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How to avoid the perils of uveitis diagnostic management

Jan 16th, 2022 - WAIKOLOA, Hawaii — It is important for physicians to consider “the perils that dwell” in the diagnostic management of patients with uveitis, Steven Yeh, MD, said during a presentation at Hawaiian Eye 2022. “With these patients being very complex oftentimes, we really just don’t want to miss something,” Yeh said. To better identify “the pearls amongst the perils” in uveitis diagnosis, it is impo...

RECOVER Researchers Express Hope and Frustration in Their Study of Long COVID
MedPage Today; DePeau-Wilson M.

Jul 23rd, 2022 - Slow enrollment has led to simmering frustrations over the progress and potential of the NIH's RECOVER Initiative, the research consortium focused on studying post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2, or long COVID, according to researchers and leaders within the initiative. The RECOVER Initiative was designed to support research on long COVID across the U.S., including among every group of people ...

Natural History and Development of Spondyloarthritis

Oct 14th, 2022 - The purpose of this protocol is to study the natural history of spondyloarthritis (SpA) in children and adults. Spondyloarthritis encompasses a spectrum of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases that exhibit overlapping features, but differ from other types of inflammatory arthritis in genetic predisposition, pathogenesis, and outcome. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the most common form of SpA, fr...

2021 American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.); Fraenkel L, Bathon JM et. al.

Jun 9th, 2021 - To develop updated guidelines for the pharmacologic management of rheumatoid arthritis. We developed clinically relevant population, intervention, comparator, and outcomes (PICO) questions. After conducting a systematic literature review, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to rate the certainty of evidence. A voting panel comprising c...

Immunogenicity of the BA.5 Bivalent mRNA Vaccine Boosters
BioRxiv Collier AY, .

Oct 25th, 2022 - Waning immunity following mRNA vaccination and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has led to reduced mRNA vaccine efficacy against both symptomatic infection and severe disease. Bivalent mRNA boosters expressing the Omicron BA.5 and ancestral WA1/2020 Spike proteins have been developed and approved, because BA.5 is currently the dominant SARS-CoV-2 variant and substantially evades neutralizin...

Antibody responses to Omicron BA.4/BA.5 bivalent mRNA vaccine booster shot
BioRxiv Wang Q, .

Oct 24th, 2022 - The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and its numerous sub-lineages have exhibited a striking ability to evade humoral immune responses induced by prior vaccination or infection. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently granted Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) to new bivalent formulations of the original Moderna and Pfizer mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that target both the ancestral strain as...

Evolution of immune genes is associated with the Black Death
Nature Klunk, J. et. al.

Oct 19th, 2022 - Infectious diseases are among the strongest selective pressures driving human evolution1,2. This includes the single greatest mortality event in recorded history, the first outbreak of the second pandemic of plague, commonly called the Black Death, which was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis3. This pandemic devastated Afro-Eurasia, killing up to 30–50% of the population4. To identify loci...

Black Death shaped evolution of immunity genes, setting course for how we respond to disease today
McMaster University; Donovan M.

Oct 19th, 2022 - An international team of scientists who analyzed centuries-old DNA from victims and survivors of the Black Death pandemic has identified key genetic differences that determined who lived and who died, and how those aspects of our immune systems have continued to evolve since that time. Researchers from McMaster University, the University of Chicago, the Pasteur Institute and other organizati...

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Antigen Test Positivity Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Health Care Workers in Los Angeles
Open Forum Infectious Diseases; Adamson PC, .

Oct 19th, 2022 - Surges of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among health care workers (HCWs) have led to critical staffing shortages. From January 4 to February 4, 2022, we implemented a return-to-work antigen testing program for HCWs, and 870 HCWs participated. Antigen test positivity was 60.5% for those ≤5 days from symptom onset or positive polymerase chain reaction (PC...

Prevalence of Positive Rapid Antigen Tests After 7-Day Isolation Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection in College Athletes During Omicron Variant Predominance
JAMA Network Open; Tsao J, Kussman A et. al.

Oct 18th, 2022 - One of the cornerstones of management during the COVID-19 pandemic has been to isolate individuals with infection to prevent viral spread. Guidelines for most of the pandemic have recommended 10 days of isolation.1 However, this prolonged period of isolation can lead to lost wages, workforce shortages, and other negative socioeconomic factors.

