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About 334,478 results

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2017 - 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-2550
Pediatrics

Sep 5th, 2017 - This statement updates the recommendations for routine use of the seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older, including children and adolescents. Highlights for the upcoming 2017-2018 season include the followin...

Factors Associated With Choice of Infant Sleep Position.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574721
Pediatrics Colson ER, Geller NL et. al.

Aug 22nd, 2017 - The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends infants be placed supine for sleep. Our objectives in this study were to, in a nationally representative sample, examine (1) prevalence of maternal intention regarding infant sleeping position and of actual practice and (2) factors associated with their choices. We recruited mothers from 32 US hospitals, oversampling African American and Hispanic mo...

Safety and Side Effects of Rifampin versus Isoniazid in Children.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1714284
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diallo T, Adjobimey M et. al.

Aug 1st, 2018 - The treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in children because of their vulnerability to life-threatening forms of tuberculosis disease. The current standard treatment - 9 months of isoniazid - has been associated with poor adherence and toxic effects, which have hampered the effectiveness of the drug. In adults, treatment with 4 months of rifampin has been s...

Three Rotavirus Outbreaks in the Postvaccine Era - California, 2017.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5919604
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Burke RM, Tate JE et. al.

Apr 26th, 2018 - Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe diarrhea among U.S. children (1). Currently, two rotavirus vaccines are licensed for use in the United States, both of which have demonstrated good field effectiveness (78%-89%) against moderate to severe rotavirus illness (2), and the use of these vaccines has substantially reduced the prevalenc...

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States during the 2015-2016 Season.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727917
The New England Journal of Medicine; Jackson ML, Chung JR et. al.

Aug 9th, 2017 - The A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain used in the live attenuated influenza vaccine was changed for the 2015-2016 influenza season because of its lack of effectiveness in young children in 2013-2014. The Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network evaluated the effect of this change as part of its estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in 2015-2016. We enrolled patients 6 months of age or older who p...

Time to Epinephrine Administration and Survival From Nonshockable Out-of-Hospital Cardi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940513
Circulation Hansen M, Schmicker RH et. al.

Mar 7th, 2018 - Previous studies have demonstrated that earlier epinephrine administration is associated with improved survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with shockable initial rhythms. However, the effect of epinephrine timing on patients with nonshockable initial rhythms is unclear. The objective of this study was to measure the association between time to epinephrine administration and surv...

Vaccinated children and adolescents with pertussis infections experience reduced illnes...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu156
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Barlow RS, Reynolds LE et. al.

Mar 18th, 2014 - Bordetella pertussis causes severe respiratory illness among infants and adolescents. High proportions of breakthrough infection have been observed. To understand the effect of vaccination in the era of acellular pertussis vaccines (DTaP and Tdap), we assessed if vaccination status is associated with disease severity and duration. The Multnomah County Health Department conducts enhanced pertuss...

Prevention of dental caries in children from birth through age 5 years: US Preventive S...
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-0483
Pediatrics Moyer VA,

May 6th, 2014 - Update of the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on prevention of dental caries in preschool-aged children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on prevention of dental caries by primary care clinicians in children 5 years and younger, focusing on screening for caries, assessment of risk for future caries, and the effectiveness of various interventions that have possible...

Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368900
JAMA Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ et. al.

May 5th, 2014 - Despite concern about an "epidemic," there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups. To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009. Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population w...

Effect of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and child health: a systematic review and...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60082-9
Lancet (London, England); Been JV, Nurmatov UB et. al.

Mar 31st, 2014 - Smoke-free legislation has the potential to reduce the substantive disease burden associated with second-hand smoke exposure, particularly in children. We investigated the effect of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and child health. We searched 14 online databases from January, 1975 to May, 2013, with no language restrictions, for published studies, and the WHO International Clinical Trials ...

The FLUSH study--flush the line and ultrasound the heart: ultrasonographic confirmation...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.12.020
Annals of Emergency Medicine; Horowitz R, Gossett JG et. al.

Jan 20th, 2014 - Inadvertent arterial placement of a femoral venous catheter may result in serious morbidity, including limb necrosis. The Flush the Line and Ultrasound the Heart (FLUSH) test is visualization of the heart by a subxiphoid ultrasonic view while the central catheter is flushed with agitated saline solution. We wish to determine whether the FLUSH test can verify proper femoral venous line placement...

Nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial.
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.301
JAMA Pediatrics; Wu S, Baker C et. al.

May 27th, 2014 - Bronchiolitis is one of the most common and costly respiratory diseases in infants and young children. Previous studies have shown a potential benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline; however, its effect in the emergency department (ED) setting is unclear. To compare the effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline vs 0.9% normal saline on admission rate and length of stay in infants with bronchioli...

Nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in the emergency department: a randomized...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5306
JAMA Pediatrics; Florin TA, Shaw KN et. al.

May 27th, 2014 - Acute bronchiolitis is the most frequent lower respiratory tract infection in infants, yet there are no effective therapies available. Current evidence is unclear about the role of hypertonic saline (HS) for the acute treatment of bronchiolitis. To determine whether nebulized 3% HS compared with normal saline (NS) improves respiratory distress in infants with bronchiolitis not responding to sta...

The proactive wet-wrap method with diluted corticosteroids versus emollients in childre...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2014.01.898
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology; Janmohamed SR, Oranje AP et. al.

Apr 4th, 2014 - Wet-wrap treatment (WWT) has been advocated as a relatively effective treatment in children with severe atopic dermatitis (AD). WWT often serves as crisis intervention for AD. We sought to evaluate the use of WWT with diluted corticosteroids in comparison with emollient in children with severe AD during 4 weeks in a proactive schedule during which the frequency of corticosteroid applications wa...

A genetic basis for infectious mononucleosis: evidence from a family study of hospitali...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu204
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Rostgaard K, Wohlfahrt J et. al.

Apr 3rd, 2014 - Circumstantial evidence from genome-wide association and family studies of various Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases suggests a substantial genetic component in infectious mononucleosis (IM) etiology. However, familial aggregation of IM has scarcely been studied. We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study rate ratios ...

Association of traumatic brain injuries with vomiting in children with blunt head trauma.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.01.009
Annals of Emergency Medicine; Dayan PS, Holmes JF et. al.

Feb 24th, 2014 - We aimed to determine the prevalence of traumatic brain injuries in children who vomit after minor blunt head trauma, particularly when the vomiting occurs without other findings suggestive of traumatic brain injury (ie, isolated vomiting). We also aimed to determine the relationship between the timing and degree of vomiting and traumatic brain injury prevalence. This was a secondary analysis o...

Vitamin C supplementation for pregnant smoking women and pulmonary function in their ne...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4296045
JAMA McEvoy CT, Schilling D et. al.

May 19th, 2014 - Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development, with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function and increased asthma risk. In a primate model, vitamin C blocked some of the in-utero effects of nicotine on lung development and offspring pulmonary function. To determine if newborns of pregnant smokers randomized to receive daily vitamin C would have improved results ...

Timely versus delayed early childhood vaccination and seizures.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3429
Pediatrics Hambidge SJ, Newcomer SR et. al.

May 20th, 2014 - Little is known regarding the timing of childhood vaccination and postvaccination seizures. In a cohort of 323 247 US children from the Vaccine Safety Datalink born from 2004 to 2008, we analyzed the association between the timing of childhood vaccination and the first occurrence of seizure with a self-controlled case series analysis of the first doses of individual vaccines received in the fir...

Assessment of musculoskeletal toxicity 5 years after therapy with levofloxacin.
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3636
Pediatrics Bradley JS, Kauffman RE et. al.

Jun 11th, 2014 - Safety concerns for fluoroquinolones exist from animal studies demonstrating cartilage injury in weight-bearing joints, dependent on dose and duration of therapy. For children treated with levofloxacin or comparator in randomized, prospective, comparative studies for acute otitis media and community-acquired pneumonia, this 5-year follow-up safety study was designed to assess the presence/absen...

Mutant adenosine deaminase 2 in a polyarteritis nodosa vasculopathy.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1307362
The New England Journal of Medicine; Navon Elkan P, Pierce SB et. al.

Feb 20th, 2014 - Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with a pathogenesis that is poorly understood. We identified six families with multiple cases of systemic and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. In most cases, onset of the disease occurred during childhood. We carried out exome sequencing in persons from multiply affected families of Georgia...