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Super-spreading events and contribution to transmission of MERS, SARS, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

There is no clear definition for the term ‘super-spreader’ or ‘super-spreading event’. The World Health Organization refers to a super-spreader as a patient (or an event) that may transmit infection to a larger number of individuals than is usual by one individual (or event). In the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) situation, a super-spreading event was defined as the transmission of SA...

Pain and dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease may share common pathophysiological mechanisms – An fMRI study
Journal of Neurological Sciences;

May 26th, 2020 - Parkinson's disease (PD) patients develop levodopa induced dyskinesia with disease progression from sensitization of central pathways. Pain pathways are also impacted with suggestions dyskinetic patients may process pain differently.

Association of Circadian Abnormalities in Older Adults With an Increased Risk of Developing Parkinson Disease

Clinical Guidance for Pediatric Patients with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Hyperinflammation in COVID-19

Antibody Detection and Dynamic Characteristics in Patients with COVID-19

The antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the middle and later stage of the COVID-19. Antibody detection may play an important role in the diagnosis of COVID-19 as complement approach for viral nucleid acid assays.

Disappearance of Antibodies to SARS-Associated Coronavirus after Recovery
The New England Journal of Medicine;

Previous studies have demonstrated that IgG and neutralizing antibodies against coronavirus associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) may persist, in spite of a decline in titer, for 2 years in patients who have recovered from SARS.

Colchicine as a possible therapeutic option in COVID-19 infection

In contrast, we consider that colchicine can be a good therapeutic option because of several effects in the immunology system involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Colchicine has effects on the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and monocytes and on the intracellular transportation of vesicles such as endosomes and exosomes.

The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1 shedding and increases infectivity
https://www.scripps.edu/_files/pdfs/news-and-events/The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1.pdf

SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolates encoding a D614G mutation in the viral spike (S) protein predominate over time in locales where it is found, implying that this change enhances viral transmission. We therefore compared the functional properties of the S proteins with aspartic acid (SD614) and glycine (SG614) at residue 614. We observed that retroviruses pseudotyped with SG614 infect...

Mutated coronavirus shows significant boost in infectivity

A tiny genetic mutation in the SARS coronavirus 2 variant circulating throughout Europe and the United States significantly increases the virus’ ability to infect cells, lab experiments performed at Scripps Research show.

Neurologic Features in Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection

We report the neurologic features in an observational series of 58 of 64 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital because of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Covid-19. The patients received similar evaluations by intensivists in two intensive care units (ICUs) in Strasbourg, France, between March 3 and April 3, 2020.

Association between Olfactory Deficit and Motor and Cognitive Function in Parkinson’s Disease
Journal of Movement Disorders;

We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9)...

Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism Dissociation in the Putamen Is Predictive of Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease Patients
Frontiers in Neurology;

Nov 20th, 2019 - The forefront treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is Levodopa. When patients are treated with Levodopa cerebral blood flow is increased while cerebral metabolic rate is decreased in key subcortical regions including the putamen. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in patients with Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).

Expert Perspective on ASCO20 Immunotherapy Research

Jul 1st, 2020 - CAR T-cell therapy with BCMA-targeting idecabtagene-vicleucel (ide-cel) has emerged to be a game-changer as shown by this first pivotal phase II trial of CAR T-cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). Ide-cel is a first-in-class BCMA-directed CAR T-cell therapy, with 4-1BB costimulatory domain and CD3Z T-cell activation domain.

Expert Perspective on ASCO20 Gastrointestinal Cancers Research

Jul 1st, 2020 - Donafenib, a deuterated derivative of sorafenib, was tested against sorafenib in the frontline setting in hepatitis B– associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a large, multi-institutional study in China (Abstract 4506).

Expert Perspective on ASCO20 Gynecologic Oncology Research

Jul 2nd, 2020 - DESKTOP III (Abstract 6000) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized phase III study of > 400 patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer that demonstrated a clinically meaningful 7.7 month improvement in median overall survival with secondary cytoreductive surgery (53.7 months) compared with no surgery (46 months).

Immunotherapy and Beyond: Treatment Options and Potential Markers in Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Jul 2nd, 2020 - Head and neck cancers account for approximately 4% of all cancers in the United States1 and are the eighth most common cancer affecting men in the United States.2 The diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) carries a poor prognosis, with an overall survival (OS) of approximately 1 year.

