth analysis on variation...