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Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2017 - 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-2550
Pediatrics

Sep 5th, 2017 - This statement updates the recommendations for routine use of the seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older, including children and adolescents. Highlights for the upcoming 2017-2018 season include the followin...

Trial of Fingolimod versus Interferon Beta-1a in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1800149
The New England Journal of Medicine; Chitnis T, Arnold DL et. al.

Sep 12th, 2018 - Treatment of patients younger than 18 years of age with multiple sclerosis has not been adequately examined in randomized trials. We compared fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in this population. In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients 10 to 17 years of age with relapsing multiple sclerosis in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral fingolimod at a dose of 0.5 mg per day (0.25 mg per day for ...

Oral steroids for resolution of otitis media with effusion in children (OSTRICH): a dou...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099122
Lancet (London, England); Francis NA, Cannings-John R et. al.

Aug 28th, 2018 - Children with persistent hearing loss due to otitis media with effusion are commonly managed by surgical intervention. A safe, cheap, and effective medical treatment would enhance treatment options. Underpowered, poor-quality trials have found short-term benefit from oral steroids. We aimed to investigate whether a short course of oral steroids would achieve acceptable hearing in children with ...

Safety and Side Effects of Rifampin versus Isoniazid in Children.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1714284
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diallo T, Adjobimey M et. al.

Aug 1st, 2018 - The treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in children because of their vulnerability to life-threatening forms of tuberculosis disease. The current standard treatment - 9 months of isoniazid - has been associated with poor adherence and toxic effects, which have hampered the effectiveness of the drug. In adults, treatment with 4 months of rifampin has been s...

Improving Emergency Department Care for Pediatric Victims of Sexual Abuse.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1811
Pediatrics Hoehn EF, Overmann KM et. al.

Nov 10th, 2018 - Evidence-based medical care of sexual abuse victims who present to the pediatric emergency department (PED) is necessary to facilitate forensic evidence collection and prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Adherence to testing and treatment guidelines remains low in PEDs, despite recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

Risk of recurrence after a single manic or mixed episode - a systematic review and meta...
https://doi.org/10.1111/bdi.12593
Bipolar Disorders; Kessing LV, Andersen PK et. al.

Dec 14th, 2017 - For the first time to estimate the risk of recurrence among patients with a single manic/mixed episode by systematically reviewing prior studies on cohorts of adults, and cohorts of children and adolescents, respectively. A systematic literature search up to August 2017 was carried out including studies in which < 25% of the participants were estimated to have had a mood episode that required p...

Three Rotavirus Outbreaks in the Postvaccine Era - California, 2017.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5919604
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Burke RM, Tate JE et. al.

Apr 26th, 2018 - Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe diarrhea among U.S. children (1). Currently, two rotavirus vaccines are licensed for use in the United States, both of which have demonstrated good field effectiveness (78%-89%) against moderate to severe rotavirus illness (2), and the use of these vaccines has substantially reduced the prevalenc...

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States during the 2015-2016 Season.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727917
The New England Journal of Medicine; Jackson ML, Chung JR et. al.

Aug 9th, 2017 - The A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain used in the live attenuated influenza vaccine was changed for the 2015-2016 influenza season because of its lack of effectiveness in young children in 2013-2014. The Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network evaluated the effect of this change as part of its estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in 2015-2016. We enrolled patients 6 months of age or older who p...

Risk of suicide following an alcohol-related emergency hospital admission: An electroni...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5922531
PloS One; Bowden B, John A et. al.

Apr 27th, 2018 - Alcohol misuse is a well-known risk factor for suicide however, the relationship between alcohol-related hospital admission and subsequent risk of death from suicide is unknown. We aimed to determine the risk of death from suicide following emergency admission to hospital with an alcohol-related cause. We established an electronic cohort study of all 2,803,457 residents of Wales, UK, aged from ...

Missed Opportunities for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Initiation in an Insured Adolesce...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907852
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society; Espinosa CM, Marshall GS et. al.

Oct 16th, 2017 - This study assessed the initiation of HPV vaccination in insured adolescent females in relation to physician visits and receipt of other vaccines routinely given at the same age. January 1, 2010, and September 31, 2015. Vaccination administration was determined by using Current Procedural Terminology codes. A missed opportunity was defined as the absence of an HPV vaccine at the following encou...

