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Super-spreading events and contribution to transmission of MERS, SARS, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)
https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(20)30177-8/fulltext

There is no clear definition for the term ‘super-spreader’ or ‘super-spreading event’. The World Health Organization refers to a super-spreader as a patient (or an event) that may transmit infection to a larger number of individuals than is usual by one individual (or event). In the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) situation, a super-spreading event was defined as the transmission of SA...

Pain and dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease may share common pathophysiological mechanisms – An fMRI study
https://www.jns-journal.com/article/S0022-510X(20)30242-2/pdf
Journal of Neurological Sciences;

May 26th, 2020 - Parkinson's disease (PD) patients develop levodopa induced dyskinesia with disease progression from sensitization of central pathways. Pain pathways are also impacted with suggestions dyskinetic patients may process pain differently.

Association of Circadian Abnormalities in Older Adults With an Increased Risk of Developing Parkinson Disease
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/article-abstract/2767087

Clinical Guidance for Pediatric Patients with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Hyperinflammation in COVID-19
https://www.rheumatology.org/Portals/0/Files/ACR-COVID-19-Clinical-Guidance-Summary-MIS-C-Hyperinflammation.pdf

Antibody Detection and Dynamic Characteristics in Patients with COVID-19
https://watermark.silverchair.com/ciaa461.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAABEYwggRCBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggQzMIIELwIBADCCBCgGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQML-2UYyGMp5__74HZAgEQgIID-VP47852zLLsLFFHC7k2obWGvI27loF7mFx6ccaQRjbwhuQIGLnPxwfOQMeFlfFVAFZAKa4ln4Zu8tJ4pyMAe_0DpNoBtNd7J4G248ZywRygT0RWAeDM9E0oxYYaVyNIeQYIseOEQYJljSdOjlMeT7rTXn_bjWG0XgnM4hcKG5vdzeeNaCMClYAUcNlvEL_JhqOEsouWaE1P2B6rwqyTQFevO_P6IUOHYMipr0kA7hT7Ei4R5HE-BRVNatcJs-QWZFqwXdbArSLOVckkOr84O73LZ9FLbR5nLxG59zI_JfXk_xBxRbftrCAY82kgfXjxdLd6WtGY-zDY52Y_gWhhwd3JZ9gZaBX9zxT_0V9epseHguRBD3_DNexdrwZ2RhzcN6GxeRTnJORFqFEB-0haDPa3s7zgZtQJtEzYGzo3380CI2d0J1GZeI8tZNGHhwvdKAxrpqb6oSYjIH41u6eLPgQwoyg6DAJISSL8pfDZWcc5ILKQYGy4HMlL9PqKv2J8Py1NaFNHiTPFlPN6VbRBGUxT_dWyspgerDc3V6bD2Spr6Q68vQEgz1L4eF9DOWDLKrCmBC00e2m7kMAGQ9PXPGalQBCNClMflQvj4s4itOfBrdOxfMgRb2jeVcK0wv28oBg0L4a1mxhUbBb6vVY4AqAwBgMaxZxxHxyBfRJBdWr3bk3S8ow5-UAFEXFxMwShRR3Wp5wxiZ5kv_hs4ZW8ycXC-Lc77qCSHqpgGl3qFJsakyjlalhF1AUMNo7Suj6HtWtYUKiQHe3hgZiFI6T9Up8hIhYPkoQNKd3v5jmzZl0YF7oEeqrOVoD6mOC5tRBnY1EE1eS53CHCCuCpxwEkES6BWHb-P0YzfM4SSpQlNCXZUxxHXnlmWZoNz9KVqXL-zm6x7dlG7Qd-hjsFoN4wn8h_THDZh3XgbL2CGCnKkRVBYJuMhz7iavKFHzogXUfP0U9zGcYLYS1wDBvTrkEU94n3sHbZejRFqQ14dVg-A3cep6o4d8H8p5mw1AvkSzp-s-NR2tjiJ66nTR9v_urbFGMSnlfo8lk5HH3DtZUG1KHCx0Lp626rmX0IXV2SxetMQCV7AXLRHmG-xa_67N74Lmkiqho2p6RkYiKtrkTZ-6h8ykKhwa0DfdbB1FrDRADlwOk8CnaUfNeiWtw82AoyQjWP6BMkIxgm-mZ3hV7heeH0RB73ES7OLUR2C1R2hyyt21cSo2Ub0jugp9-Gk5asCWsi8XKK7bubNP3D7vD0N2VdLkO1ZT969XyveN0soj5BYAbe7XMzPuf8dA8JfX86duPXjnnPG4qrvRS2NhaObrb-M_t5xa2VxIlTYcXNlnmTpkV7VnSyTqki_w

The antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the middle and later stage of the COVID-19. Antibody detection may play an important role in the diagnosis of COVID-19 as complement approach for viral nucleid acid assays.

