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About 300,422 results

Activity of therapeutic JAK 1/2 blockade in graft-versus-host disease.
https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-12-543736
Blood Spoerl S, Mathew NR et. al.

Apr 8th, 2014 - Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is a severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) characterized by the production of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Activated Janus kinases (JAKs) are required for T-effector cell responses in different inflammatory diseases, and their blockade could potently reduce acute GVHD. We observed that inhibition of JAK1/2 s...

Is asymptomatic bacteriuria a risk factor for prosthetic joint infection?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4305141
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Sousa R, Muñoz-Mahamud E et. al.

Apr 11th, 2014 - Infection is a major complication after total joint arthroplasty. The urinary tract is a possible source of surgical site contamination, but the role of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) before elective surgery and the subsequent risk of infection is poorly understood. Candidates for total hip or total knee arthroplasty were reviewed in a multicenter cohort study. A urine sample was cultured in al...

Inhibition of the mTORC pathway in the antiphospholipid syndrome.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1312890
The New England Journal of Medicine; Canaud G, Bienaimé F et. al.

Jul 23rd, 2014 - Although thrombosis is considered the cardinal feature of the antiphospholipid syndrome, chronic vascular lesions are common, particularly in patients with life-threatening complications. In patients who require transplantation, vascular lesions often recur. The molecular pathways involved in the vasculopathy of the antiphospholipid syndrome are unknown, and adequate therapies are lacking. We u...

Staggered and tapered antibiotic withdrawal with administration of kefir for recurrent ...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu429
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Bakken JS

Jun 11th, 2014 - Daily administration of the probiotic kefir given in combination with a staggered and tapered antibiotic withdrawal regimen may resolve recurrent Clostridium difficile infection as effectively as fecal microbiota transplantation.

Propionibacterium acnes activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human sebocytes.
https://doi.org/10.1038/jid.2014.221
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology; Li ZJ, Choi DK et. al.

May 13th, 2014 - Propionibacterium acne and sebaceous glands are considered to have an important role in the development of acne. Although information regarding the activation of innate immunity by P. acnes in the sebaceous gland is limited, different P. acnes phylotypes and a higher prevalence of follicular P. acnes macrocolonies/biofilms in sebaceous follicles of skin biopsies from acne compared with control ...

Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1408913
The New England Journal of Medicine; Lessa FC, Mu Y et. al.

Feb 25th, 2015 - The magnitude and scope of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States continue to evolve. In 2011, we performed active population- and laboratory-based surveillance across 10 geographic areas in the United States to identify cases of C. difficile infection (stool specimens positive for C. difficile on either toxin or molecular assay in residents ≥ 1 year of age). Cases were classified...

Genomic landscape of cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552614
Nature Genetics; Choi J, Goh G et. al.

Jul 20th, 2015 - Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skin-homing T lymphocytes. We performed exome and whole-genome DNA sequencing and RNA sequencing on purified CTCL and matched normal cells. The results implicate mutations in 17 genes in CTCL pathogenesis, including genes involved in T cell activation and apoptosis, NF-κB signaling, chromatin remodeling and DNA damage response. CTCL ...

Shortening Isolation of Patients With Suspected Tuberculosis by Using Polymerase Chain ...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ563
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Fløe A, Hilberg O et. al.

Jul 15th, 2015 - Isolation of patients suspected for pulmonary tuberculosis is guided by serial sputum smears. This can result in isolation for days for patients with noncontagious tuberculosis. To determine whether a single sample negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex at polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can guide isolation. We retrospectively evaluated sputum samples analyzed for M. tuberculosis compl...

Evidence for α-synuclein prions causing multiple system atrophy in humans with parkinso...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4586853
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Prusiner SB, Woerman AL et. al.

Sep 1st, 2015 - Prions are proteins that adopt alternative conformations that become self-propagating; the PrP(Sc) prion causes the rare human disorder Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We report here that multiple system atrophy (MSA) is caused by a different human prion composed of the α-synuclein protein. MSA is a slowly evolving disorder characterized by progressive loss of autonomic nervous system function...

Nosocomial transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China: epidemiological inv...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652199
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Fang CF, Ma MJ et. al.

Nov 20th, 2015 - Can avian influenza A (H7N9) virus be transmitted between unrelated individuals in a hospital setting? An epidemiological investigation looked at two patients who shared a hospital ward in February 2015, in Quzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Samples from the patients, close contacts, and local environments were examined by real time reverse transcriptase (rRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and...

