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About 709,924 results

Alectinib versus crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (J...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30565-2
Lancet (London, England); Hida T, Nokihara H et. al.

May 15th, 2017 - Alectinib, a potent, highly selective, CNS-active inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), showed promising efficacy and tolerability in the single-arm phase 1/2 AF-001JP trial in Japanese patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Given those promising results, we did a phase 3 trial to directly compare the efficacy and safety of alectinib and crizotinib. J-ALEX was a randomi...

A Copeptin-Based Approach in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1803760
The New England Journal of Medicine; Fenske W, Refardt J et. al.

Aug 1st, 2018 - The indirect water-deprivation test is the current reference standard for the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. However, it is technically cumbersome to administer, and the results are often inaccurate. The current study compared the indirect water-deprivation test with direct detection of plasma copeptin, a precursor-derived surrogate of arginine vasopressin. From 2013 to 2017, we recruited 156...

Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Risk of Progression of Chronic Kidney...
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2017.05.046
Gastroenterology Klatte DCF, Gasparini A et. al.

Jun 6th, 2017 - Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) have been associated with acute kidney injury and recent studies suggest that they may be associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a retrospective analysis using the Stockholm creatinine measurements database, which contains information on diagnoses, dispensation claims, and laboratory test results for all citizens in the Stockholm regi...

Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30132-7
The Lancet. HIV; Hoornenborg E, Prins M et. al.

Sep 18th, 2017 - Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consi...

Effects of Once-Weekly Exenatide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1612917
The New England Journal of Medicine; Holman RR, Bethel MA et. al.

Sep 14th, 2017 - The cardiovascular effects of adding once-weekly treatment with exenatide to usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown. We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes, with or without previous cardiovascular disease, to receive subcutaneous injections of extended-release exenatide at a dose of 2 mg or matching placebo once weekly. The primary composite outcome was the first oc...

Effect of Natriuretic Peptide-Guided Therapy on Hospitalization or Cardiovascular Morta...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5605776
JAMA Felker GM, Anstrom KJ et. al.

Aug 22nd, 2017 - The natriuretic peptides are biochemical markers of heart failure (HF) severity and predictors of adverse outcomes. Smaller studies have evaluated adjusting HF therapy based on natriuretic peptide levels ("guided therapy") with inconsistent results. To determine whether an amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-guided treatment strategy improves clinical outcomes vs usual car...

FXR is a molecular target for the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4016120
Nature Ryan KK, Tremaroli V et. al.

Mar 28th, 2014 - Bariatric surgical procedures, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are at present the most effective therapy for the treatment of obesity, and are associated with considerable improvements in co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to these benefits remain largely undetermined, despite offering the potential to reveal new targe...

Randomized trial of posaconazole and benznidazole for chronic Chagas' disease.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1313122
The New England Journal of Medicine; Molina I, Gómez i Prat J et. al.

May 15th, 2014 - Current therapeutic options for Chagas' disease are limited to benznidazole and nifurtimox, which have been associated with low cure rates in the chronic stage of the disease and which have considerable toxicity. Posaconazole has shown trypanocidal activity in murine models. We performed a prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of posaconazole as compared with ...

Fracture prediction after discontinuation of 4 to 5 years of alendronate therapy: the F...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409325
JAMA Internal Medicine; Bauer DC, Schwartz A et. al.

May 6th, 2014 - Discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy after 3 to 5 years is increasingly considered, but methods to monitor fracture risk after discontinuation have not been established. To test methods of predicting fracture risk among women who have discontinued alendronate therapy after 4 to 5 years. The prospective Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX) study randomized postmenopausal w...

Simvastatin for the prevention of exacerbations in moderate-to-severe COPD.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375247
The New England Journal of Medicine; Criner GJ, Connett JE et. al.

May 19th, 2014 - Retrospective studies have shown that statins decrease the rate and severity of exacerbations, the rate of hospitalization, and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We prospectively studied the efficacy of simvastatin in preventing exacerbations in a large, multicenter, randomized trial. We designed the Prospective Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Simvastatin in the ...

