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About 430,860 results

When the Cough Does Not Improve: A Review on Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis in Children
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426454/
Frontiers in Pediatrics; Gallucci M, Pedretti M et. al.

Chronic cough is defined as a daily cough that persists longer than 4 weeks. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a common cause of chronic wet cough in preschool children with no symptoms or signs of other specific causes, and resolution usually follows a 2-week course of an appropriate oral antibiotic.

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2017 - 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-2550
Pediatrics

Sep 5th, 2017 - This statement updates the recommendations for routine use of the seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older, including children and adolescents. Highlights for the upcoming 2017-2018 season include the followin...

Oral steroids for resolution of otitis media with effusion in children (OSTRICH): a dou...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099122
Lancet (London, England); Francis NA, Cannings-John R et. al.

Aug 28th, 2018 - Children with persistent hearing loss due to otitis media with effusion are commonly managed by surgical intervention. A safe, cheap, and effective medical treatment would enhance treatment options. Underpowered, poor-quality trials have found short-term benefit from oral steroids. We aimed to investigate whether a short course of oral steroids would achieve acceptable hearing in children with ...

Safety and Side Effects of Rifampin versus Isoniazid in Children.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1714284
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diallo T, Adjobimey M et. al.

Aug 1st, 2018 - The treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in children because of their vulnerability to life-threatening forms of tuberculosis disease. The current standard treatment - 9 months of isoniazid - has been associated with poor adherence and toxic effects, which have hampered the effectiveness of the drug. In adults, treatment with 4 months of rifampin has been s...

Three Rotavirus Outbreaks in the Postvaccine Era - California, 2017.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5919604
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Burke RM, Tate JE et. al.

Apr 26th, 2018 - Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe diarrhea among U.S. children (1). Currently, two rotavirus vaccines are licensed for use in the United States, both of which have demonstrated good field effectiveness (78%-89%) against moderate to severe rotavirus illness (2), and the use of these vaccines has substantially reduced the prevalenc...

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States during the 2015-2016 Season.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727917
The New England Journal of Medicine; Jackson ML, Chung JR et. al.

Aug 9th, 2017 - The A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain used in the live attenuated influenza vaccine was changed for the 2015-2016 influenza season because of its lack of effectiveness in young children in 2013-2014. The Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network evaluated the effect of this change as part of its estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in 2015-2016. We enrolled patients 6 months of age or older who p...

Time to Epinephrine Administration and Survival From Nonshockable Out-of-Hospital Cardi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940513
Circulation Hansen M, Schmicker RH et. al.

Mar 7th, 2018 - Previous studies have demonstrated that earlier epinephrine administration is associated with improved survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with shockable initial rhythms. However, the effect of epinephrine timing on patients with nonshockable initial rhythms is unclear. The objective of this study was to measure the association between time to epinephrine administration and surv...

Vaccinated children and adolescents with pertussis infections experience reduced illnes...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu156
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Barlow RS, Reynolds LE et. al.

Mar 18th, 2014 - Bordetella pertussis causes severe respiratory illness among infants and adolescents. High proportions of breakthrough infection have been observed. To understand the effect of vaccination in the era of acellular pertussis vaccines (DTaP and Tdap), we assessed if vaccination status is associated with disease severity and duration. The Multnomah County Health Department conducts enhanced pertuss...

Prevention of dental caries in children from birth through age 5 years: US Preventive S...
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-0483
Pediatrics Moyer VA,

May 6th, 2014 - Update of the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on prevention of dental caries in preschool-aged children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on prevention of dental caries by primary care clinicians in children 5 years and younger, focusing on screening for caries, assessment of risk for future caries, and the effectiveness of various interventions that have possible...

Ultrasonography of the colon in pediatric ulcerative colitis: a prospective, blind, com...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.02.055
The Journal of Pediatrics; Civitelli F, Di Nardo G et. al.

Apr 14th, 2014 - To evaluate the usefulness of colonic ultrasonography (US) in assessing the extent and activity of disease in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) and to compare US findings with clinical and endoscopic features. Consecutive pediatric patients (n = 60) with a diagnosis of UC and suspected disease flare-up were prospectively enrolled; of these, 50 patients were eligible for the study. All underwent...

Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368900
JAMA Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ et. al.