Disappearance of Antibodies to SARS-Associated Coronavirus after Recovery
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc070348
The New England Journal of Medicine;

Previous studies have demonstrated that IgG and neutralizing antibodies against coronavirus associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) may persist, in spite of a decline in titer, for 2 years in patients who have recovered from SARS.

Colchicine as a possible therapeutic option in COVID-19 infection
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10067-020-05247-5

In contrast, we consider that colchicine can be a good therapeutic option because of several effects in the immunology system involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Colchicine has effects on the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and monocytes and on the intracellular transportation of vesicles such as endosomes and exosomes.

The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1 shedding and increases infectivity
https://www.scripps.edu/_files/pdfs/news-and-events/The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1.pdf

SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolates encoding a D614G mutation in the viral spike (S) protein predominate over time in locales where it is found, implying that this change enhances viral transmission. We therefore compared the functional properties of the S proteins with aspartic acid (SD614) and glycine (SG614) at residue 614. We observed that retroviruses pseudotyped with SG614 infect...

Mutated coronavirus shows significant boost in infectivity
https://www.scripps.edu/news-and-events/press-room/2020/20200612-choe-farzan-coronavirus-spike-mutation.html

A tiny genetic mutation in the SARS coronavirus 2 variant circulating throughout Europe and the United States significantly increases the virus’ ability to infect cells, lab experiments performed at Scripps Research show.

Neurologic Features in Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2008597

We report the neurologic features in an observational series of 58 of 64 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital because of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Covid-19. The patients received similar evaluations by intensivists in two intensive care units (ICUs) in Strasbourg, France, between March 3 and April 3, 2020.

Association between Olfactory Deficit and Motor and Cognitive Function in Parkinson’s Disease
https://www.e-jmd.org/upload/jmd-19082.pdf
Journal of Movement Disorders;

We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9)...

Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism Dissociation in the Putamen Is Predictive of Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease Patients
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2019.01217/full
Frontiers in Neurology;

Nov 20th, 2019 - The forefront treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is Levodopa. When patients are treated with Levodopa cerebral blood flow is increased while cerebral metabolic rate is decreased in key subcortical regions including the putamen. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in patients with Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).

Expert Perspective on ASCO20 Immunotherapy Research
https://dailynews.ascopubs.org/do/10.1200/ADN.20.200234/full/

Jul 1st, 2020 - CAR T-cell therapy with BCMA-targeting idecabtagene-vicleucel (ide-cel) has emerged to be a game-changer as shown by this first pivotal phase II trial of CAR T-cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). Ide-cel is a first-in-class BCMA-directed CAR T-cell therapy, with 4-1BB costimulatory domain and CD3Z T-cell activation domain.

Expert Perspective on ASCO20 Gastrointestinal Cancers Research
https://dailynews.ascopubs.org/do/10.1200/ADN.20.200231/full/

Jul 1st, 2020 - Donafenib, a deuterated derivative of sorafenib, was tested against sorafenib in the frontline setting in hepatitis B– associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a large, multi-institutional study in China (Abstract 4506).

Expert Perspective on ASCO20 Gynecologic Oncology Research
https://dailynews.ascopubs.org/do/10.1200/ADN.20.200233/full/

Jul 2nd, 2020 - DESKTOP III (Abstract 6000) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized phase III study of > 400 patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer that demonstrated a clinically meaningful 7.7 month improvement in median overall survival with secondary cytoreductive surgery (53.7 months) compared with no surgery (46 months).

Immunotherapy and Beyond: Treatment Options and Potential Markers in Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
https://dailynews.ascopubs.org/do/10.1200/ADN.20.200227/full/

Jul 2nd, 2020 - Head and neck cancers account for approximately 4% of all cancers in the United States1 and are the eighth most common cancer affecting men in the United States.2 The diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) carries a poor prognosis, with an overall survival (OS) of approximately 1 year.

