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About 209,764 results

Trial of Fingolimod versus Interferon Beta-1a in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1800149
The New England Journal of Medicine; Chitnis T, Arnold DL et. al.

Sep 12th, 2018 - Treatment of patients younger than 18 years of age with multiple sclerosis has not been adequately examined in randomized trials. We compared fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in this population. In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients 10 to 17 years of age with relapsing multiple sclerosis in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral fingolimod at a dose of 0.5 mg per day (0.25 mg per day for ...

Effect of Trans-Nasal Evaporative Intra-arrest Cooling on Functional Neurologic Outcome...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.4149
JAMA Nordberg P, Taccone FS et. al.

May 7th, 2019 - Therapeutic hypothermia may increase survival with good neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. Trans-nasal evaporative cooling is a method used to induce cooling, primarily of the brain, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ie, intra-arrest). To determine whether prehospital trans-nasal evaporative intra-arrest cooling improves survival with good neurologic outcome compared with cooling init...

Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: description of the first fifty-two adul...
https://doi.org/10.1002/art.38340
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.); de Boysson H, Zuber M et. al.

May 1st, 2014 - To describe characteristics and outcomes of a multicenter cohort of patients diagnosed as having primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). In 2010, we initiated a cohort study of adults diagnosed as having PACNS ≤15 years ago and with followup of >6 months (unless they died earlier of biopsy-proven PACNS). Its first analysis was planned at 2 years. Multidisciplinary investigators ...

A critical appraisal of neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder: toward a new conceptu...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119497
The American Journal of Psychiatry; Phillips ML, Swartz HA

Mar 14th, 2014 - In this critical review, the authors appraise neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion-processing, emotion-regulation, and reward-processing neural circuitry in order to synthesize the current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder and provide a neuroimaging research road map for future studies. The authors examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disor...

Consensus on guidelines for stereotactic neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4145431
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry; Nuttin B, Wu H et. al.

Jan 21st, 2014 - For patients with psychiatric illnesses remaining refractory to 'standard' therapies, neurosurgical procedures may be considered. Guidelines for safe and ethical conduct of such procedures have previously and independently been proposed by various local and regional expert groups. To expand on these earlier documents, representative members of continental and international psychiatric and neuro...

The neuropsychiatry of tinnitus: a circuit-based approach to the causes and treatments ...
https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2013-307339
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry; Minen MT, Camprodon J et. al.

Apr 19th, 2014 - Patients presenting with tinnitus commonly have neuropsychiatric symptoms with which physicians need to be familiar. We provide an overview of tinnitus, including its types and pathophysiology. We discuss how recent methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, positron emission tomography, MRI, magnetoencephalography and quantitative EEG improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of...

Association of traumatic brain injuries with vomiting in children with blunt head trauma.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.01.009
Annals of Emergency Medicine; Dayan PS, Holmes JF et. al.

Feb 24th, 2014 - We aimed to determine the prevalence of traumatic brain injuries in children who vomit after minor blunt head trauma, particularly when the vomiting occurs without other findings suggestive of traumatic brain injury (ie, isolated vomiting). We also aimed to determine the relationship between the timing and degree of vomiting and traumatic brain injury prevalence. This was a secondary analysis o...

Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134948
The New England Journal of Medicine; Wilson MR, Naccache SN et. al.

Jun 4th, 2014 - A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 se...

A test for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using nasal brushings.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4186748
The New England Journal of Medicine; Orrú CD, Bongianni M et. al.

Aug 7th, 2014 - Definite diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients remains a challenge. A test that detects the specific marker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the prion protein (PrP(CJD)), by means of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) testing of cerebrospinal fluid has a sensitivity of 80 to 90% for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have assessed the ...

Midlife migraine and late-life parkinsonism: AGES-Reykjavik study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4180488
Neurology Scher AI, Ross GW et. al.

Sep 18th, 2014 - In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that having migraine in middle age is related to late-life parkinsonism and a related disorder, restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED). The AGES-Reykjavik cohort (born 1907-1935) has been followed since 1967. Headaches were classified based on symptoms assessed in middle age. From 2002 to 2006, 5,764 participants wer...

Neuromodulators for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (Disorders of Gut-Brain Inter...
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2017.11.279
Gastroenterology Drossman DA, Tack J et. al.

Dec 24th, 2017 - Central neuromodulators (antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other central nervous system-targeted medications) are increasingly used for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), now recognized as disorders of gut-brain interaction. However, the available evidence and guidance for the use of central neuromodulators in these conditions is scanty and incomplete. In this Rome F...

ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy.
https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.12550
Epilepsia Fisher RS, Acevedo C et. al.

Apr 15th, 2014 - Epilepsy was defined conceptually in 2005 as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. This definition is usually practically applied as having two unprovoked seizures >24 h apart. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) accepted recommendations of a task force altering the practical definition for special circumstances that do ...

Amyloid, neurodegeneration, and small vessel disease as predictors of dementia in the o...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240431
Neurology Lopez OL, Klunk WE et. al.

Oct 11th, 2014 - To examine the association between brain structural changes and β-amyloid deposition, and incident dementia in 183 elderly subjects without dementia (mean age 85.5 years) 2 years later. Subjects had a brain structural MRI scan and a PET scan with (11)C-labeled Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) in 2009, and were evaluated clinically in 2011. At baseline evaluation, of the 183 participants (146 cogniti...

Association of nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with neurologic...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.17986
JAMA Burt RK, Balabanov R et. al.

Jan 20th, 2015 - No current therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) results in significant reversal of disability. To determine the association of nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with neurological disability and other clinical outcomes in patients with MS. Case series of patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 123) or secondary-progressive MS (n = 28) (mean age, 36 yea...

Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791058
JAMA Psychiatry; Goodkind M, Eickhoff SB et. al.

Feb 4th, 2015 - Psychiatric diagnoses are currently distinguished based on sets of specific symptoms. However, genetic and clinical analyses find similarities across a wide variety of diagnoses, suggesting that a common neurobiological substrate may exist across mental illness. To conduct a meta-analysis of structural neuroimaging studies across multiple psychiatric diagnoses, followed by parallel analyses of ...

Brain swelling and death in children with cerebral malaria.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450675
The New England Journal of Medicine; Seydel KB, Kampondeni SD et. al.

Mar 18th, 2015 - Case fatality rates among African children with cerebral malaria remain in the range of 15 to 25%. The key pathogenetic processes and causes of death are unknown, but a combination of clinical observations and pathological findings suggests that increased brain volume leading to raised intracranial pressure may play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became available in Malawi in 2009, an...

Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4388938
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of The... Salzwedel AP, Grewen KM et. al.

Apr 9th, 2015 - Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large...

State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder ...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0161
JAMA Psychiatry; Rive MM, Mocking RJ et. al.

May 6th, 2015 - Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD and BD. Better insight into these differences would be helpful for differentiation based on disorder-specific ...

Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia: a meta-analysis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4486209
JAMA Jansen WJ, Ossenkoppele R et. al.

May 19th, 2015 - Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured w...

Prevalence of amyloid PET positivity in dementia syndromes: a meta-analysis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517678
JAMA Ossenkoppele R, Jansen WJ et. al.

May 19th, 2015 - Amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) imaging allows in vivo detection of fibrillar plaques, a core neuropathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Its diagnostic utility is still unclear because amyloid plaques also occur in patients with non-AD dementia. To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid positivity on PET in a wide variety of de...