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About 240,758 results

Effect of Natriuretic Peptide-Guided Therapy on Hospitalization or Cardiovascular Morta...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5605776
JAMA Felker GM, Anstrom KJ et. al.

Aug 22nd, 2017 - The natriuretic peptides are biochemical markers of heart failure (HF) severity and predictors of adverse outcomes. Smaller studies have evaluated adjusting HF therapy based on natriuretic peptide levels ("guided therapy") with inconsistent results. To determine whether an amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-guided treatment strategy improves clinical outcomes vs usual car...

Fracture prediction after discontinuation of 4 to 5 years of alendronate therapy: the F...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409325
JAMA Internal Medicine; Bauer DC, Schwartz A et. al.

May 6th, 2014 - Discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy after 3 to 5 years is increasingly considered, but methods to monitor fracture risk after discontinuation have not been established. To test methods of predicting fracture risk among women who have discontinued alendronate therapy after 4 to 5 years. The prospective Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX) study randomized postmenopausal w...

Continuous renal replacement therapy in neonates and small infants: development and fir...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60799-6
Lancet (London, England); Ronco C, Garzotto F et. al.

May 26th, 2014 - Peritoneal dialysis is the renal replacement therapy of choice for acute kidney injury in neonates, but in some cases is not feasible or effective. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines are used off label in infants smaller than 15 kg and are not designed specifically for small infants. We aimed to design and create a CRRT machine specifically for neonates and small infants. We p...

An inflammatory biomarker as a differential predictor of outcome of depression treatmen...
https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14010094
The American Journal of Psychiatry; Uher R, Tansey KE et. al.

Jul 15th, 2014 - Major depressive disorder has been linked with inflammatory processes, but it is unclear whether individual differences in levels of inflammatory biomarkers could help match patients to treatments that are most likely to be beneficial. The authors tested the hypothesis that C-reactive protein (CRP), a commonly available marker of systemic inflammation, predicts differential response to escitalo...

Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnosing invasive fungal disease.
https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201403-0431OC
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Affolter K, Tamm M et. al.

Jul 9th, 2014 - Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We hypothesize that galactomannan (GM), a component of fungal cell wall, as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) might be a diagnostic adjunct in hematologic malignancies. A total of 568 hematologic cases undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy because of respiratory symptoms and/or sus...

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults is associated with IgG4 and not mediated by IgE.
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.05.036
Gastroenterology Clayton F, Fang JC et. al.

Jun 7th, 2014 - Eosinophilic esophagitis is usually triggered by foods, by unclear mechanisms. We evaluated the roles of IgE and IgG4 in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adults with eosinophilic esophagitis given an antibody against IgE (omalizumab, n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) every 2-4 weeks for 16 weeks, based on we...

MDDScore: confirmation of a blood test to aid in the diagnosis of major depressive diso...
https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.14m09029
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry; Bilello JA, Thurmond LM et. al.

Mar 5th, 2015 - Previously, a biomarker panel was developed for use as an aid to major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis; it consisted of 9 biomarkers associated with the neurotrophic, metabolic, inflammatory, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis pathways. This panel and associated algorithm produced good clinical sensitivity and specificity (92% and 81%, respectively) in differentiating MDD patients from...

HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and incident cardiovascular events.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4308988
The New England Journal of Medicine; Rohatgi A, Khera A et. al.

Nov 18th, 2014 - It is unclear whether high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration plays a causal role in atherosclerosis. A more important factor may be HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, the ability of HDL to accept cholesterol from macrophages, which is a key step in reverse cholesterol transport. We investigated the epidemiology of cholesterol efflux capacity and its association with incident ath...

The ability of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cardi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4369184
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.); Kawai VK, Chung CP et. al.

Nov 5th, 2014 - Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that is underestimated by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). We undertook this study to test the hypothesis that the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 10-year risk score would perform better than the FRS and the Reynolds Risk Score (RRS) in identifying RA pa...

Effects of randomized rosuvastatin compared with placebo on bone and body composition a...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382350
AIDS (London, England); Erlandson KM, Jiang Y et. al.

Nov 14th, 2014 - Statins have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and lean mass in some studies of HIV-uninfected adults; however, this has never been investigated in the setting of HIV infection. HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 130 mg/dl or less and evidence of heightened immune activation or inflammation were randomize...

PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246418
Nature Tumeh PC, Harview CL et. al.

Nov 27th, 2014 - Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types. One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells (termed adaptive immune resistance). Here we show that pre-exist...

Sofosbuvir and ribavirin prevent recurrence of HCV infection after liver transplantatio...
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.09.023
Gastroenterology Curry MP, Forns X et. al.

Sep 27th, 2014 - Patients with detectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA at the time of liver transplantation universally experience recurrent HCV infection. Antiviral treatment before transplantation can prevent HCV recurrence, but existing interferon-based regimens are poorly tolerated and are either ineffective or contraindicated in most patients. We performed a trial to determine whether sofosbuvir and ribavir...

Levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are surrogate end points of outcomes of pa...
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.08.029
Gastroenterology Lammers WJ, van Buuren HR et. al.

Aug 27th, 2014 - Noninvasive surrogate end points of long-term outcomes of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are needed to monitor disease progression and evaluate potential treatments. We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from cohort studies to evaluate whether patients' levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin correlate with their outcomes and can be used as surrogate end po...

Elevated levels of monocyte activation markers are associated with subclinical atherosc...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4402336
The Journal of Infectious Diseases; McKibben RA, Margolick JB et. al.

Nov 1st, 2014 - Heightened immune activation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons may contribute to atherosclerosis. We assessed associations of serologic markers of monocyte activation, soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2) with subclinical atherosclerosis among men with and those without HIV infection in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort...

The prognostic value of undetectable highly sensitive cardiac troponin I in patients wi...
https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.14-0700
Chest Hakemi EU, Alyousef T et. al.

Jul 31st, 2014 - Elevated cardiac troponin levels have been shown to be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, few data address the management implications of undetectable cardiac troponin I (cTnI) using a highly sensitive assay. We hypothesized that undetectable cTnI predicts very low in-hospital adverse event rates. In a retrospective cohort study, we classif...

The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and diseas...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4602247
Gut Vande Casteele N, Khanna R et. al.

Oct 22nd, 2014 - Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. In an observational study, 1487 trough...

Prevalence and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5013930
Brain : a Journal of Neurology; Vos SJ, Verhey F et. al.

Feb 19th, 2015 - Three sets of research criteria are available for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the International Working Group-1, International Working Group-2, and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association criteria. We compared the prevalence and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage according to these criteria. Subjects...

Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia: a meta-analysis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4486209
JAMA Jansen WJ, Ossenkoppele R et. al.

May 19th, 2015 - Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured w...

Vitamin D and Calcium Attenuate Bone Loss With Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: A Ran...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4608553
Annals of Internal Medicine; Overton ET, Chan ES et. al.

Jun 15th, 2015 - Antiretroviral therapy initiation for HIV-1 infection is associated with 2% to 6% loss of bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 plus calcium supplementation on bone loss associated with antiretroviral therapy initiation. 48-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01403051). 39 AIDS Clinical Trials Group units. Adul...

Serial sampling of copeptin levels improves diagnosis and risk stratification in patien...
https://doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2015-204692
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ; Marston NA, Shah KS et. al.

Jun 24th, 2015 - Copeptin has demonstrated a role in early rule out for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in combination with a negative troponin. However, management of patients with chest pain with a positive copeptin in the setting of a negative troponin is unclear. The multicentre CHOPIN trial enrolled 2071 patients with acute chest pain. Of these, 476 subjects with an initial negative troponin but an eleva...