White matter hyperintensities and risk of levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/acn3.50991
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology;

Feb 6th, 2020 - To investigate whether the burden of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is associated with the risk of developing levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Dr. Usmani on Activity of Teclistamab in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma
https://www.onclive.com/view/dr-usmani-on-activity-of-teclistamab-in-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma

May 30th, 2020

Second Surgery Gets OS Win in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer
https://www.medpagetoday.com/meetingcoverage/asco/86836

Jun 1st, 2020

Dr. Mascarenhas on the Impact of Ruxolitinib on the Myelofibrosis Treatment Paradigm
https://www.onclive.com/view/dr-mascarenhas-on-the-impact-of-ruxolitinib-on-the-myelofibrosis-treatment-paradigm

Jun 4th, 2020

Dr. Richardson on Phase 1 Data With CC-92480 in Multiple Myeloma
https://www.onclive.com/view/dr-richardson-on-phase-1-data-with-cc92480-in-multiple-myeloma

May 31st, 2020

Dr. Zakashansky on the Benefit of Maintenance Olaparib in BRCA+ Ovarian Cancer
https://www.onclive.com/view/dr-zakashansky-on-the-benefit-of-maintenance-olaparib-in-brca-ovarian-cancer

Jun 1st, 2020

Dr. Poveda on the Results of the SOLO2 Trial in Ovarian Cancer
https://www.onclive.com/view/dr-poveda-on-the-results-of-the-solo2-trial-in-ovarian-cancer

May 31st, 2020

Brief recommendations on the management of adult patients with familial hypercholesterolemia during the COVID-19 pandemic
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204727/

Individuals with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) are at very high risk of cardiovascular disease, which is associated with poor outcomes from coronavirus infections. COVID-19 puts strain on healthcare systems and may impair access to routine FH services. On behalf of the International Lipid Expert Panel (ILEP) and the European FH Patient Network (FH Europe), we present brief recommendations...

Plasminogen improves lung lesions and hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19
https://academic.oup.com/qjmed/advance-article/doi/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa121/5818885

Lungs from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown typical signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), formation of hyaline membrane mainly composed of fibrin and ‘ground-glass’ opacity. Previously, we showed plasminogen itself is a key regulator in fibrin degradation, wound healing and infection.

Can a toilet promote virus transmission? From a fluid dynamics perspective
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0013318

Currently, a novel coronavirus named “SARS-CoV-2” is spreading rapidly across the world, causing a public health crisis, economic losses, and panic. Fecal–oral transmission is a common transmission route for many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Blocking the path of fecal–oral transmission, which occurs commonly in toilet usage, is of fundamental importance in suppressing the spread of viruses. H...

Prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in faecal samples
https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/langas/PIIS2468-1253(20)30083-2.pdf

We present severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time RT-PCR results of all respiratory and faecal samples from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China, throughout the course of their illness and obligated quarantine period.

Dexamethasone treatment for the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(19)30417-5/fulltext

There is no proven specific pharmacological treatment for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of corticosteroids in ARDS remains controversial. We aimed to assess the effects of dexamethasone in ARDS, which might change pulmonary and systemic inflammation and result in a decrease in duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality.

Update Alert: Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Coronavirus Infection in Health Care Workers
https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/L20-0768

This is the first monthly update alert for a living review on the epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infections in health care workers (HCWs) (1). Searches were updated from 24 April 2020 to 24 May 2020, using the same search strategies as the original review, and we identified 1125 citations. Applying the same inclusion criteria, we identified 37 additional studies for this updat...

Surgical Treatment of Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5586111/

The treatment of motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially a trade-off between adequate relief of motor symptoms and prevention and control of motor complications, particularly levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Progression of PD is paralleled by a progressive difficulty in achieving the balance. Functional neurosurgical procedures provide sustained relief of LID in carefu...

Cerebellar Connectivity in Parkinson's Disease With Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31643140/

The precise pathogenesis or neural correlates underlying levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) remains poorly understood. There is growing evidence of the involvement of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study evaluated the role of motor cerebellar connectivity in determining vulnerability to LID.

Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-virology-012420-022445

The seasonal cycle of respiratory viral diseases has been widely recognized for thousands of years, as annual epidemics of the common cold and influenza disease hit the human population like clockwork in the winter season in temperate regions. Moreover, epidemics caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 occur during ...

An international physical activity and public health research agenda to inform COVID-19 policies and practices
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243764/

Physical activity (PA) has strong relevance for limiting the harms to human health and well-being due to the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Active muscles produce chemicals that improve immune functioning, which in turn reduces the extent of infections, and decreases inflammation, and these are the main causes of the lung damage from SARS-CoV-2 infection. PA is a powerful preventive and therapeutic interv...