Rosuvastatin for sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241052
The New England Journal of Medicine; , Truwit JD et. al.

May 19th, 2014 - In the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), inflammation in the lungs and other organs can cause life-threatening organ failure. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (statins) can modulate inflammatory responses. Previous observational studies suggested that statins improved clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis. We hypothesized that rosuvastatin therapy woul...

A novel non-rapid-eye movement and rapid-eye-movement parasomnia with sleep breathing d...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4104022
The Lancet. Neurology; Sabater L, Gaig C et. al.

Apr 7th, 2014 - Autoimmunity might be associated with or implicated in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe the features of a novel neurological syndrome associated with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a neuronal antigen. In this observational study, we used clinical and video polysomnography to identify a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of...

Sofosbuvir and ribavirin in HCV genotypes 2 and 3.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1316145
The New England Journal of Medicine; Zeuzem S, Dusheiko GM et. al.

May 5th, 2014 - In clinical trials, treatment with a combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the antiviral drug ribavirin was associated with high response rates among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 infection, with lower response rates among patients with HCV genotype 3 infection. We conducted a study involving patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection, some of who...

Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in nonpregnant adolescents and adults: U.S. P...
https://doi.org/10.7326/M14-1018
Annals of Internal Medicine; LeFevre ML,

May 27th, 2014 - Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of antiviral treatment, the benefits of education or behavior change counseling, and the association between improvements in intermediate and clinical outcomes after antiviral therapy. This recommendation ap...

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregnenolone for bipolar depres...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200497
Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the Ame... Brown ES, Park J et. al.

Jun 11th, 2014 - Depression in bipolar disorder (BPD) is challenging to treat. Therefore, additional medication options are needed. In the current report, the effect of the neurosteroid pregnenolone on depressive symptoms in BPD was examined. Adults (n=80) with BPD, depressed mood state, were randomized to pregnenolone (titrated to 500 mg/day) or placebo, as add-on therapy, for 12 weeks. Outcome measures includ...

CPAP, weight loss, or both for obstructive sleep apnea.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138510
The New England Journal of Medicine; Chirinos JA, Gurubhagavatula I et. al.

Jun 11th, 2014 - Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist and are associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, but their causal relation to these abnormalities is unclear. We randomly assigned 181 patients with obesity, moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 1.0 mg per liter to receive treatment...

Subclinical thyroid disease.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60276-6
Lancet (London, England); Cooper DS, Biondi B

Jan 25th, 2012 - Subclinical thyroid diseases--subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism--are common clinical entities that encompass mild degrees of thyroid dysfunction. The clinical significance of mild thyroid overactivity and underactivity is uncertain, which has led to controversy over the appropriateness of diagnostic testing and possible treatment. In this Seminar, we discuss the definit...

Clinical review: Central hypothyroidism: pathogenic, diagnostic, and therapeutic challe...
https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-1616
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; Persani L

Aug 1st, 2012 - Central hypothyroidism (CH) is a particular hypothyroid condition due to an insufficient stimulation by TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. This condition raises several challenges for clinicians; therefore, a review of the most relevant findings on CH epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical management has been performed. The relevant papers were selected by a PubMed search using appropr...

Chemotherapy-induced hepatitis B reactivation in lymphoma patients with resolved HBV in...
https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.26718
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.); Hsu C, Tsou HH et. al.

Sep 4th, 2013 - Fatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoma patients with "resolved" HBV infection (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] negative and hepatitis B core antibody [anti-HBc] positive) can occur, but the true incidence and severity remain unclear. From June 2009 to December 2011, 150 newly diagnosed lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection who were to receive rituximab-CHOP (cyclopho...

Efficacy and safety of sublingual tablets of house dust mite allergen extracts in adult...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.012
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Bergmann KC, Demoly P et. al.

Jan 6th, 2014 - Preliminary studies have suggested the efficacy of sublingual tablets of house dust mite (HDM) extracts in adults with allergic rhinitis. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of 2 doses of HDM sublingual tablets over 1 treatment year and the subsequent immunotherapy-free year. Adults with HDM-associated allergic rhinitis were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to rece...