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About 16,508 results

Transmission of community- and hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 in hospital settings in the...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509983
PLoS Medicine; Mo Y, Eyre DW et. al.

Oct 13th, 2021 - Nosocomial spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been widely reported, but the transmission pathways among patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) are unclear. Identifying the risk factors and drivers for these nosocomial transmissions is critical for infection prevention and control interventions. The main aim of our study was to quantify the relative import...

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 After COVID-19 Screening and Mitigation Measures for Primary...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28757
JAMA Network Open; Meuris C, Kremer C et. al.

Oct 13th, 2021 - Recent data suggest a relatively low incidence of COVID-19 among children. The possible role that children attending primary school may play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the possible role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This prospective cohort study was conducted from September 21 to December 31, 2020, in a primary...

Weather, air pollution, and SARS-CoV-2 transmission: a global analysis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497024
The Lancet. Planetary Health; Xu R, Rahmandad H et. al.

Oct 11th, 2021 - Understanding how environmental factors affect SARS-CoV-2 transmission could inform global containment efforts. Despite high scientific and public interest and multiple research reports, there is currently no consensus on the association of environmental factors and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To address this research gap, we aimed to assess the relative risk of transmission associated with weathe...

Evaluation of Respiratory Emissions During Labor and Delivery: Potential Implications f...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462302
Obstetrics and Gynecology; Mok T, Harris E et. al.

Oct 9th, 2021 - To characterize respiratory emissions produced during labor and vaginal delivery vis-à-vis the potential for transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Observational study of three women who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and had uncomplicated vaginal deliveries. Using background-oriented schlieren imaging, we evaluated the propagation of respiratory emissions...

COVID-19 Outbreaks at Youth Summer Camps - Louisiana, June-July 2021.
https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7040e2
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Tonzel JL, Sokol T

Oct 8th, 2021 - According to sequencing data reported by CDC, the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been the predominant lineage circulating in Louisiana since the week of June 20, 2021 (1). In Louisiana, the increased spread of the Delta variant corresponded with the start of the state's fourth and largest increase in average daily COVID-19 incid...

Emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.620 with variant of concern-like mutatio...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8486757
Nature Communications; Dudas G, Hong SL et. al.

Oct 3rd, 2021 - Distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages, discovered through various genomic surveillance initiatives, have emerged during the pandemic following unprecedented reductions in worldwide human mobility. We here describe a SARS-CoV-2 lineage - designated B.1.620 - discovered in Lithuania and carrying many mutations and deletions in the spike protein shared with widespread variants of concern (VOCs), including ...

Possible future waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection generated by variants of concern with a r...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484271
Nature Communications; Dyson L, Hill EM et. al.

Oct 2nd, 2021 - Viral reproduction of SARS-CoV-2 provides opportunities for the acquisition of advantageous mutations, altering viral transmissibility, disease severity, and/or allowing escape from natural or vaccine-derived immunity. We use three mathematical models: a parsimonious deterministic model with homogeneous mixing; an age-structured model; and a stochastic importation model to investigate the effec...

The efficacy of insecticide-treated window screens and eaves against Anopheles mosquito...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8480128
Malaria Journal; Anaele BI, Varshney K et. al.

Oct 1st, 2021 - Female mosquitoes serve as vectors for a host of illnesses, including malaria, spread by the Plasmodium parasite. Despite monumental strides to reduce this disease burden through tools such as bed nets, the rate of these gains is slowing. Ongoing disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemic may also negatively impact gains. The following scoping review was conducted to examine novel means of re...

The cost-effectiveness of common strategies for the prevention of transmission of SARS-...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483333
PloS One; Zafari Z, Goldman L et. al.

Oct 1st, 2021 - Most universities that re-open in the United States (US) for in-person instruction have implemented the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) guidelines. The value of additional interventions to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. We calculated the cost-effectiveness and cases averted of each intervention in combination with implementing the CDC guidelines. We built a ...

Aerosol SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals and long-term care homes during the COVID-19 pandemic.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483369
PloS One; Mallach G, Kasloff SB et. al.

Oct 1st, 2021 - Few studies have quantified aerosol concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals and long-term care homes, and fewer still have examined samples for viability. This information is needed to clarify transmission risks beyond close contact. We deployed particulate air samplers in rooms with COVID-19 positive patients in hospital ward and ICU rooms, rooms in long-term care homes experiencing outbreak...