Systematic review with meta-analysis: enteral nutrition therapy for the induction of re...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798240
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics; Swaminath A, Feathers A et. al.

Aug 17th, 2017 - Despite potential adverse-events in a paediatric population, corticosteroids are used to induce remission in paediatric Crohn's disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition also induces remission, but is infrequently used in the USA because corticosteroids are considered the superior therapy. New data have become available since the publication of the most recent meta-analysis in 2007. To see if curren...

Time to Epinephrine Administration and Survival From Nonshockable Out-of-Hospital Cardi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940513
Circulation Hansen M, Schmicker RH et. al.

Mar 7th, 2018 - Previous studies have demonstrated that earlier epinephrine administration is associated with improved survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with shockable initial rhythms. However, the effect of epinephrine timing on patients with nonshockable initial rhythms is unclear. The objective of this study was to measure the association between time to epinephrine administration and surv...

Fecal microbiota transplant for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using a froze...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017893
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Youngster I, Sauk J et. al.

Apr 25th, 2014 - Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with poor response to standard antimicrobial therapy is a growing medical concern. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for relapsing CDI using a frozen suspension from unrelated donors, comparing colonoscopic and nasogastric tube (NGT) administration. Healthy volunteer donors were screened and a frozen fecal s...

Vaccinated children and adolescents with pertussis infections experience reduced illnes...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu156
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Barlow RS, Reynolds LE et. al.

Mar 18th, 2014 - Bordetella pertussis causes severe respiratory illness among infants and adolescents. High proportions of breakthrough infection have been observed. To understand the effect of vaccination in the era of acellular pertussis vaccines (DTaP and Tdap), we assessed if vaccination status is associated with disease severity and duration. The Multnomah County Health Department conducts enhanced pertuss...

Ultrasonography of the colon in pediatric ulcerative colitis: a prospective, blind, com...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.02.055
The Journal of Pediatrics; Civitelli F, Di Nardo G et. al.

Apr 14th, 2014 - To evaluate the usefulness of colonic ultrasonography (US) in assessing the extent and activity of disease in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) and to compare US findings with clinical and endoscopic features. Consecutive pediatric patients (n = 60) with a diagnosis of UC and suspected disease flare-up were prospectively enrolled; of these, 50 patients were eligible for the study. All underwent...

Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368900
JAMA Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ et. al.

May 5th, 2014 - Despite concern about an "epidemic," there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups. To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009. Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population w...

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-0623
Pediatrics LaBella CR, Hennrikus W et. al.

Apr 29th, 2014 - The number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries reported in athletes younger than 18 years has increased over the past 2 decades. Reasons for the increasing ACL injury rate include the growing number of children and adolescents participating in organized sports, intensive sports training at an earlier age, and greater rate of diagnosis because of increased awareness and greater use of a...

Withholding or termination of resuscitation in pediatric out-of-hospital traumatic card...
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-0176
Pediatrics , et. al.

Apr 1st, 2014 - This multiorganizational literature review was undertaken to provide an evidence base for determining whether recommendations for out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation could be made for children who are victims of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. Although there is increasing acceptance of out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation for adult traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest when there ...

Improving adherence to PALS septic shock guidelines.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3871
Pediatrics Paul R, Melendez E et. al.

Apr 8th, 2014 - Few studies have demonstrated improvement in adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines for severe sepsis and septic shock. We sought to improve adherence to national guidelines for children with septic shock in a pediatric emergency department with poor guideline adherence. Prospective cohort study of children presenting to a tertiary care pediatric emergency department with septi...

Cervical spine injury patterns in children.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3505
Pediatrics Leonard JR, Jaffe DM et. al.

Apr 29th, 2014 - Pediatric cervical spine injuries (CSIs) are rare and differ from adult CSIs. Our objective was to describe CSIs in a large, representative cohort of children. We conducted a 5-year retrospective review of children <16 years old with CSIs at 17 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network hospitals. Investigators reviewed imaging reports and consultations to assign CSI type. We described c...