About 285,855 results

Disinfecting the air with far-ultraviolet light.
Nature Bender E

Oct 27th, 2022 - Disinfecting the air with far-ultraviolet light.|2022|Bender E,|methods,adverse effects,classification,

On the lookout for viruses that could leap from animals into humans.
Nature Makin S

Oct 27th, 2022 - On the lookout for viruses that could leap from animals into humans.|2022|Makin S,|classification,isolation & purification,virology,

Environmental signal in the evolutionary diversification of bird skeletons.
Nature Navalón G, Bjarnason A et. al.

Oct 27th, 2022 - Characterizing how variation in the tempo and mode of evolution has structured the phenotypic diversity of extant species is a central goal of macroevolution1-3. However, studies are typically limited to a handful of traits4-6, providing incomplete information. We analyse morphological diversification in living birds, an ecologically diverse group7, documenting ...

Borgs are giant genetic elements with potential to expand metabolic capacity.
Nature Al-Shayeb B, Schoelmerich MC et. al.

Oct 20th, 2022 - Anaerobic methane oxidation exerts a key control on greenhouse gas emissions1, yet factors that modulate the activity of microorganisms performing this function remain poorly understood. Here we discovered extraordinarily large, diverse DNA sequences that primarily encode hypothetical proteins through studying groundwater, sediments and wetland soil where methane production and oxidation occur....

Ion regulation at gills precedes gas exchange and the origin of vertebrates.
Nature Sackville MA, Cameron CB et. al.

Oct 20th, 2022 - Gas exchange and ion regulation at gills have key roles in the evolution of vertebrates1-4. Gills are hypothesized to have first acquired these important homeostatic functions from the skin in stem vertebrates, facilitating the evolution of larger, more-active modes of life2,3,5. However, this hypothesis lacks functional support in relevant taxa. Here we characterize the function of gills and s...

Vascular Anomalies: Nomenclature and Diagnosis.
Dermatologic Clinics; Andrews L, Shope C et. al.

Oct 16th, 2022 - Before the development of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification system in 1996, nomenclature used to describe vascular lesions was inconsistent and imprecise. This since widely adopted system stratifies vascular anomalies into vascular malformations and tumors. Vascular tumors involve abnormal proliferation of vascular cells and are further classif...

Global trends of cropland phosphorus use and sustainability challenges.
Nature Zou T, Zhang X et. al.

Oct 13th, 2022 - To meet the growing food demand while addressing the multiple challenges of exacerbating phosphorus (P) pollution and depleting P rock reserves1-15, P use efficiency (PUE, the ratio of productive P output to P input in a defined system) in crop production needs to be improved. Although many efforts have been devoted to improving nutrient management practices on farms, few studies have examined ...

A Consistent Lack of Consistency in Defining the Acute and Chronic Phases of Peyronie's...
Sexual Medicine Reviews; Piraino J, Chaudhary H et. al.

Oct 10th, 2022 - Treatment recommendations for Peyronie's Disease (PD) differ based on whether a patient is in the acute/active versus chronic/stable phase of the disease, yet there are no agreed upon criteria for defining these clinical entities. To review the criteria used to define acute and chronic phase PD in modern PD intervention studies METHODS: We performed a search engine review to identify indexed pu...

Scleromochlus and the early evolution of Pterosauromorpha.
Nature Foffa D, Dunne EM et. al.

Oct 6th, 2022 - Pterosaurs, the first vertebrates to evolve powered flight, were key components of Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems from their sudden appearance in the Late Triassic until their demise at the end of the Cretaceous1-6. However, the origin and early evolution of pterosaurs are poorly understood owing to a substantial stratigraphic and morphological gap between these reptiles and their closest rela...

The oldest gnathostome teeth.
Nature Andreev PS, Sansom IJ et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Mandibular teeth and dentitions are features of jawed vertebrates that were first acquired by the Palaeozoic ancestors1-3 of living chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. The fossil record currently points to the latter part of the Silurian period4-7 (around 425 million years ago) as a minimum date for the appearance of gnathostome teeth and to the evolution of growth and replacement mechanisms of ...