Clinical and Immunological Features of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome in the Era of Neur...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5823978
JAMA Neurology; Armangué T, Sabater L et. al.

Feb 9th, 2016 - Most studies on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in adults are based on small case series before the era of neuronal cell surface antibody discovery. To report the clinical and immunological features of idiopathic OMS (I-OMS) and paraneoplastic OMS (P-OMS), the occurrence of antibodies to cell surface antigens, and the discovery of a novel cell surface epitope. Retrospective cohort study and...

Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unu...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4975683
The Lancet. Infectious Diseases; Pritt BS, Mead PS et. al.

Feb 9th, 2016 - Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. It is a multisystem disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and characterised by tissue localisation and low spirochaetaemia. In this study we aimed to describe a novel Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in the USA. At the Mayo clinic, from 2003 to 2014, we tested routine clinical dia...

Comprehensive Molecular Testing for Respiratory Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4787606
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Gadsby NJ, Russell CD et. al.

Jan 9th, 2016 - The frequent lack of a microbiological diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) impairs pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy. This study assessed the use of comprehensive multibacterial, multiviral molecular testing, including quantification, in adults hospitalized with CAP. Clinical and laboratory data were collected for 323 adults with radiologically-confirmed CAP admitted to 2 UK t...

Cough Aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Prediction of Incident Tuberculosis...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5006106
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Jones-López EC, Acuña-Villaorduña C et. al.

Mar 30th, 2016 - Tuberculosis disease develops in only 5%-10% of humans infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis The mechanisms underlying this variability remain poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that colony-forming units of M. tuberculosis in cough-generated aerosols are a better predictor of infection than the standard sputum acid-fast bacilli smear. We hypothesized that cough aerosol cultures may ...

Adult Patients With Bronchiectasis: A First Look at the US Bronchiectasis Research Regi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026266
Chest Aksamit TR, O'Donnell AE et. al.

Nov 27th, 2016 - We sought to describe the characteristics of adult patients with bronchiectasis enrolled in the US Bronchiectasis Research Registry (BRR). The BRR is a database of patients with non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) enrolled at 13 sites in the United States. Baseline demographic, spirometric, imaging, microbiological, and therapeutic data were entered into a central Internet-based database....

DPPX antibody-associated encephalitis: Main syndrome and antibody effects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5379928
Neurology Hara M, Ariño H et. al.

Mar 4th, 2017 - To report the main syndrome of dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6 (DPPX) antibody-associated encephalitis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass, and the antibody effects on DPPX/Kv4.2 potassium channels. A retrospective analysis of new patients and cases reported since 2013 was performed. IgG subclass and effects of antibodies on cultured neurons were determined with described techniques. Nine new ...

Bioengineered human acellular vessels for dialysis access in patients with end-stage re...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915925
Lancet (London, England); Lawson JH, Glickman MH et. al.

May 20th, 2016 - For patients with end-stage renal disease who are not candidates for fistula, dialysis access grafts are the best option for chronic haemodialysis. However, polytetrafluoroethylene arteriovenous grafts are prone to thrombosis, infection, and intimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis. We developed and tested a bioengineered human acellular vessel as a potential solution to these limitations ...

Mechanisms underlying differential effectiveness of memantine and ketamine in rapid ant...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4060670
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Gideons ES, Kavalali ET et. al.

Jun 9th, 2014 - Ketamine is an NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist that elicits rapid antidepressant responses in patients with treatment-resistant depression. However, ketamine can also produce psychotomimetic effects that limit its utility as an antidepressant, raising the question of whether the clinically tolerated NMDAR antagonist memantine possesses antidepressant properties. Despite its similar potency to ...

Anti-agrin autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis.
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000478
Neurology Gasperi C, Melms A et. al.

May 5th, 2014 - Because the extracellular matrix protein agrin is essential for neuromuscular junction formation and maintenance, we tested the hypothesis that autoantibodies against agrin are present in sera from patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). We determined the presence of anti-agrin antibodies in 54 sera from patients with generalized MG using a solid-phase ELISA with purified mini-agrin protein. Thir...

Preserving learned immunosuppressive placebo response: perspectives for clinical applic...
https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2014.75
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics; Albring A, Wendt L et. al.

Apr 4th, 2014 - Akin to other physiological responses, immune functions can be modified through behavioral conditioning as part of a learned placebo response. However, like every learning process, learned immune responses are subject to extinction. We analyzed the extinction of learned immunosuppression in healthy male volunteers, using an established conditioning paradigm with the immunosuppressive drug cyclo...