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About 350,934 results

Trastuzumab emtansine versus taxane use for previously treated HER2-positive locally ad...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30111-0
The Lancet. Oncology; Thuss-Patience PC, Shah MA et. al.

Mar 27th, 2017 - Although trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is the standard of care for first-line treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer, there is no established therapy in the second-line setting. In GATSBY, we examined the efficacy and tolerability of trastuzumab emtansine in patients previously treated for HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer (unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic gastric c...

Safety and feasibility of a diagnostic algorithm combining clinical probability, d-dime...
https://doi.org/10.7326/M13-2056
Annals of Internal Medicine; Kleinjan A, Di Nisio M et. al.

Apr 1st, 2014 - Although well-established for suspected lower limb deep venous thrombosis, an algorithm combining a clinical decision score, d-dimer testing, and ultrasonography has not been evaluated for suspected upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT). To assess the safety and feasibility of a new diagnostic algorithm in patients with clinically suspected UEDVT. Diagnostic management study. (Clinical...

Randomized trial of posaconazole and benznidazole for chronic Chagas' disease.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1313122
The New England Journal of Medicine; Molina I, Gómez i Prat J et. al.

May 15th, 2014 - Current therapeutic options for Chagas' disease are limited to benznidazole and nifurtimox, which have been associated with low cure rates in the chronic stage of the disease and which have considerable toxicity. Posaconazole has shown trypanocidal activity in murine models. We performed a prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of posaconazole as compared with ...

Erythropoietin therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a prospecti...
https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-01-546333
Blood Jaspers A, Baron F et. al.

May 22nd, 2014 - We conducted a prospective randomized trial to assess hemoglobin (Hb) response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients (N = 131) were randomized (1:1) between no treatment (control arm) or erythropoietin at 500 U/kg per week (EPO arm). Patients were also stratified into 3 cohorts: patients undergoing myeloablative HCT with rhE...

CPAP, weight loss, or both for obstructive sleep apnea.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138510
The New England Journal of Medicine; Chirinos JA, Gurubhagavatula I et. al.

Jun 11th, 2014 - Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist and are associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, but their causal relation to these abnormalities is unclear. We randomly assigned 181 patients with obesity, moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 1.0 mg per liter to receive treatment...

Efficacy of varenicline combined with nicotine replacement therapy vs varenicline alone...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.7195
JAMA Koegelenberg CF, Noor F et. al.

Jul 9th, 2014 - Behavioral approaches and pharmacotherapy are of proven benefit in assisting smokers to quit, but it is unclear whether combining nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with varenicline to improve abstinence is effective and safe. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining varenicline and a nicotine patch vs varenicline alone in smoking cessation. Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clini...

Association between efavirenz as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection and increased risk...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204642
Annals of Internal Medicine; Mollan KR, Smurzynski M et. al.

Jun 30th, 2014 - The relationship between efavirenz use and suicidality is not well-defined. To compare time to suicidality with efavirenz-containing versus efavirenz-free antiretroviral regimens for initial treatment of HIV. Participant-level data were analyzed from 4 AIDS Clinical Trials Group, antiretroviral-naive studies conducted from 2001 to 2010. Within each study, participants were randomly assigned to ...

Neoadjuvant carboplatin in patients with triple-negative and HER2-positive early breast...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70160-3
The Lancet. Oncology; von Minckwitz G, Schneeweiss A et. al.

May 5th, 2014 - Preclinical data suggest that triple-negative breast cancers are sensitive to interstrand crosslinking agents, and that synergy may exist for the combination of a taxane, trastuzumab, and a platinum salt for HER2-positive breast cancer. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy of the addition of carboplatin to neoadjuvant therapy for triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. Patients wi...

Accelerated methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin is safe, effective, a...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050203
Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the Am... Plimack ER, Hoffman-Censits JH et. al.

May 13th, 2014 - Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy is standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC); however, it is infrequently adopted in practice because of concerns regarding toxicity and delay to cystectomy. We hypothesized that three cycles of neoadjuvant accelerated methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (AMVAC) would be safe, shorten the time to surgery, and yield simi...

Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134948
The New England Journal of Medicine; Wilson MR, Naccache SN et. al.

Jun 4th, 2014 - A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 se...

