There is no clear definition for the term ‘super-spreader’ or ‘super-spreading event’. The World Health Organization refers to a super-spreader as a patient (or an event) that may transmit infection to a larger number of individuals than is usual by one individual (or event). In the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) situation, a super-spreading event was defined as the transmission of SA...
Journal of Neurological Sciences;
May 26th, 2020 - Parkinson's disease (PD) patients develop levodopa induced dyskinesia with disease progression from sensitization of central pathways. Pain pathways are also impacted with suggestions dyskinetic patients may process pain differently.
The antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the middle and later stage of the COVID-19. Antibody detection may play an important role in the diagnosis of COVID-19 as complement approach for viral nucleid acid assays.
The New England Journal of Medicine;
Previous studies have demonstrated that IgG and neutralizing antibodies against coronavirus associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) may persist, in spite of a decline in titer, for 2 years in patients who have recovered from SARS.
In contrast, we consider that colchicine can be a good therapeutic option because of several effects in the immunology system involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Colchicine has effects on the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and monocytes and on the intracellular transportation of vesicles such as endosomes and exosomes.
https://www.scripps.edu/_files/pdfs/news-and-events/The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1.pdf
SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolates encoding a D614G mutation in the viral spike (S) protein predominate over time in locales where it is found, implying that this change enhances viral transmission. We therefore compared the functional properties of the S proteins with aspartic acid (SD614) and glycine (SG614) at residue 614. We observed that retroviruses pseudotyped with SG614 infect...
A tiny genetic mutation in the SARS coronavirus 2 variant circulating throughout Europe and the United States significantly increases the virus’ ability to infect cells, lab experiments performed at Scripps Research show.
We report the neurologic features in an observational series of 58 of 64 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital because of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Covid-19. The patients received similar evaluations by intensivists in two intensive care units (ICUs) in Strasbourg, France, between March 3 and April 3, 2020.
Journal of Movement Disorders;
We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9)...
Frontiers in Neurology;
Nov 20th, 2019 - The forefront treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is Levodopa. When patients are treated with Levodopa cerebral blood flow is increased while cerebral metabolic rate is decreased in key subcortical regions including the putamen. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in patients with Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).
Jul 1st, 2020 - CAR T-cell therapy with BCMA-targeting idecabtagene-vicleucel (ide-cel) has emerged to be a game-changer as shown by this first pivotal phase II trial of CAR T-cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). Ide-cel is a first-in-class BCMA-directed CAR T-cell therapy, with 4-1BB costimulatory domain and CD3Z T-cell activation domain.
Jul 1st, 2020 - Donafenib, a deuterated derivative of sorafenib, was tested against sorafenib in the frontline setting in hepatitis B– associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a large, multi-institutional study in China (Abstract 4506).
Jul 2nd, 2020 - DESKTOP III (Abstract 6000) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized phase III study of > 400 patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer that demonstrated a clinically meaningful 7.7 month improvement in median overall survival with secondary cytoreductive surgery (53.7 months) compared with no surgery (46 months).
Jul 2nd, 2020 - Head and neck cancers account for approximately 4% of all cancers in the United States1 and are the eighth most common cancer affecting men in the United States.2 The diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) carries a poor prognosis, with an overall survival (OS) of approximately 1 year.
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology;
Feb 6th, 2020 - To investigate whether the burden of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is associated with the risk of developing levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).
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Individuals with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) are at very high risk of cardiovascular disease, which is associated with poor outcomes from coronavirus infections. COVID-19 puts strain on healthcare systems and may impair access to routine FH services. On behalf of the International Lipid Expert Panel (ILEP) and the European FH Patient Network (FH Europe), we present brief recommendations...
Lungs from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown typical signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), formation of hyaline membrane mainly composed of fibrin and ‘ground-glass’ opacity. Previously, we showed plasminogen itself is a key regulator in fibrin degradation, wound healing and infection.
