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People Who Are at Higher Risk for Severe Illness

COVID-19 is a new disease and there is limited information regarding risk factors for severe disease. Based on currently available information and clinical expertise, older adults and people of any age who have serious underlying medical conditions might be at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19.

Update Alert: Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Coronavirus Infection in Health Care Workers

This is the first monthly update alert for a living review on the epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infections in health care workers (HCWs) (1). Searches were updated from 24 April 2020 to 24 May 2020, using the same search strategies as the original review, and we identified 1125 citations. Applying the same inclusion criteria, we identified 37 additional studies for this updat...

COVID-19 Risk Factors Among Health Workers: A Rapid Review

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) poses an important occupational health risk to health workers (HWs) that has attracted global scrutiny. To date, several thousand HWs globally have been reported as infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus that causes the disease. It is therefore a public health priority for policymakers to understand risk factors for this vulne...

Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections

The seasonal cycle of respiratory viral diseases has been widely recognized for thousands of years, as annual epidemics of the common cold and influenza disease hit the human population like clockwork in the winter season in temperate regions. Moreover, epidemics caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 occur during ...

High Temperature and High Humidity Reduce the Transmission of COVID-19

With the ongoing global pandemic of COVID-19, a question is whether the coming summer in the northern hemisphere will reduce the transmission intensity of COVID-19 with increased humidity and temperature. In this paper, we investigate this problem using the data from the cases with symptom-onset dates from January 19 to February 10, 2020 for 100 Chinese cities, and cases with confirmed dates fr...

Effects of temperature and humidity on the daily new cases and new deaths of COVID-19 in 166 countries

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the defining global health crisis of our time and the greatest challenge facing the world. Meteorological parameters are reportedly crucial factors affecting respiratory infectious disease epidemics; however, the effect of meteorological parameters on COVID-19 remains controversial. This study investigated the effects of temperature and relati...

Considerations for Obesity, Vitamin D, and Physical Activity Amid the COVID‐19 Pandemic

As the biomedical community races to disentangle the unknowns associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus responsible for causing coronavirus disease, the link between diminished immune function and individuals with obesity raises important questions about the possibility for greater viral pathogenicity in this population. Increased adiposity may undermine the pul...

Clinical features and multidisciplinary treatment outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia: A report of three cases

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic threatening global public health. In the current paper, we describe our successful treatment of three COVID-19 pneumonia patients cases including severe cases and cases with mortality risk factors. One 32-year-old male COVID-19 patient was diagnosed with sev...

OpenSAFELY: factors associated with COVID-19 death in 17 million patients

COVID-19 has rapidly afected mortality worldwide1 . There is unprecedented urgency to understand who is most at risk of severe outcomes, requiring new approaches for timely analysis of large datasets. Working on behalf of NHS England, here we created OpenSAFELY: a secure health analytics platform covering 40% of all patients in England, holding patient data within the existing data centre ...

Study of 17 Million Identifies Crucial Risk Factors for Coronavirus Deaths

An analysis of more than 17 million people in England — the largest study of its kind, according to its authors — has pinpointed a bevy of factors that can raise a person’s chances of dying from Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus.

Care of patients with liver disease during the COVID-19 pandemic: EASL-ESCMID position paper

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an enormous challenge to healthcare systems in affected communities. Older patients and those with pre-existing medical conditions have been identified as populations at risk of a severe disease course. It remains unclear at this point to what extent chronic liver diseases should be considered as risk factors, due to a shortage of appropria...

Researchers gain insight into factors influencing immunotherapy response in kidney cancer

Jul 9th, 2020 - Tumor mutational burden is considered a hallmark indicator of a tumor’s potential for response to immunotherapy. PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors such as pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck) and nivolumab (Opdivo, Bristol-Myers Squibb) have been shown to be more effective in treating tumors with high mutational burden. However, despite having only a moderate number of mutations, advanced clear cell ren...

Clinical determinants for fatality of 44,672 patients with COVID-19

Using meta-analysis to explore clinical determinants for death of COVID-19 patients has been a problem due to insufficient sample size and overlapped cases [1]. In the study, we re-analyzed the largest confirmed case series reported publicly by the Chinese center for disease control and prevention (44,672 laboratory confirmed cases updated through February 11, 2020, [2]), to explore the clinica...

Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Infection: A Meta-Analysis

The burden of herpes zoster (HZ) is significant worldwide, with millions affected and the incidence rising. Current literature has identified some risk factors for this disease; however, there is yet to be a comprehensive study that pools all evidence to provide estimates of risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify various risk factors, excluding immunosuppressive medication, t...

Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults

The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector.

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: An Examination of Psychological Antecedents

Herpes zoster and an associated complication, postherpetic neuralgia, are both attributable to the varicella zoster virus. This virus, which lies dormant within the affected sensory ganglia after an initial infection, appears to be triggered in part by a decrease in immunity. According to available research, stress, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms are identified antecedents to ou...

Epidemiology, treatment and prevention of herpes zoster: A comprehensive review

Herpes zoster is a major health burden that can affect individuals of any age. It is seen more commonly among individuals aged ≥50 years, those with immunocompromised status, and those on immunosuppressant drugs. It is caused by a reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection. Cell-mediated immunity plays a role in this reactivation. Fever, pain, and itch are common symptoms before the onset...

Management of Herpes Zoster (Shingles) and Postherpetic Neuralgia

Herpes zoster (commonly referred to as “shingles”) and postherpetic neuralgia result from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus acquired during the primary varicella infection, or chickenpox. Whereas varicella is generally a disease of childhood, herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia become more common with increasing age. Factors that decrease immune function, such as human immunodefi...

Factors associated with depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic: Clinical implications for U.S. young adult mental health

Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19

Traveller screening is being used to limit further spread of COVID-19 following its recent emergence, and symptom screening has become a ubiquitous tool in the global response. Previously, we developed a mathematical model to understand factors governing the effectiveness of traveller screening to prevent spread of emerging pathogens (Gostic et al., 2015). Here, we estimate the impact of differ...