White matter hyperintensities and risk of levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology;

Feb 6th, 2020 - To investigate whether the burden of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is associated with the risk of developing levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Dr. Usmani on Activity of Teclistamab in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma

May 30th, 2020

Second Surgery Gets OS Win in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

Jun 1st, 2020

Dr. Mascarenhas on the Impact of Ruxolitinib on the Myelofibrosis Treatment Paradigm

Jun 4th, 2020

Dr. Richardson on Phase 1 Data With CC-92480 in Multiple Myeloma

May 31st, 2020

Dr. Zakashansky on the Benefit of Maintenance Olaparib in BRCA+ Ovarian Cancer

Jun 1st, 2020

Dr. Poveda on the Results of the SOLO2 Trial in Ovarian Cancer

May 31st, 2020

Brief recommendations on the management of adult patients with familial hypercholesterolemia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Individuals with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) are at very high risk of cardiovascular disease, which is associated with poor outcomes from coronavirus infections. COVID-19 puts strain on healthcare systems and may impair access to routine FH services. On behalf of the International Lipid Expert Panel (ILEP) and the European FH Patient Network (FH Europe), we present brief recommendations...

Plasminogen improves lung lesions and hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19

Lungs from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown typical signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), formation of hyaline membrane mainly composed of fibrin and ‘ground-glass’ opacity. Previously, we showed plasminogen itself is a key regulator in fibrin degradation, wound healing and infection.

Can a toilet promote virus transmission? From a fluid dynamics perspective

Currently, a novel coronavirus named “SARS-CoV-2” is spreading rapidly across the world, causing a public health crisis, economic losses, and panic. Fecal–oral transmission is a common transmission route for many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Blocking the path of fecal–oral transmission, which occurs commonly in toilet usage, is of fundamental importance in suppressing the spread of viruses. H...

Prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in faecal samples

We present severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time RT-PCR results of all respiratory and faecal samples from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China, throughout the course of their illness and obligated quarantine period.

Dexamethasone treatment for the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

There is no proven specific pharmacological treatment for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of corticosteroids in ARDS remains controversial. We aimed to assess the effects of dexamethasone in ARDS, which might change pulmonary and systemic inflammation and result in a decrease in duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality.

Update Alert: Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Coronavirus Infection in Health Care Workers

This is the first monthly update alert for a living review on the epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infections in health care workers (HCWs) (1). Searches were updated from 24 April 2020 to 24 May 2020, using the same search strategies as the original review, and we identified 1125 citations. Applying the same inclusion criteria, we identified 37 additional studies for this updat...

Surgical Treatment of Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease

The treatment of motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially a trade-off between adequate relief of motor symptoms and prevention and control of motor complications, particularly levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Progression of PD is paralleled by a progressive difficulty in achieving the balance. Functional neurosurgical procedures provide sustained relief of LID in carefu...

Cerebellar Connectivity in Parkinson's Disease With Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia

The precise pathogenesis or neural correlates underlying levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) remains poorly understood. There is growing evidence of the involvement of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study evaluated the role of motor cerebellar connectivity in determining vulnerability to LID.

Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections

The seasonal cycle of respiratory viral diseases has been widely recognized for thousands of years, as annual epidemics of the common cold and influenza disease hit the human population like clockwork in the winter season in temperate regions. Moreover, epidemics caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 occur during ...

An international physical activity and public health research agenda to inform COVID-19 policies and practices

Physical activity (PA) has strong relevance for limiting the harms to human health and well-being due to the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Active muscles produce chemicals that improve immune functioning, which in turn reduces the extent of infections, and decreases inflammation, and these are the main causes of the lung damage from SARS-CoV-2 infection. PA is a powerful preventive and therapeutic interv...

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Physical Activity

The SARS-CoV-2-caused COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a devastating threat to human society in terms of health, economy, and lifestyle. Although the virus usually first invades and infects the lung and respiratory track tissue, in extreme cases, almost all major organs in the body are now known to be negatively impacted often leading to severe systemic failure in some people. Unfortunately, t...

SARS-CoV-2 and Nervous System - Neurological Manifestations in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Coronavirus (CoV) is a virus infectious disease with a considerable spectrum of clinical presentations. Symptoms ranged from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia that may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and several clinical complications. Neurologic symptoms related to CoV have been described recently in the literature. The relationship between SARS-Co...

Potential neurological effects of severe COVID-19 infection

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large positive stranded enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause enteric and respiratory diseases in humans and in animals. Most human CoVs have recently attracted global attention to their lethal potential and great infectious capacity. A highly pathogenic CoV, called COVID-19 or SARS‐CoV2, dramatically emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. This new CoV has cause...

Pathophysiology of the COVID-19 – entry to the CNS through the nose

During the recent weeks, anosmia without nasal or other symptoms has been recognized as an alarming sign of early-stage COVID-19 [1]. This might indicate that SARS-CoV-2, when entering the body via the nose, may be neurotropic, have affinity for the olfactory epithelium and advance along the olfactory nerve into the CNS, causing early-stage CNS infection. This route is a known shortcut for infl...

