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About 256,185 results

Bacterial chitinases: genetics, engineering and applications.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-022-03444-9
World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology; Kumar M, Chakdar H et. al.

Nov 2nd, 2022 - Chitinases are a group of enzymes that catalyze chitin hydrolysis and are present in all domains of life. Chitinases belong to different glycosyl hydrolase families with great diversity in their sequences. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi produce chitinases for nutrition, and energy, and to parasitize the chitinous hosts. But chitinases from bacteria are of special interest due to thei...

Fibrinogen and albumin synthesis rates in major upper abdominal surgery.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9612515
PloS One; Dumitrescu G, Januszkiewicz A et. al.

Oct 28th, 2022 - Plasma fibrinogen and albumin concentrations initially decrease after abdominal surgery. On postoperative days 3-5 fibrinogen concentration returns to the preoperative level or even higher, while albumin stays low. It is not known if these altered plasma concentrations reflect changes in synthesis rate, utilization, or both. In particular a low albumin plasma concentration has often been attrib...

Gut bacteria alleviate smoking-related NASH by degrading gut nicotine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9589931
Nature Chen B, Sun L et. al.

Oct 20th, 2022 - Tobacco smoking is positively correlated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)1-5, but the underlying mechanism for this association is unclear. Here we report that nicotine accumulates in the intestine during tobacco smoking and activates intestinal AMPKα. We identify the gut bacterium Bacteroides xylanisolvens as an effective nicotine degrader. Colonization of B. xylanisolvens reduce...

Activation of γ-globin expression by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05312-w
Nature Feng R, Mayuranathan T et. al.

Oct 13th, 2022 - Around birth, globin expression in human red blood cells (RBCs) shifts from γ-globin to β-globin, which results in fetal haemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) being gradually replaced by adult haemoglobin (HbA, α2β2)1. This process has motivated the development of innovative approaches to treat sickle cell disease and β-thalassaemia by increasing HbF levels in postnatal RBCs2. Here we provide therapeutically...

A mechanism for oxidative damage repair at gene regulatory elements.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05217-8
Nature Ray S, Abugable AA et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Oxidative genome damage is an unavoidable consequence of cellular metabolism. It arises at gene regulatory elements by epigenetic demethylation during transcriptional activation1,2. Here we show that promoters are protected from oxidative damage via a process mediated by the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein NuMA (also known as NUMA1). NuMA exhibits genomic occupancy approximately 100 bp around...

An LKB1-mitochondria axis controls TH17 effector function.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05264-1
Nature Baixauli F, Piletic K et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - CD4+ T cell differentiation requires metabolic reprogramming to fulfil the bioenergetic demands of proliferation and effector function, and enforce specific transcriptional programmes1-3. Mitochondrial membrane dynamics sustains mitochondrial processes4, including respiration and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism5, but whether mitochondrial membrane remodelling orchestrates CD4+ T cell ...

Structure of the Ebola virus polymerase complex.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9517992
Nature Yuan B, Peng Q et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Filoviruses, including Ebola virus, pose an increasing threat to the public health. Although two therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been approved to treat the Ebola virus disease1,2, there are no approved broadly reactive drugs to control diverse filovirus infection. Filovirus has a large polymerase (L) protein and the cofactor viral protein 35 (VP35), which constitute the basic functional ...

Structural basis for directional chitin biosynthesis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9556331
Nature Chen W, Cao P et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Chitin, the most abundant aminopolysaccharide in nature, is an extracellular polymer consisting of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) units1. The key reactions of chitin biosynthesis are catalysed by chitin synthase2-4, a membrane-integrated glycosyltransferase that transfers GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to a growing chitin chain. However, the precise mechanism of this process has yet to be elucidated. Her...

Oncogenic β-catenin stimulation of AKT2-CAD-mediated pyrimidine synthesis is targetable...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9522414
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Liu F, Gai X et. al.

Sep 20th, 2022 - CTNNB1, encoding β-catenin protein, is the most frequently altered proto-oncogene in hepatic neoplasms. In this study, we studied the significance and pathological mechanism of CTNNB1 gain-of-function mutations in hepatocarcinogenesis. Activated β-catenin not only triggered hepatic tumorigenesis but also exacerbated Tp53 deletion or hepatitis B virus infection-mediated liver cancer development ...

Expressional variations of Kaiso: an association with pathological characteristics and ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9482199
BMC Cancer; Ahmed S, Khan S et. al.

Sep 18th, 2022 - A group of genetically altered cells that have not transformed into a clinical or histologically identifiable state of malignancy but contains a higher risk of transforming into one is known as the field of cancerization. Numerous molecules are being investigated for their significance in the development of this phenomenon. One such protein of this family is Kaiso also known as ZBTB33 (Zinc Fin...

Naturally Occurring Partially Reduced Perylenequinones from Fungi.
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.2c00368
Journal of Natural Products; Geris R, Pinho MA et. al.