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Physical Activity
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666337620300251

The SARS-CoV-2-caused COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a devastating threat to human society in terms of health, economy, and lifestyle. Although the virus usually first invades and infects the lung and respiratory track tissue, in extreme cases, almost all major organs in the body are now known to be negatively impacted often leading to severe systemic failure in some people. Unfortunately, t...

SARS-CoV-2 and Nervous System - Neurological Manifestations in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review
https://www.neurores.org/index.php/neurores/article/view/602/580

Coronavirus (CoV) is a virus infectious disease with a considerable spectrum of clinical presentations. Symptoms ranged from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia that may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and several clinical complications. Neurologic symptoms related to CoV have been described recently in the literature. The relationship between SARS-Co...

Potential neurological effects of severe COVID-19 infection
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168010220303990

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large positive stranded enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause enteric and respiratory diseases in humans and in animals. Most human CoVs have recently attracted global attention to their lethal potential and great infectious capacity. A highly pathogenic CoV, called COVID-19 or SARS‐CoV2, dramatically emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. This new CoV has cause...

Pathophysiology of the COVID-19 – entry to the CNS through the nose
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00016489.2020.1773533

During the recent weeks, anosmia without nasal or other symptoms has been recognized as an alarming sign of early-stage COVID-19 [1]. This might indicate that SARS-CoV-2, when entering the body via the nose, may be neurotropic, have affinity for the olfactory epithelium and advance along the olfactory nerve into the CNS, causing early-stage CNS infection. This route is a known shortcut for infl...

Fulminant Cerebral Edema as a Lethal Manifestation of COVID-19
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1930043320302958

The contribution of neurological symptomatology to morbidity and mortality after infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus (SARS CoV II), is ill-defined. We hereby present a case of a 57-year old male patient, in excellent physical condition, who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), with respiratory distress duo to SARS CoV II-induced bilateral pneumonia....

Real-time assessment of COVID-19 prevalence among multiple sclerosis patients: a multicenter European study
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10072-020-04519-x

We assessed the prevalence and impact of COVID-19 among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients across Europe by leveraging participant data collected as part of the ongoing EU IMI2 RADAR-CNS major programme aimed at finding new ways of monitoring neurological disorders using wearable devices and smartphone technology. In the present study, 399 patients of RADAR-MS have been included (mean age 43.9 ye...

Meningoencephalitis associated with COVID-19: A systematic review
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.25.20140145v1.full.pdf

With the growing number of COVID-19 cases in recent times, the varied range of presentations is progressively becoming an addressing issue among clinicians. A significant set of patients with extra pulmonary symptoms has been reported worldwide. Neurological involvement in the form of altered mental status, loss of consciousness in considerable amounts has drawn attention of physicians all a...

Investigation into SARS-CoV‑2 Resistance of Compounds in Garlic Essential Oil
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acsomega.0c00772

Eighteen active substances, including 17 organosulfur compounds found in garlic essential oil (T), were identified by GC−MS analysis. For the first time, using the molecular docking technique, we report the inhibitory effect of the considered compounds on the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein in the human body that leads to a crucial foundation about coronavirus ...

KRd, VRd Equivalency in Multiple Myeloma ‘Reassuring’ to Hematologists
https://dailynews.ascopubs.org/do/10.1200/ADN.20.200219/full/

Jun 23rd, 2020 - Awaited results of the ENDURANCE trial showed equivalency between a regimen of carfilzomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) and bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) as an initial therapy for patients with standard- or intermediate-risk multiple myeloma (Abstract LBA3). KRd failed to improve progression-free survival compared with VRd, according to data presented by Shaji K...

Prominent Oromandibular Dystonia as Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mdc3.12759
Movement Disorders;

Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) is a recognized motor response complication affecting 30% to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease on chronic levodopa (l‐dopa) therapy.1, 2 It is typically choreiform, and involves all parts of the body, especially the head and neck. Besides chorea, rarer types of LIDs include myoclonic dyskinesia, ocular dyskinesia, and respiratory dyskinesia.1 Oromandibul...

Flow-metabolism dissociation in the pathogenesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5033758/

Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is the most common, disruptive complication of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pharmacotherapy, yet despite decades of research, the changes in regional brain function underlying LID remain largely unknown. We previously found that the cerebral vasomotor and metabolic responses to levodopa are dissociated in PD subjects. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether levodopa-med...