Currently, a novel coronavirus named “SARS-CoV-2” is spreading rapidly across the world, causing a public health crisis, economic losses, and panic. Fecal–oral transmission is a common transmission route for many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Blocking the path of fecal–oral transmission, which occurs commonly in toilet usage, is of fundamental importance in suppressing the spread of viruses. H...
We present severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time RT-PCR results of all respiratory and faecal samples from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China, throughout the course of their illness and obligated quarantine period.
There is no proven specific pharmacological treatment for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of corticosteroids in ARDS remains controversial. We aimed to assess the effects of dexamethasone in ARDS, which might change pulmonary and systemic inflammation and result in a decrease in duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality.
This is the first monthly update alert for a living review on the epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infections in health care workers (HCWs) (1). Searches were updated from 24 April 2020 to 24 May 2020, using the same search strategies as the original review, and we identified 1125 citations. Applying the same inclusion criteria, we identified 37 additional studies for this updat...
The treatment of motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially a trade-off between adequate relief of motor symptoms and prevention and control of motor complications, particularly levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Progression of PD is paralleled by a progressive difficulty in achieving the balance. Functional neurosurgical procedures provide sustained relief of LID in carefu...
The precise pathogenesis or neural correlates underlying levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) remains poorly understood. There is growing evidence of the involvement of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study evaluated the role of motor cerebellar connectivity in determining vulnerability to LID.
The seasonal cycle of respiratory viral diseases has been widely recognized for thousands of years, as annual epidemics of the common cold and influenza disease hit the human population like clockwork in the winter season in temperate regions. Moreover, epidemics caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 occur during ...
Physical activity (PA) has strong relevance for limiting the harms to human health and well-being due to the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Active muscles produce chemicals that improve immune functioning, which in turn reduces the extent of infections, and decreases inflammation, and these are the main causes of the lung damage from SARS-CoV-2 infection. PA is a powerful preventive and therapeutic interv...
The SARS-CoV-2-caused COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a devastating threat to human society in terms of health, economy, and lifestyle. Although the virus usually first invades and infects the lung and respiratory track tissue, in extreme cases, almost all major organs in the body are now known to be negatively impacted often leading to severe systemic failure in some people. Unfortunately, t...
Coronavirus (CoV) is a virus infectious disease with a considerable spectrum of clinical presentations. Symptoms ranged from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia that may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and several clinical complications. Neurologic symptoms related to CoV have been described recently in the literature. The relationship between SARS-Co...
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large positive stranded enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause enteric and respiratory diseases in humans and in animals. Most human CoVs have recently attracted global attention to their lethal potential and great infectious capacity. A highly pathogenic CoV, called COVID-19 or SARS‐CoV2, dramatically emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. This new CoV has cause...
During the recent weeks, anosmia without nasal or other symptoms has been recognized as an alarming sign of early-stage COVID-19 . This might indicate that SARS-CoV-2, when entering the body via the nose, may be neurotropic, have affinity for the olfactory epithelium and advance along the olfactory nerve into the CNS, causing early-stage CNS infection. This route is a known shortcut for infl...
The contribution of neurological symptomatology to morbidity and mortality after infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus (SARS CoV II), is ill-defined. We hereby present a case of a 57-year old male patient, in excellent physical condition, who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), with respiratory distress duo to SARS CoV II-induced bilateral pneumonia....
We assessed the prevalence and impact of COVID-19 among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients across Europe by leveraging participant data collected as part of the ongoing EU IMI2 RADAR-CNS major programme aimed at finding new ways of monitoring neurological disorders using wearable devices and smartphone technology. In the present study, 399 patients of RADAR-MS have been included (mean age 43.9 ye...
With the growing number of COVID-19 cases in recent times, the varied range of presentations is progressively becoming an addressing issue among clinicians. A significant set of patients with extra pulmonary symptoms has been reported worldwide. Neurological involvement in the form of altered mental status, loss of consciousness in considerable amounts has drawn attention of physicians all a...
