Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, this disease has spread rapidly around the globe. Considering the potential threat of a pandemic, scientists and physicians have been racing to understand this new virus and the pathophysiology of this disease to uncover possible treatment regimens and discover effective therapeutic agents and vacc...
Following the outbreak in China, the Lombardy region of Italy has become one of the areas of highest incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). As the outbreak grew to a pandemic, many centers worldwide raised the concern that immunocompromised patients may be at high risk of developing a severe respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Unli...
These recommendations represent the first statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of a live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster (zoster) (i.e., shingles) and its sequelae, which was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on May 25, 2006. This report summarizes the epidemiology of zoster and its sequelae, describes the z...
Herpes zoster (HZ), also known as shingles, results from reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which commonly causes chickenpox in childhood. Greater than 90% of adults are infected with this virus, putting them at risk for reactivation. HZ presents as a painful, vesicular rash distributed in a unilateral and dermatomal pattern along dorsal root or cranial nerve ganglia. The ...
May 18th, 2020 - In this meta-analysis that included 12 trials with 92 135 participants for the primary outcome measure, blood pressure lowering with antihypertensive agents, compared with control, was associated with the development of a composite dementia or cognitive impairment outcome in 7.0% vs 7.5% of patients over a mean trial follow-up of 4.1 years, a difference that was statistically significant.
May 30th, 2020 - Stratified multivariate analysis as well as efficacy from multiple treatment time points confirmed the benefit of cabazitaxel (Jevtana) over abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) or enzalutamide (Xtandi) as a standard treatment in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were previously treated with docetaxel and either of those 2 androgen receptor (AR)-targeted agents, accor...
May 28th, 2020 - According to results from the phase 3 KEYNOTE-355 trial (NCT02819518), frontline pembrolizumab in combination with multiple chemotherapy agents, promotes statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who have high PD-L1 expression in their tumors, compared with the PFS observed ...
May 27th, 2020 - Matching children diagnosed with advanced cancers to targeted anti-cancer agents appears to show some potential for improving progression-free survival, researchers reported in a late-breaker abstract at the virtual American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting, with presentations online this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
May 30th, 2020 - The use of cabazitaxel (Jevtana) over abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) or enzalutamide (Xtandi) may continue as a standard of care in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were previously treated with docetaxel and either of those 2 androgen receptor (AR)-targeted agents, based on results of a poster presented during the 2020 American Society of Clinical Oncology Virt...
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA betacoronavirus sharing genetic similarities with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).1 SARS-CoV-2 e...
Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-release and is available in several combination products with other antidiabetic agents.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor and nonmotor features that have an influence on patients’ quality of life at different levels. To date, some evidences have arisen on the effectiveness of physical trainings and nutrients intake in ameliorating functional and cognitive outcomes in PD patients. Physical activity is effective in improving both motor and nonmotor features and rece...
Acute treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure is a common issue in patients with neurological injury. Practical recommendations regarding selection and monitoring of therapies for initial management of cerebral edema for optimal efficacy and safety are generally lacking. This guideline evaluates the role of hyperosmolar agents (mannitol, HTS), corticosteroids, and selecte...
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy;
Drug repositioning is the only feasible option to address the COVID-19 global challenge immediately.
American Family Physician; Groves C, Griffin L et. al.
Acamprosate and naltrexone should be used as first-line agents for treatment of alcohol use disorder and are effective for reducing relapse rates. Agent selection should be based on comorbid conditions and adherence to the dosing regimen. (Strength of Recommendation [SOR]: A, based on a meta-analysis.) Combining the two agents may provide additional benefit early in treatment. (SOR: B, based on...
JAMA Savage RD, Visentin JD et. al.
Importance Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are commonly prescribed agents for hypertension that can cause peripheral edema. A prescribing cascade occurs when the edema is misinterpreted as a new medical condition and a diuretic is subsequently prescribed to treat the edema. The extent to which this prescribing cascade occurs at a population level is not well understood.
New England Journal of Medicine; Beigel, JH. .
A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in December 2019 as the cause of a respiratory illness designated coronavirus disease 2019, or Covid-19.1 Several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of Covid-19, but no antiviral agents have yet been shown to be efficacious.
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is widely distributed in the Earth’s crust. It is found in water, air, food, and soil.
The Lancet; Beydoun M, .
Background: Infectious agents including periodontal pathogens and their neuroinflammatory sequelae have been at the forefront of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology. We investigated whether periodontal disease (Pd) markers and periodontal pathogens in mid-life are associated with clinical outcomes of cognitive impairment after decades of follow-up.