Synaptic Plasticity and Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia: Electrophysiological and Structural Abnormalities
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29492662/
Journal of Neural Transmission;

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the midbrain. The gold-standard therapy for PD is the restoration of dopamine (DA) levels through the chronic administration of the DA precursor levodopa (L-DOPA). Although levodopa therapy is the main therapeutic approach for PD, its use is limited by the develo...

Coronavirus misinformation, and how scientists can help to fight it
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01834-3

Eating sea lettuce or injecting disinfectant won’t prevent you from getting COVID-19. Holding your breath for ten seconds is not a test for SARS-CoV-2. And Russian President Vladimir Putin did not release 500 lions in Moscow to persuade the city’s residents to stay indoors as part of the efforts to fight the pandemic. The rapid global spread of COVID-19 has been accompanied by what the World He...

Pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2: targeting of endothelial cells renders a complex disease with thrombotic microangiopathy and aberrant immune response. The Mount Sinai COVID-19 autopsy experience
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.18.20099960v1.full.pdf

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated clinical syndrome COVID-19 are causing overwhelming morbidity and mortality around the globe, disproportionately affecting New York City. A comprehensive, integrative autopsy series that advances the mechanistic discussion surrounding this disease process is still lacking.

Research and Development on Therapeutic Agents and Vaccines for COVID-19 and Related Human Coronavirus Diseases
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00272

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, this disease has spread rapidly around the globe. Considering the potential threat of a pandemic, scientists and physicians have been racing to understand this new virus and the pathophysiology of this disease to uncover possible treatment regimens and discover effective therapeutic agents and vacc...

Vaccines for COVID-19: Perspectives, Prospects, and Challenges Based on Candidate SARS, MERS, and Animal Coronavirus Vaccines
https://emj.emg-health.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2020/03/Vaccines-for-COVID-19-Perspectives-Prospects-and-Challenges-Based-on-Candidate-SARS-MERS-and-Animal-Coronavirus-Vaccines.pdf

Reopening schools after the COVID-19 lockdown
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321012/

With nationwide school closures currently operating in 191 countries, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has estimated that 1.6 billion (90.2%) students are currently out of primary, secondary and tertiary education (henceforth schools) as a result of the global COVID-19 lockdown [1]. These restrictions have been introduced to help maintain physical di...

New Method to Reduce COVID-19 Transmission - The Need for Medical Air Disinfection is Now
https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10916-020-01585-8.pdf

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) [1]. It has led to a pandemic worldwide due to its extremely infectious nature. At present, the route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still controversial, but the major route of the COVID-19 to rapidly spread through indoor environments, is caused by the airborne route of the ...

What aerosol physics tells us about airborne pathogen transmission
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02786826.2020.1751055

While a global pandemic by SARS-CoV in 2002–2003 was averted by fast identification, effective surveillance, and quarantine, such measures cannot be easily transferred to new situations, as the case of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates. Knowledge of the fundamental biological and physical parameters affecting transmission pathways of respiratory pathogens is thus critical for the design of effective non-...

Airborne SARS-CoV-2: Weighing the Evidence for Its Role in Community Transmission
https://www.jpmph.org/upload/pdf/jpmph-20-120.pdf

We read with great interest Bae’s recent publication on the incubation period of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its infectivity [1]. However, we would like to launch a further discussion on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and the controversy regarding concerns about airborne SARSCoV-2 transmission.

Pooling of samples for testing for SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic people
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30362-5/fulltext

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a substantial challenge for health-care systems and their infrastructure. RT-PCR-based diagnostic confirmation of infected individuals is crucial to contain viral spread because infection can be asymptomatic despite high viral loads. Sufficient molecular diagnostic capacity is important for public health interventions such as case dete...

Clustered cases of acral perniosis: Clinical features, histopathology, and relationship to COVID‐19
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/pde.14227

A recent marked increase in pediatric and adult patients presenting with purpuric acral lesions concerning for ischemia, thrombosis and necrosis has been observed in COVID‐19 prevalent regions worldwide. The clinical and histopathological features and relationship to COVID‐19 have not been well described. The objective of this case series is to describe the clinical features and determine the h...

Clinical features and multidisciplinary treatment outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia: A report of three cases
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0929664620301443

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic threatening global public health. In the current paper, we describe our successful treatment of three COVID-19 pneumonia patients cases including severe cases and cases with mortality risk factors. One 32-year-old male COVID-19 patient was diagnosed with sev...