Eighteen active substances, including 17 organosulfur compounds found in garlic essential oil (T), were identified by GC−MS analysis. For the first time, using the molecular docking technique, we report the inhibitory effect of the considered compounds on the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein in the human body that leads to a crucial foundation about coronavirus ...
Jun 23rd, 2020 - Awaited results of the ENDURANCE trial showed equivalency between a regimen of carfilzomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) and bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) as an initial therapy for patients with standard- or intermediate-risk multiple myeloma (Abstract LBA3). KRd failed to improve progression-free survival compared with VRd, according to data presented by Shaji K...
Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) is a recognized motor response complication affecting 30% to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease on chronic levodopa (l‐dopa) therapy.1, 2 It is typically choreiform, and involves all parts of the body, especially the head and neck. Besides chorea, rarer types of LIDs include myoclonic dyskinesia, ocular dyskinesia, and respiratory dyskinesia.1 Oromandibul...
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is the most common, disruptive complication of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pharmacotherapy, yet despite decades of research, the changes in regional brain function underlying LID remain largely unknown. We previously found that the cerebral vasomotor and metabolic responses to levodopa are dissociated in PD subjects. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether levodopa-med...
Journal of Neural Transmission;
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the midbrain. The gold-standard therapy for PD is the restoration of dopamine (DA) levels through the chronic administration of the DA precursor levodopa (L-DOPA). Although levodopa therapy is the main therapeutic approach for PD, its use is limited by the develo...
Eating sea lettuce or injecting disinfectant won’t prevent you from getting COVID-19. Holding your breath for ten seconds is not a test for SARS-CoV-2. And Russian President Vladimir Putin did not release 500 lions in Moscow to persuade the city’s residents to stay indoors as part of the efforts to fight the pandemic. The rapid global spread of COVID-19 has been accompanied by what the World He...
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated clinical syndrome COVID-19 are causing overwhelming morbidity and mortality around the globe, disproportionately affecting New York City. A comprehensive, integrative autopsy series that advances the mechanistic discussion surrounding this disease process is still lacking.
Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, this disease has spread rapidly around the globe. Considering the potential threat of a pandemic, scientists and physicians have been racing to understand this new virus and the pathophysiology of this disease to uncover possible treatment regimens and discover effective therapeutic agents and vacc...
With nationwide school closures currently operating in 191 countries, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has estimated that 1.6 billion (90.2%) students are currently out of primary, secondary and tertiary education (henceforth schools) as a result of the global COVID-19 lockdown . These restrictions have been introduced to help maintain physical di...
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) . It has led to a pandemic worldwide due to its extremely infectious nature. At present, the route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still controversial, but the major route of the COVID-19 to rapidly spread through indoor environments, is caused by the airborne route of the ...
While a global pandemic by SARS-CoV in 2002–2003 was averted by fast identification, effective surveillance, and quarantine, such measures cannot be easily transferred to new situations, as the case of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates. Knowledge of the fundamental biological and physical parameters affecting transmission pathways of respiratory pathogens is thus critical for the design of effective non-...
We read with great interest Bae’s recent publication on the incubation period of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its infectivity . However, we would like to launch a further discussion on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and the controversy regarding concerns about airborne SARSCoV-2 transmission.
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a substantial challenge for health-care systems and their infrastructure. RT-PCR-based diagnostic confirmation of infected individuals is crucial to contain viral spread because infection can be asymptomatic despite high viral loads. Sufficient molecular diagnostic capacity is important for public health interventions such as case dete...
A recent marked increase in pediatric and adult patients presenting with purpuric acral lesions concerning for ischemia, thrombosis and necrosis has been observed in COVID‐19 prevalent regions worldwide. The clinical and histopathological features and relationship to COVID‐19 have not been well described. The objective of this case series is to describe the clinical features and determine the h...