Spiny chondrichthyan from the lower Silurian of South China.
Nature Andreev PS, Sansom IJ et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Modern representatives of chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and osteichthyans (bony fishes and tetrapods) have contrasting skeletal anatomies and developmental trajectories1-4 that underscore the distant evolutionary split5-7 of the two clades. Recent work on upper Silurian and Devonian jawed vertebrates7-10 has revealed similar skeletal conditions that blur the conventional distinctions b...

These scientists traced a new coronavirus lineage to one office - through sewage.
Nature Callaway E

Sep 28th, 2022 - These scientists traced a new coronavirus lineage to one office - through sewage.|2022|Callaway E,|epidemiology,virology,classification,genetics,isolation & purification,virology,

Expanding the genetic toolkit helps dissect a global stress response in the early-branc...
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Ponath F, Zhu Y et. al.

Sep 27th, 2022 - Fusobacterium nucleatum, long known as a common oral microbe, has recently garnered attention for its ability to colonize tissues and tumors elsewhere in the human body. Clinical and epidemiological research has now firmly established F. nucleatum as an oncomicrobe associated with several major cancer types. However, with the current research focus on host associations, little is known about ge...

Failure of human rhombic lip differentiation underlies medulloblastoma formation.
Nature Hendrikse LD, Haldipur P et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Medulloblastoma (MB) comprises a group of heterogeneous paediatric embryonal neoplasms of the hindbrain with strong links to early development of the hindbrain1-4. Mutations that activate Sonic hedgehog signalling lead to Sonic hedgehog MB in the upper rhombic lip (RL) granule cell lineage5-8. By contrast, mutations that activate WNT signalling lead to WNT MB in the lower RL9,10. However, littl...

Unified rhombic lip origins of group 3 and group 4 medulloblastoma.
Nature Smith KS, Bihannic L et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Medulloblastoma, a malignant childhood cerebellar tumour, segregates molecularly into biologically distinct subgroups, suggesting that a personalized approach to therapy would be beneficial1. Mouse modelling and cross-species genomics have provided increasing evidence of discrete, subgroup-specific developmental origins2. However, the anatomical and cellular complexity of developing human tissu...

Evolutionary divergence of duplicated genomes in newly described allotetraploid cottons.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Peng R, Xu Y et. al.

Sep 20th, 2022 - Allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium) species represents a model system for the study of plant polyploidy, molecular evolution, and domestication. Here, chromosome-scale genome sequences were obtained and assembled for two recently described wild species of tetraploid cotton, Gossypium ekmanianum [(AD)6, Ge] and Gossypium stephensii [(AD)7, Gs], and one early form of domesticated Gossypium hirsutum...

Unpredictable repeatability in molecular evolution.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Das SG, Krug J

Sep 20th, 2022 - The extent of parallel evolution at the genotypic level is quantitatively linked to the distribution of beneficial fitness effects (DBFE) of mutations. The standard view, based on light-tailed distributions (i.e., distributions with finite moments), is that the probability of parallel evolution in duplicate populations is inversely proportional to the number of available mutations and, moreover...

Low dinosaur biodiversity in central China 2 million years prior to the end-Cretaceous ...
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Han F, Wang Q et. al.

Sep 20th, 2022 - Whether or not nonavian dinosaur biodiversity declined prior to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction remains controversial as the result of sampling biases in the fossil record, differences in the analytical approaches used, and the rarity of high-precision geochronological dating of dinosaur fossils. Using magnetostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, and biostratigraphy, we establish a high-resolutio...

Erythrocyte indices and localized stage II/III periodontitis in military young men and ...
BMC Oral Health; Feng AC, Tsai SC et. al.

Sep 18th, 2022 - Prior studies have shown an association between generalized periodontitis and anemia in older or undernourished adults. The aim of the study was to examine the associations of erythrocyte indices with localized periodontitis in robust young adults, which has never been reported before. The study included 1286 military participants, aged 19-40 years, with regular exercise training in Hualien, Ta...

Using phylogenetics to infer HIV-1 transmission direction between known transmission pa...
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Villabona-Arenas CJ, Hué S et. al.

Sep 15th, 2022 - Inferring the transmission direction between linked individuals living with HIV provides unparalleled power to understand the epidemiology that determines transmission. Phylogenetic ancestral-state reconstruction approaches infer the transmission direction by identifying the individual in whom the most recent common ancestor of the virus populations originated. While these methods vary in accur...