Compassionate remdesivir treatment of severe Covid-19 pneumonia in intensive care unit (ICU) and Non-ICU patients: Clinical outcome and differences in post-treatment hospitalisation status
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104366182031207X

SARS-CoV-2 is causing an increasing number of deaths worldwide because no effective treatment is currently available. Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19 in Immunocompromised Hosts: What We Know So Far
https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa863/5864040
Clinical Infectious Diseases; Monica Fung MD, MPH et. al.

Jun 26th, 2020 - The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused significant morbidity and mortality for patients and stressed healthcare systems worldwide. The clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 among immunosuppressed patients, who are at presumed risk for more severe disease but who may also have decreased detrimental inflammatory responses, are no...

Ocular conjunctival inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 can cause mild COVID-19 in Rhesus macaques
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.13.990036v2.full

The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is highly transmitted. The potential extra-respiratory transmission routes remain uncertain. Five rhesus macaques were inoculated with 1×106 TCID50 of SARS-CoV-2 via conjunctival (CJ), intratracheal (IT), and intragastric (IG) routes, respectively. Remarkably, the CJ inoculated-mac...

Two immunocompromised patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as a complication of severe COVID-19
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012369220318481

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe and potentially life-threatening disease manifestation. Besides autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) syndrome pulmonary viral infections are also known to be culprits of DAH. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic confronts healthcar...

SARS-CoV-2 infection in conjunctival tissue
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30272-1/fulltext

In a recent study published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine in May, 2020, Kenrie Hui and colleagues1 described the tropism, replication competence, and innate immune responses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the human respiratory tract and conjunctiva. The authors concluded that SARS-CoV-2 replication in the conjunctiva was greater than SARS-CoV replication...

Assessment of patients who tested positive for COVID-19 after recovery
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30433-3/fulltext

Since the start of the outbreak in December 2019, COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has led to an increasing number of infections worldwide, with an estimated overall mortality of 5·7%.1 Meanwhile, many patients who were hospitalised have recovered and were discharged to self-quarantine. However, some patients have tested positive for COVID-19 aga...

Kinetics of viral load and antibody response in relation to COVID-19 severity
https://dm5migu4zj3pb.cloudfront.net/manuscripts/138000/138759/cache/138759.1-20200701111152-covered-253bed37ca4c1ab43d105aefdf7b5536.pdf

The SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent for COVID-19 pneumonia. Little is known about the 60 kinetics, tissue distribution, cross-reactivity and neutralization antibody response in COVID61 19 patients. Two groups of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this study, 62 including 12 severe patients in ICUs who needed mechanical ventilation and 11 mild patients 63 in isolation wards...

Liver injury in COVID-19: management and challenges
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langas/article/PIIS2468-1253(20)30057-1/fulltext

In December, 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2], previously 2019-nCoV) started in Wuhan, China, and has since become a global threat to human health. The number of confirmed cases of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has reached 87 137 worldwide as of March 1, 2020, according to WHO COVID-19 situation report 41; most of the...

Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2
https://academic.oup.com/ooim/article/doi/10.1093/oxfimm/iqaa003/5869360?searchresult=1

The majority of SARS-CoV-2 exposed individuals mount an antibody response within around 2-weeks and spike antigen binding responses correlate well with functional virus neutralisation. A minority make little detectable antibody, generally those with either very mild/asymptomatic disease or those with severe/lethal infection. However, in general, antibody titre correlates with viral load and dur...

Pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2: the knowns and unknowns
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-020-0389-z

T cell reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 was observed in unexposed people; however, the source and clinical relevance of the reactivity remains unknown. It is speculated that this reflects T cell memory to circulating ‘common cold’ coronaviruses. It will be important to define specificities of these T cells and assess their association with COVID-19 disease severity and vaccine responses.

Is cannabidiol the ideal drug to treat non-motor Parkinson’s disease symptoms?
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00406-019-00982-6
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience;

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rest tremor, postural disturbances, and rigidity. PD is also characterized by non-motor symptoms such as sleep disturbances, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety. The pharmacological treatment for these symptoms is limited in ...

Levodopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements correlate with altered permeability of the blood-brain-barrier in the basal ganglia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700135/
Scientific Reports;

Chronic levodopa treatment leads to the appearance of dyskinesia in the majority of Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurovascular dysregulation in putaminal and pallidal regions is thought to be an underlying feature of this complication of treatment. We used microPET to study unilaterally lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine rats that developed levodopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) after ...