Fulminant Cerebral Edema as a Lethal Manifestation of COVID-19

The contribution of neurological symptomatology to morbidity and mortality after infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus (SARS CoV II), is ill-defined. We hereby present a case of a 57-year old male patient, in excellent physical condition, who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), with respiratory distress duo to SARS CoV II-induced bilateral pneumonia....

Real-time assessment of COVID-19 prevalence among multiple sclerosis patients: a multicenter European study

We assessed the prevalence and impact of COVID-19 among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients across Europe by leveraging participant data collected as part of the ongoing EU IMI2 RADAR-CNS major programme aimed at finding new ways of monitoring neurological disorders using wearable devices and smartphone technology. In the present study, 399 patients of RADAR-MS have been included (mean age 43.9 ye...

Meningoencephalitis associated with COVID-19: A systematic review

With the growing number of COVID-19 cases in recent times, the varied range of presentations is progressively becoming an addressing issue among clinicians. A significant set of patients with extra pulmonary symptoms has been reported worldwide. Neurological involvement in the form of altered mental status, loss of consciousness in considerable amounts has drawn attention of physicians all a...

Investigation into SARS-CoV‑2 Resistance of Compounds in Garlic Essential Oil

Eighteen active substances, including 17 organosulfur compounds found in garlic essential oil (T), were identified by GC−MS analysis. For the first time, using the molecular docking technique, we report the inhibitory effect of the considered compounds on the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein in the human body that leads to a crucial foundation about coronavirus ...

KRd, VRd Equivalency in Multiple Myeloma ‘Reassuring’ to Hematologists

Jun 23rd, 2020 - Awaited results of the ENDURANCE trial showed equivalency between a regimen of carfilzomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) and bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) as an initial therapy for patients with standard- or intermediate-risk multiple myeloma (Abstract LBA3). KRd failed to improve progression-free survival compared with VRd, according to data presented by Shaji K...

Prominent Oromandibular Dystonia as Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease.
Movement Disorders;

Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia (LID) is a recognized motor response complication affecting 30% to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease on chronic levodopa (l‐dopa) therapy.1, 2 It is typically choreiform, and involves all parts of the body, especially the head and neck. Besides chorea, rarer types of LIDs include myoclonic dyskinesia, ocular dyskinesia, and respiratory dyskinesia.1 Oromandibul...

Flow-metabolism dissociation in the pathogenesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesia

Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is the most common, disruptive complication of Parkinson’s disease (PD) pharmacotherapy, yet despite decades of research, the changes in regional brain function underlying LID remain largely unknown. We previously found that the cerebral vasomotor and metabolic responses to levodopa are dissociated in PD subjects. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether levodopa-med...

Synaptic Plasticity and Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia: Electrophysiological and Structural Abnormalities
Journal of Neural Transmission;

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the midbrain. The gold-standard therapy for PD is the restoration of dopamine (DA) levels through the chronic administration of the DA precursor levodopa (L-DOPA). Although levodopa therapy is the main therapeutic approach for PD, its use is limited by the develo...

Coronavirus misinformation, and how scientists can help to fight it

Eating sea lettuce or injecting disinfectant won’t prevent you from getting COVID-19. Holding your breath for ten seconds is not a test for SARS-CoV-2. And Russian President Vladimir Putin did not release 500 lions in Moscow to persuade the city’s residents to stay indoors as part of the efforts to fight the pandemic. The rapid global spread of COVID-19 has been accompanied by what the World He...

Pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2: targeting of endothelial cells renders a complex disease with thrombotic microangiopathy and aberrant immune response. The Mount Sinai COVID-19 autopsy experience

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated clinical syndrome COVID-19 are causing overwhelming morbidity and mortality around the globe, disproportionately affecting New York City. A comprehensive, integrative autopsy series that advances the mechanistic discussion surrounding this disease process is still lacking.

Research and Development on Therapeutic Agents and Vaccines for COVID-19 and Related Human Coronavirus Diseases

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, this disease has spread rapidly around the globe. Considering the potential threat of a pandemic, scientists and physicians have been racing to understand this new virus and the pathophysiology of this disease to uncover possible treatment regimens and discover effective therapeutic agents and vacc...

Vaccines for COVID-19: Perspectives, Prospects, and Challenges Based on Candidate SARS, MERS, and Animal Coronavirus Vaccines

Reopening schools after the COVID-19 lockdown

With nationwide school closures currently operating in 191 countries, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has estimated that 1.6 billion (90.2%) students are currently out of primary, secondary and tertiary education (henceforth schools) as a result of the global COVID-19 lockdown [1]. These restrictions have been introduced to help maintain physical di...