May 5th, 2014 - Despite concern about an "epidemic," there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups. To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009. Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population w...

Improving adherence to PALS septic shock guidelines.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3871
Pediatrics Paul R, Melendez E et. al.

Apr 8th, 2014 - Few studies have demonstrated improvement in adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines for severe sepsis and septic shock. We sought to improve adherence to national guidelines for children with septic shock in a pediatric emergency department with poor guideline adherence. Prospective cohort study of children presenting to a tertiary care pediatric emergency department with septi...

Cervical spine injury patterns in children.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3505
Pediatrics Leonard JR, Jaffe DM et. al.

Apr 29th, 2014 - Pediatric cervical spine injuries (CSIs) are rare and differ from adult CSIs. Our objective was to describe CSIs in a large, representative cohort of children. We conducted a 5-year retrospective review of children <16 years old with CSIs at 17 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network hospitals. Investigators reviewed imaging reports and consultations to assign CSI type. We described c...

Increased prevalence of celiac disease among pediatric patients with irritable bowel sy...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4984
JAMA Pediatrics; Cristofori F, Fontana C et. al.

Apr 23rd, 2014 - Recurrent abdominal pain is a prevalent health issue in childhood. Clinical criteria (ie, the Rome criteria) have been established to aid diagnosis. Studies of adults have shown an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); few data are available with regard to children. To assess the prevalence of celiac disease among children with abdominal pain...

Effect of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and child health: a systematic review and...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60082-9
Lancet (London, England); Been JV, Nurmatov UB et. al.

Mar 31st, 2014 - Smoke-free legislation has the potential to reduce the substantive disease burden associated with second-hand smoke exposure, particularly in children. We investigated the effect of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and child health. We searched 14 online databases from January, 1975 to May, 2013, with no language restrictions, for published studies, and the WHO International Clinical Trials ...

The FLUSH study--flush the line and ultrasound the heart: ultrasonographic confirmation...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.12.020
Annals of Emergency Medicine; Horowitz R, Gossett JG et. al.

Jan 20th, 2014 - Inadvertent arterial placement of a femoral venous catheter may result in serious morbidity, including limb necrosis. The Flush the Line and Ultrasound the Heart (FLUSH) test is visualization of the heart by a subxiphoid ultrasonic view while the central catheter is flushed with agitated saline solution. We wish to determine whether the FLUSH test can verify proper femoral venous line placement...

The proactive wet-wrap method with diluted corticosteroids versus emollients in childre...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2014.01.898
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology; Janmohamed SR, Oranje AP et. al.

Apr 4th, 2014 - Wet-wrap treatment (WWT) has been advocated as a relatively effective treatment in children with severe atopic dermatitis (AD). WWT often serves as crisis intervention for AD. We sought to evaluate the use of WWT with diluted corticosteroids in comparison with emollient in children with severe AD during 4 weeks in a proactive schedule during which the frequency of corticosteroid applications wa...

A genetic basis for infectious mononucleosis: evidence from a family study of hospitali...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu204
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Rostgaard K, Wohlfahrt J et. al.

Apr 3rd, 2014 - Circumstantial evidence from genome-wide association and family studies of various Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases suggests a substantial genetic component in infectious mononucleosis (IM) etiology. However, familial aggregation of IM has scarcely been studied. We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study rate ratios ...

Association of traumatic brain injuries with vomiting in children with blunt head trauma.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.01.009
Annals of Emergency Medicine; Dayan PS, Holmes JF et. al.

Feb 24th, 2014 - We aimed to determine the prevalence of traumatic brain injuries in children who vomit after minor blunt head trauma, particularly when the vomiting occurs without other findings suggestive of traumatic brain injury (ie, isolated vomiting). We also aimed to determine the relationship between the timing and degree of vomiting and traumatic brain injury prevalence. This was a secondary analysis o...

A comparison of cosmetic outcomes of lacerations on the extremities and trunk using abs...
https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.12387
Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Soc... Tejani C, Sivitz AB et. al.

Jul 21st, 2014 - The primary objective was to compare the cosmetic outcomes of traumatic trunk and extremity lacerations repaired using absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures. The secondary objective was to compare complication rates between the two groups. This was a randomized controlled trial comparing wounds repaired with Vicryl Rapide and Prolene sutures. Pediatric and adult patients with lacerations were...