Safety and tolerability of IRL790 in Parkinson’s disease with levodopa-induced dyskinesia—a phase 1b trial
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283839/
NPJ Parkinson's Disease;

IRL790 is a novel compound with psychomotor stabilizing properties primarily targeting the dopamine D3 receptor. IRL790 is developed as an experimental treatment for levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), impulse control disorder, and psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The primary objective was to investigate the safety and tolerability of IRL790 in PD patients with LID in a randomized controll...

Neural substrates and potential treatments for levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease
https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/revneuro/27/7/article-p729.xml
Reviews in the Neurosciences;

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder that involves the gradual loss of motor function. Symptoms are observed initially in the extremities, such as hands and arms, while advanced stages of the disease can effect blinking, swallowing, speaking, and breathing. PD is a neurodegenerative disease, with dopaminergic neuronal loss occurring in the substantia nigra pars compacta, thus ...

Dysfunctional inhibitory control in Parkinson’s disease patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00415-018-8945-1
Journal of Neurology;

Chronic dopamine replacement therapies in Parkinson’s disease can induce side effects, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesias and impulse control disorders. A dysfunction of inhibitory brain networks has been related to both disorders; however, there is no clear behavioral evidence supporting this hypothesis. We aimed to determine whether PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias show feature...

Lisocabtagene maraleucel CAR T shows durable response in large B-cell NHL
https://www.healio.com/news/hematology-oncology/20200709/lisocabtagene-maraleucel-car-t-shows-durable-response-in-large-bcell-nhl

Jul 8th, 2020 - In updated results of the pilot study, presented during the ASCO2020 Virtual Scientific Program, researchers showed that lisocabtagene maraleucel induced durable response as a second-line treatment in large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Olaparib shows 1-year survival benefit in recurrent ovarian cancer, BRCA mutations
https://www.healio.com/news/hematology-oncology/20200707/olaparib-shows-1year-survival-benefit-in-recurrent-ovarian-cancer-brca-mutations

Jul 6th, 2020 - Overall survival results from SOLO-2 showed patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and germline BRCA mutations added a year of life when treated with olaparib only, Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, of Dana Farber Cancer Institute, told Healio.

Retreatment with CAR-T therapy shows clinical efficacy in lymphoma
https://www.healio.com/news/hematology-oncology/20200708/retreatment-with-cart-therapy-shows-clinical-efficacy-in-lymphoma

Jul 7th, 2020 - In a small sample, retreatment of patients with large B-cell lymphoma showed good response, notably in patients who had complete response on initial treatment, according to a poster presented at ASCO 2020 Virtual Scientific Program.

Patient survival greatly impacted by selection for ovarian cancer relapse surgery
https://www.healio.com/news/hematology-oncology/20200707/patient-survival-greatly-impacted-by-selection-for-ovarian-cancer-relapse-surgery

Jul 6th, 2020 - Studies presented during the ASCO2020 Virtual Scientific Program showed the benefit of validated selection tools in pursuing surgical measures for ovarian cancer relapse, Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, of Dana Farber Cancer Institute, told Healio.

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
https://www.aao.org/eyenet/article/herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus-pearls

Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, results from reactivation of latent infection with varicella- zoster virus, which also causes chicken­pox. Anyone who has had chickenpox, even in subclinical form, is at risk for developing HZ. It is estimated that the lifetime risk of HZ is 30%, and 1 mil­lion new cases are reported annually in the United States.1 An effective shingles vaccine has been approved...

The serotonergic system in Parkinson’s patients with dyskinesia: evidence from imaging studies
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060863/

The purpose of review is to review the current status of positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging of serotonergic system in Parkinson’s patients who experience levodopa-induced (LIDs) and graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs). PET imaging studies have shown that Parkinson’s disease is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Parkinson’s patients who exp...

Sensory Tricks for Cervical Levodopa‐induced Dyskinesia in Patients with Parkinson's Disease
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407061/

Choreiform or dystonic movement in the craniocervical region can occur as levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID). “Sensory tricks” are various alleviating maneuvers for the relief of abnormal postures in patients who have idiopathic focal dystonia, particularly those who have cervical dystonia. The authors report on three men with Parkinson's disease who had been receiving levodopa for more than 3 y...

Dopamine Transporter Density in de novo Parkinson's Disease Does Not Relate to the Development of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901354/

In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the onset of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) is difficult to predict. This study examines whether dopamine transporter (DAT)-specific SPECT imaging in de novo PD relates to later development of LIDs.