Effect of erythropoietin and transfusion threshold on neurological recovery after traum...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4113910
JAMA Robertson CS, Hannay HJ et. al.

Jul 24th, 2014 - There is limited information about the effect of erythropoietin or a high hemoglobin transfusion threshold after a traumatic brain injury. To compare the effects of erythropoietin and 2 hemoglobin transfusion thresholds (7 and 10 g/dL) on neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury. Randomized clinical trial of 200 patients (erythropoietin, n = 102; placebo, n = 98) with closed head inju...

A test for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using nasal brushings.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4186748
The New England Journal of Medicine; Orrú CD, Bongianni M et. al.

Aug 7th, 2014 - Definite diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients remains a challenge. A test that detects the specific marker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the prion protein (PrP(CJD)), by means of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) testing of cerebrospinal fluid has a sensitivity of 80 to 90% for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have assessed the ...

Screening and prostate cancer mortality: results of the European Randomised Study of Sc...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4427906
Lancet (London, England); Schröder FH, Hugosson J et. al.

Aug 11th, 2014 - The European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown significant reductions in prostate cancer mortality after 9 years and 11 years of follow-up, but screening is controversial because of adverse events such as overdiagnosis. We provide updated results of mortality from prostate cancer with follow-up to 2010, with analyses truncated at 9, 11, and 13 years. ERSPC is a...

Safety and tolerability of chikungunya virus-like particle vaccine in healthy adults: a...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61185-5
Lancet (London, England); Chang LJ, Dowd KA et. al.

Aug 18th, 2014 - Chikungunya virus--a mosquito-borne alphavirus--is endemic in Africa and south and southeast Asia and has recently emerged in the Caribbean. No drugs or vaccines are available for treatment or prevention. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a new candidate vaccine. VRC 311 was a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label clinical trial of a virus-like particle (VLP) chi...

Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnosing invasive fungal disease.
https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201403-0431OC
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Affolter K, Tamm M et. al.

Jul 9th, 2014 - Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We hypothesize that galactomannan (GM), a component of fungal cell wall, as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) might be a diagnostic adjunct in hematologic malignancies. A total of 568 hematologic cases undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy because of respiratory symptoms and/or sus...

Targetable kinase-activating lesions in Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4191900
The New England Journal of Medicine; Roberts KG, Li Y et. al.

Sep 10th, 2014 - Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by a gene-expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, alterations of lymphoid transcription factor genes, and a poor outcome. The frequency and spectrum of genetic alterations in Ph-like ALL and its responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibition are undefined, especially in adolescents and ad...

Transmission of MERS-coronavirus in household contacts.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1405858
The New England Journal of Medicine; Drosten C, Meyer B et. al.

Aug 27th, 2014 - Strategies to contain the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) depend on knowledge of the rate of human-to-human transmission, including subclinical infections. A lack of serologic tools has hindered targeted studies of transmission. We studied 26 index patients with MERS-CoV infection and their 280 household contacts. The median time from the onset of symptoms in index patie...

Effect of oximetry on hospitalization in bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial.
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.8637
JAMA Schuh S, Freedman S et. al.

Aug 20th, 2014 - Routine use of pulse oximetry has been associated with changes in bronchiolitis management and may have lowered the hospitalization threshold for patients with bronchiolitis. To examine if infants with bronchiolitis whose displayed oximetry measurements have been artificially elevated 3 percentage points above true values experience hospitalization rates at least 15% lower compared with infants...

Reflexive culture in adolescents and adults with group A streptococcal pharyngitis.
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu400
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Dingle TC, Abbott AN et. al.

May 28th, 2014 - Guidelines currently provide conflicting recommendations regarding the diagnosis of group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in adults. Clinical guidelines state that negative rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) do not require confirmation by a backup method in adults, whereas laboratory-based guidelines mandate confirmation of a negative RADT in patients of all ages. The objective of this stu...

AR-V7 and resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone in prostate cancer.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201502
The New England Journal of Medicine; Antonarakis ES, Lu C et. al.

Sep 3rd, 2014 - The androgen-receptor isoform encoded by splice variant 7 lacks the ligand-binding domain, which is the target of enzalutamide and abiraterone, but remains constitutively active as a transcription factor. We hypothesized that detection of androgen-receptor splice variant 7 messenger RNA (AR-V7) in circulating tumor cells from men with advanced prostate cancer would be associated with resistance...