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic threatening global public health. In the current paper, we describe our successful treatment of three COVID-19 pneumonia patients cases including severe cases and cases with mortality risk factors. One 32-year-old male COVID-19 patient was diagnosed with sev...
SARS-CoV-2 is causing an increasing number of deaths worldwide because no effective treatment is currently available. Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Clinical Infectious Diseases; Monica Fung MD, MPH et. al.
Jun 26th, 2020 - The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused significant morbidity and mortality for patients and stressed healthcare systems worldwide. The clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 among immunosuppressed patients, who are at presumed risk for more severe disease but who may also have decreased detrimental inflammatory responses, are no...
The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is highly transmitted. The potential extra-respiratory transmission routes remain uncertain. Five rhesus macaques were inoculated with 1×106 TCID50 of SARS-CoV-2 via conjunctival (CJ), intratracheal (IT), and intragastric (IG) routes, respectively. Remarkably, the CJ inoculated-mac...
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe and potentially life-threatening disease manifestation. Besides autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) syndrome pulmonary viral infections are also known to be culprits of DAH. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic confronts healthcar...
In a recent study published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine in May, 2020, Kenrie Hui and colleagues1 described the tropism, replication competence, and innate immune responses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the human respiratory tract and conjunctiva. The authors concluded that SARS-CoV-2 replication in the conjunctiva was greater than SARS-CoV replication...
Since the start of the outbreak in December 2019, COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has led to an increasing number of infections worldwide, with an estimated overall mortality of 5·7%.1 Meanwhile, many patients who were hospitalised have recovered and were discharged to self-quarantine. However, some patients have tested positive for COVID-19 aga...
The SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent for COVID-19 pneumonia. Little is known about the 60 kinetics, tissue distribution, cross-reactivity and neutralization antibody response in COVID61 19 patients. Two groups of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this study, 62 including 12 severe patients in ICUs who needed mechanical ventilation and 11 mild patients 63 in isolation wards...
In December, 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2], previously 2019-nCoV) started in Wuhan, China, and has since become a global threat to human health. The number of confirmed cases of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has reached 87 137 worldwide as of March 1, 2020, according to WHO COVID-19 situation report 41; most of the...
The majority of SARS-CoV-2 exposed individuals mount an antibody response within around 2-weeks and spike antigen binding responses correlate well with functional virus neutralisation. A minority make little detectable antibody, generally those with either very mild/asymptomatic disease or those with severe/lethal infection. However, in general, antibody titre correlates with viral load and dur...
T cell reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 was observed in unexposed people; however, the source and clinical relevance of the reactivity remains unknown. It is speculated that this reflects T cell memory to circulating ‘common cold’ coronaviruses. It will be important to define specificities of these T cells and assess their association with COVID-19 disease severity and vaccine responses.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience;
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rest tremor, postural disturbances, and rigidity. PD is also characterized by non-motor symptoms such as sleep disturbances, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety. The pharmacological treatment for these symptoms is limited in ...
Chronic levodopa treatment leads to the appearance of dyskinesia in the majority of Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurovascular dysregulation in putaminal and pallidal regions is thought to be an underlying feature of this complication of treatment. We used microPET to study unilaterally lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine rats that developed levodopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) after ...
NPJ Parkinson's Disease;
IRL790 is a novel compound with psychomotor stabilizing properties primarily targeting the dopamine D3 receptor. IRL790 is developed as an experimental treatment for levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), impulse control disorder, and psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The primary objective was to investigate the safety and tolerability of IRL790 in PD patients with LID in a randomized controll...
Reviews in the Neurosciences;
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder that involves the gradual loss of motor function. Symptoms are observed initially in the extremities, such as hands and arms, while advanced stages of the disease can effect blinking, swallowing, speaking, and breathing. PD is a neurodegenerative disease, with dopaminergic neuronal loss occurring in the substantia nigra pars compacta, thus ...