The successful use of therapeutic plasma exchange for severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome with multiple organ failure
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2050313X20933473

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about an urgent need for effective treatment, while conserving vital resources such as intensive care unit beds and ventilators. Antivirals, convalescent plasma, and biologics have been used with mixed results. The profound “cytokine storm” induced endotheliopathy and microthrombotic disease in patients with COVID-19 may lead to acute respiratory distress syndr...

Comparative computational analysis of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein epitopes in taxonomically related coronaviruses
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1286457920300538

Animal-based food systems are unsafe: SARS-CoV-2 fosters the debate on meat consumption
https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/029924CEC89381158B7BA2A0F22A5087/S1368980020002657a.pdf/animalbased_food_systems_are_unsafe_sarscov2_fosters_the_debate_on_meat_consumption.pdf

New and emerging medical therapies in Parkinson’s disease
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1517/14656566.2016.1149163

Quest Diagnostics SARS-CoV-2 RNA, Qualitative Real-Time RT-PCR
https://www.fda.gov/media/136231/download

Rapid Decay of Anti–SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Persons with Mild Covid-19
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2025179?query=featured_home

An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 — Preliminary Report
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2022483?query=featured_home

Covid-19: Managing the Surge
https://cssjs.nejm.org/landing-page/covid19response/Covid19Collection.pdf

As Covid-19 spreads around the world, health care leaders and clinicians currently dealing with rising case rates can learn much from those organizations hit with earlier surges of infection. NEJM Catalyst has featured articles, case studies, and conversations since the early days of the pandemic on the many dierent approaches and solutions to the problems posed by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Th...

COVID-19 and Food Safety: Risk Management and Future Considerations
https://journals.lww.com/nutritiontodayonline/Fulltext/2020/05000/COVID_19_and_Food_Safety__Risk_Management_and.6.aspx?context=LatestArticles

COVID-19, also known as the “novel coronavirus disease 2019,” is a respiratory illness, and the causative pathogen is officially named as “SARS-CoV-2.” Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have now been amplified to a global pandemic—as of April 3, 2020, nearly 1 018 000 cases have been confirmed in more than 195 countries, including more than 300 000 cases within the United States. Public safety guideli...

Lung ultrasound monitoring in patients with COVID-19 on home isolation
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073567572030440X

Many patients with COVID-19, the clinical illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, exhibit mild symptoms and do not require hospitalization. Instead, these patients are often referred for 14-days of home isolation as symptoms resolve. Lung ultrasound is well-established as an important means of evaluating lung pathology in patients in the emergency department and in intensive care units. Ultraso...

COVID-19 and the potential long-term impact on antimicrobial resistance
https://academic.oup.com/jac/article/75/7/1681/5841159

The emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has required an unprecedented response to control the spread of the infection and protect the most vulnerable within society. Whilst the pandemic has focused society on the threat of emerging infections and hand hygiene, certain infection control and antimicrobial stewardship policies may have to be relaxed. It is...

The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.01.31.929042v1.full.pdf

Update Alert 2: Risks and Impact of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers on SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Adults
https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/L20-0969

Fomite transmission and disinfection strategies for SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses
https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2005/2005.11443.pdf

Masks Do More than Protect Others during COVID-19: Reducing the Inoculum of SARS-CoV-2
https://www.linksmedicus.com/news/masks-may-reduce-viral-dose-experts-say/

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions
https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations
WHO

The dynamics of humoral immune responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection and the potential for reinfection
https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.001439

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces robust, neutralizing antibody responses that are stable for at least three months
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.14.20151126v1.full.pdf

Longitudinal evaluation and decline of antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.09.20148429v1.full.pdf

SNL-NM 2019 nCoV Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Assay - Letter of Authorization
https://www.fda.gov/media/140544/download
FDA

Qualitative detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory specimens (including nasopharyngeal swab, anterior nasal swab, mid-turbinate nasal swab and oropharyngeal swab, nasal washes, nasal aspirates) and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from individuals suspected of COVID-19 by their healthcare provider.

Lilly SARS-CoV-2 Assay - Letter of Authorization
https://www.fda.gov/media/140540/download
FDA

Qualitative detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal (throat) swabs, anterior nasal swabs, mid-turbinate nasal swabs, nasal aspirates, nasal washes and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from individuals suspected of COVID-19 by their healthcare provider.