Genomic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in Rwanda reveals the importance of incoming travelers...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481346
Nature Communications; Butera Y, Mukantwari E et. al.

Oct 1st, 2021 - COVID-19 transmission rates are often linked to locally circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe 203 SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences analyzed from strains circulating in Rwanda from May 2020 to February 2021. In particular, we report a shift in variant distribution towards the emerging sub-lineage A.23.1 that is currently dominating. Furthermore, we report the detection of the firs...

Large-scale analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike-glycoprotein mutants demonstrates the need for...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475993
PloS One; Schrörs B, Riesgo-Ferreiro P et. al.

Sep 28th, 2021 - Due to the widespread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 genome is evolving in diverse human populations. Several studies already reported different strains and an increase in the mutation rate. Particularly, mutations in SARS-CoV-2 spike-glycoprotein are of great interest as it mediates infection in human and recently approved mRNA vaccines are designed to induce immune responses against...

Factors affecting duration of SARS-Cov-2 viral shedding in mildly symptomatic patients ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476038
PloS One; Cheng HM, Zhao X et. al.

Sep 28th, 2021 - Mildly symptomatic cases of Covid-19 in previously-well individuals form the majority of infections and also serve as potent vectors of transmission. The factors affecting the duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA viral shedding (DVS) in these patients remain largely unknown. To perform a systematic analysis of the clinical, radiologic, laboratory investigations in patients with few comorbidities infected...

Development of a model-inference system for estimating epidemiological characteristics ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458278
Nature Communications; Yang W, Shaman J

Sep 24th, 2021 - To support COVID-19 pandemic planning, we develop a model-inference system to estimate epidemiological properties of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern using case and mortality data while accounting for under-ascertainment, disease seasonality, non-pharmaceutical interventions, and mass-vaccination. Applying this system to study three variants of concern, we estimate that B.1.1.7 has a 46.6% (9...

Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant Infections Among Incarcerated Persons ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459894
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Hagan LM, McCormick DW et. al.

Sep 24th, 2021 - Incarcerated populations have experienced disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19-related illness and death compared with the general U.S. population, due in part to congregate living environments that can facilitate rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and the high prevalence of underlying medical conditions associated with severe COVID-19 (1,2). The SARS-CoV-2...

Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in educational institutions, August to December...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8503068
Epidemiology and Infection; Schoeps A, Hoffmann D et. al.

Sep 23rd, 2021 - This study aims at providing estimates on the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in schools and day-care centres. We calculated secondary attack rates (SARs) using individual-level data from state-wide mandatory notification of index cases in educational institutions, followed by contact tracing and PCR-testing of high-risk contacts. From August to December 2020, every sixth of overall 784 indepen...

Daily testing for contacts of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection and attendance and ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439620
Lancet (London, England); Young BC, Eyre DW et. al.

Sep 18th, 2021 - School-based COVID-19 contacts in England have been asked to self-isolate at home, missing key educational opportunities. We trialled daily testing of contacts as an alternative to assess whether this resulted in similar control of transmission, while allowing more school attendance. We did an open-label, cluster-randomised, controlled trial in secondary schools and further education colleges i...

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 considering shared chairs in outpatient dialysis: a real-wor...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444531
BMC Nephrology; Thadhani R, Willetts J et. al.

Sep 18th, 2021 - SARS-CoV-2 can remain transiently viable on surfaces. We examined if use of shared chairs in outpatient hemodialysis associates with a risk for indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We used data from adults treated at 2,600 hemodialysis facilities in United States between February 1st and June 8th, 2020. We performed a retrospective case-control study matching each SARS-CoV-2 ...

Risk Factors Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Farmworkers in Monterey County,...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444020
JAMA Network Open; Mora AM, Lewnard JA et. al.

Sep 16th, 2021 - Essential workers in agriculture and food production have been severely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. To identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among farmworkers in California. This cross-sectional study invited farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley (Monterey County) receiving transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection at fede...

Model-driven mitigation measures for reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2108909118
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... McGee RS, Homburger JR et. al.

Sep 15th, 2021 - Reopening schools is an urgent priority as the COVID-19 pandemic drags on. To explore the risks associated with returning to in-person learning and the value of mitigation measures, we developed stochastic, network-based models of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in primary and secondary schools. We find that a number of mitigation measures, alone or in ...