Journal of Neurology;
Chronic dopamine replacement therapies in Parkinson’s disease can induce side effects, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesias and impulse control disorders. A dysfunction of inhibitory brain networks has been related to both disorders; however, there is no clear behavioral evidence supporting this hypothesis. We aimed to determine whether PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias show feature...
Jul 8th, 2020 - In updated results of the pilot study, presented during the ASCO2020 Virtual Scientific Program, researchers showed that lisocabtagene maraleucel induced durable response as a second-line treatment in large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Jul 6th, 2020 - Overall survival results from SOLO-2 showed patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and germline BRCA mutations added a year of life when treated with olaparib only, Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, of Dana Farber Cancer Institute, told Healio.
Jul 7th, 2020 - In a small sample, retreatment of patients with large B-cell lymphoma showed good response, notably in patients who had complete response on initial treatment, according to a poster presented at ASCO 2020 Virtual Scientific Program.
Jul 6th, 2020 - Studies presented during the ASCO2020 Virtual Scientific Program showed the benefit of validated selection tools in pursuing surgical measures for ovarian cancer relapse, Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, of Dana Farber Cancer Institute, told Healio.
Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, results from reactivation of latent infection with varicella- zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. Anyone who has had chickenpox, even in subclinical form, is at risk for developing HZ. It is estimated that the lifetime risk of HZ is 30%, and 1 million new cases are reported annually in the United States.1 An effective shingles vaccine has been approved...
The purpose of review is to review the current status of positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging of serotonergic system in Parkinson’s patients who experience levodopa-induced (LIDs) and graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs). PET imaging studies have shown that Parkinson’s disease is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Parkinson’s patients who exp...
Choreiform or dystonic movement in the craniocervical region can occur as levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID). “Sensory tricks” are various alleviating maneuvers for the relief of abnormal postures in patients who have idiopathic focal dystonia, particularly those who have cervical dystonia. The authors report on three men with Parkinson's disease who had been receiving levodopa for more than 3 y...
In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the onset of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) is difficult to predict. This study examines whether dopamine transporter (DAT)-specific SPECT imaging in de novo PD relates to later development of LIDs.
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about an urgent need for effective treatment, while conserving vital resources such as intensive care unit beds and ventilators. Antivirals, convalescent plasma, and biologics have been used with mixed results. The profound “cytokine storm” induced endotheliopathy and microthrombotic disease in patients with COVID-19 may lead to acute respiratory distress syndr...
As Covid-19 spreads around the world, health care leaders and clinicians currently dealing with rising case rates can learn much from those organizations hit with earlier surges of infection. NEJM Catalyst has featured articles, case studies, and conversations since the early days of the pandemic on the many dierent approaches and solutions to the problems posed by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Th...
COVID-19, also known as the “novel coronavirus disease 2019,” is a respiratory illness, and the causative pathogen is officially named as “SARS-CoV-2.” Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have now been amplified to a global pandemic—as of April 3, 2020, nearly 1 018 000 cases have been confirmed in more than 195 countries, including more than 300 000 cases within the United States. Public safety guideli...
Many patients with COVID-19, the clinical illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, exhibit mild symptoms and do not require hospitalization. Instead, these patients are often referred for 14-days of home isolation as symptoms resolve. Lung ultrasound is well-established as an important means of evaluating lung pathology in patients in the emergency department and in intensive care units. Ultraso...
The emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has required an unprecedented response to control the spread of the infection and protect the most vulnerable within society. Whilst the pandemic has focused society on the threat of emerging infections and hand hygiene, certain infection control and antimicrobial stewardship policies may have to be relaxed. It is...
Qualitative detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory specimens (including nasopharyngeal swab, anterior nasal swab, mid-turbinate nasal swab and oropharyngeal swab, nasal washes, nasal aspirates) and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from individuals suspected of COVID-19 by their healthcare provider.
Qualitative detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal (throat) swabs, anterior nasal swabs, mid-turbinate nasal swabs, nasal aspirates, nasal washes and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from individuals suspected of COVID-19 by their healthcare provider.