Omicron-adapted vaccines might require longer follow-up to reveal true benefits
The Lancet Microbe; Tang L, .

Oct 13th, 2022 - Endless SARS-CoV-2 omicron subvariants with drifting antigens highlight the importance of the neutralisation breadth of antibodies that confer protection to current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants.1 Due to the metabolic cost, natural expansion of neutralisation breadth is time-limited and might be saturated by repeated antigen exposures.2, 3 Current vaccination strategies thus rely on artificia...

What does the future look like for monkeypox?
Nature Reardon S.

Oct 12th, 2022 - On 29 April, a person in Nigeria developed an unusual rash and then travelled to the United Kingdom —carrying monkeypox with them. Since then, the virus has reached more than 70,000 people in over 100 countries. That has surprised health-care specialists around the world, because the sustained spread doesn’t resemble the sporadic pattern of previous monkeypox outbreaks in people, caused by a ...

Assessing the consequences of prolonged usage of disposable face masks
Scientific Reports; Buzzin, A. et. al.

Oct 7th, 2022 - Due to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, wearing a disposable face mask has become a worldwide daily routine, not only for medical operators or specialized personnel, but also for common people. Notwithstanding the undeniable positive effect in reducing the risk of virus transmission, it is important to understand if a prolonged usage of the same face mask can have effectiveness on filtering capability ...

Vaccines alone cannot slow the evolution of SARS-CoV-2
Medrxiv Van Egeren D, .

Oct 6th, 2022 - The rapid emergence of immune-evading viral variants of SARS-CoV-2 calls into question the practicality of a vaccine-only public health strategy for managing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. It has been suggested that widespread vaccination is necessary to prevent the emergence of future immune-evading mutants.

Imprinted SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity induces convergent Omicron RBD evolution
BioRxiv Cao Y, .

Oct 4th, 2022 - Continuous evolution of Omicron has led to numerous subvariants that exhibit growth advantage over BA.5. Such rapid and simultaneous emergence of variants with enormous advantages is unprecedented. Despite their rapidly divergent evolutionary courses, mutations on their receptor-binding domain (RBD) converge on several hotspots, including R346, K356, K444, L452, N460K and F486.

Will there be a COVID winter wave? What scientists say
Nature Callaway E.

Oct 3rd, 2022 - Evidence is building that the northern hemisphere is on course for a surge of COVID-19 cases this autumn and winter. New immune-evading strains of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, behaviour changes, and waning immunity mean that many countries could soon see large numbers of COVID infections — and potentially hospitalizations — say scientists.

Fluconazole - fluconazole tablet-REMEDYREPACK INC.

Dec 30th, 2022 - Fluconazole tablets are indicated for the treatment of: Vaginal candidiasis (vaginal yeast infections due to Candida). Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. In open noncomparative studies of relatively small numbers of patients, fluconazole tablets were also effective for the treatment of Candida urinary tract infections, peritonitis, and systemic Candida infections including candidemia, di...

Living in an Age of Pandemics—From COVID-19 to Monkeypox, Polio, and Disease X
JAMA Health Forum; Gostin LO.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - The reemergence of polio, as monkeypox soared and COVID-19 continues its devastation, has laid bare the magnitude of communicable disease threats and humankind’s vulnerability. COVID-19 has caused 15 million deaths worldwide through last year and still kills more than 1000 daily. More than 60 000 monkeypox cases have been reported across 103 countries, most of which had never experienced cases ...

A box of 200 mosquitoes did the vaccinating in this malaria trial. That's not a joke!
NPR Barnhart M.

Sep 21st, 2022 - One Seattle morning, Carolina Reid sat in a room with nine other volunteers, each waiting to take part in a clinical trial for a new, experimental malaria vaccine. Reid's turn came. She put her arm over a cardboard box filled with 200 mosquitoes and covered with a mesh that keeps them in but still lets them bite. "Literally a Chinese food takeout container" is how she remembers it. A scienti...

Rebound of SARS-CoV-2 Infection after Nirmatrelvir–Ritonavir Treatment
The New England Journal of Medicine; Charness ME, .

Sep 15th, 2022 - Nirmatrelvir is an inhibitor of the main protease in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has been shown to block viral replication and reduce disease severity in unvaccinated persons at risk for the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).1 Here, we describe the occurrence of rebound symptoms and viral replication after treatment with nirmatrelvir combin...