Sep 14th, 2022 - This Review provides a critical analysis of the literature covering the naturally occurring partially reduced perylenequinones (PQs) from fungi without carbon substituents (which can be named class A perylenequinones) and discusses their structures, stereochemistry, biosynthesis, and biological activities as appropriate. Perylenequinones are natural pigments with a perylene skeleton produced by...

Deletion of a previously uncharacterized lipoprotein lirL confers resistance to an inhi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9499571
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Huang KJ, Pantua H et. al.

Sep 14th, 2022 - Acinetobacter baumannii is a clinically important, predominantly health care-associated gram-negative bacterium with high rates of emerging resistance worldwide. Given the urgent need for novel antibacterial therapies against A. baumannii, we focused on inhibiting lipoprotein biosynthesis, a pathway that is essential for envelope biogenesis in gram-negative bacteria. The natural product globomy...

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ferula assafoetida Oleo-Gum-Resin (Asafoetida) against TN...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9453118
Mediators of Inflammation; Mobasheri L, Khorashadizadeh M et. al.

Sep 13th, 2022 - Inflammation is the body's biological reaction to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Recent studies have demonstrated several anti-inflammatory properties of Ferula species. In this paper, we decided to study the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Ferula assafoetida oleo-gum-resin (asafoetida) against TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were cul...

The Effects of Six Weeks of Endurance Training and CGRP Inhibition on Nrf2 and AKT Expr...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9453092
Mediators of Inflammation; Zare M, Nayebifar S et. al.

Sep 13th, 2022 - To study the effects of a six-week endurance training protocol and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) inhibition on the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and protein kinase B (PKB) or AKT expression in the hippocampal tissue of male Wistar rats. Main Methods. Building on a controlled experimental design with a posttest, 28 healthy Wistar male rats were randomly assigned to ...

Implanted synthetic cells trigger tissue angiogenesis through de novo production of rec...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9499519
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Chen G, Levin R et. al.

Sep 13th, 2022 - Progress in bottom-up synthetic biology has stimulated the development of synthetic cells (SCs), autonomous protein-manufacturing particles, as dynamic biomimetics for replacing diseased natural cells and addressing medical needs. Here, we report that SCs genetically encoded to produce proangiogenic factors triggered the physiological process of neovascularization in mice. The SCs were construc...

Lactate Dehydrogenase and its clinical significance in pancreatic and thoracic cancers.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2022.09.001
Seminars in Cancer Biology; Comandatore A, Franczak M et. al.

Sep 13th, 2022 - The energy metabolism of tumor cells is considered one of the hallmarks of cancer because it is different from normal cells and mainly consists of aerobic glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and glutaminolysis. It is about one hundred years ago since Warburg observed that cancer cells prefer aerobic glycolysis even in normoxic conditions, favoring their high proliferation rate. A pivotal enzyme d...

Biosynthesis of selenium-containing small molecules in diverse microorganisms.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05174-2
Nature Kayrouz CM, Huang J et. al.

Sep 8th, 2022 - Selenium is an essential micronutrient in diverse organisms. Two routes are known for its insertion into proteins and nucleic acids, via selenocysteine and 2-selenouridine, respectively1. However, despite its importance, pathways for specific incorporation of selenium into small molecules have remained elusive. Here we use a genome-mining strategy in various microorganisms to uncover a widespre...

Riboflavin synthesis from gaseous nitrogen and carbon dioxide by a hybrid inorganic-bio...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9477400
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Sherbo RS, Silver PA et. al.

Sep 7th, 2022 - Microbes can provide a more sustainable and energy-efficient method of food and nutrient production compared to plant and animal sources, but energy-intensive carbon (e.g., sugars) and nitrogen (e.g., ammonia) inputs are required. Gas-fixing microorganisms that can grow on H2 from renewable water splitting and gaseous CO2 and N2 offer a renewable path to overcoming these limitations but confron...

A microbial supply chain for production of the anti-cancer drug vinblastine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9452304
Nature Zhang J, Hansen LG et. al.

Sep 1st, 2022 - Monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) are a diverse family of complex plant secondary metabolites with many medicinal properties, including the essential anti-cancer therapeutics vinblastine and vincristine1. As MIAs are difficult to chemically synthesize, the world's supply chain for vinblastine relies on low-yielding extraction and purification of the precursors vindoline and catharanthine from...

The pathway for coenzyme M biosynthesis in bacteria.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9457059
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Wu HH, Pun MD et. al.

Aug 30th, 2022 - Mercaptoethane sulfonate or coenzyme M (CoM) is the smallest known organic cofactor and is most commonly associated with the methane-forming step in all methanogenic archaea but is also associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane to CO2 in anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and the oxidation of short-chain alkanes in Syntrophoarchaeum species. It has also been found in a small number of ba...