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About 321,396 results

Inhibition of the mTORC pathway in the antiphospholipid syndrome.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1312890
The New England Journal of Medicine; Canaud G, Bienaimé F et. al.

Jul 23rd, 2014 - Although thrombosis is considered the cardinal feature of the antiphospholipid syndrome, chronic vascular lesions are common, particularly in patients with life-threatening complications. In patients who require transplantation, vascular lesions often recur. The molecular pathways involved in the vasculopathy of the antiphospholipid syndrome are unknown, and adequate therapies are lacking. We u...

PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246418
Nature Tumeh PC, Harview CL et. al.

Nov 27th, 2014 - Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types. One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells (termed adaptive immune resistance). Here we show that pre-exist...

Propionibacterium acnes activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human sebocytes.
https://doi.org/10.1038/jid.2014.221
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology; Li ZJ, Choi DK et. al.

May 13th, 2014 - Propionibacterium acne and sebaceous glands are considered to have an important role in the development of acne. Although information regarding the activation of innate immunity by P. acnes in the sebaceous gland is limited, different P. acnes phylotypes and a higher prevalence of follicular P. acnes macrocolonies/biofilms in sebaceous follicles of skin biopsies from acne compared with control ...

Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium in patients with age-relat...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61376-3
Lancet (London, England); Schwartz SD, Regillo CD et. al.

Dec 2nd, 2014 - Since they were first derived more than three decades ago, embryonic stem cells have been proposed as a source of replacement cells in regenerative medicine, but their plasticity and unlimited capacity for self-renewal raises concerns about their safety, including tumour formation ability, potential immune rejection, and the risk of differentiating into unwanted cell types. We report the medium...

Long-Term Follow-up Results of the DANTE Trial, a Randomized Study of Lung Cancer Scree...
https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201408-1475OC
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Infante M, Cavuto S et. al.

Mar 11th, 2015 - Screening for lung cancer with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% compared with screening with chest X-ray (CXR) in the National Lung Screening Trial, but uncertainty remains concerning the efficacy of LDCT screening in a community setting. To explore the effect of LDCT screening on lung cancer mortality compared with no screening. S...

Malignant Transformation of Hymenolepis nana in a Human Host.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1505892
The New England Journal of Medicine; Muehlenbachs A, Bhatnagar J et. al.

Nov 4th, 2015 - Neoplasms occur naturally in invertebrates but are not known to develop in tapeworms. We observed nests of monomorphic, undifferentiated cells in samples from lymph-node and lung biopsies in a man infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The morphologic features and invasive behavior of the cells were characteristic of cancer, but their small size suggested a nonhuman origin. A pol...

DPPX antibody-associated encephalitis: Main syndrome and antibody effects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5379928
Neurology Hara M, Ariño H et. al.

Mar 4th, 2017 - To report the main syndrome of dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6 (DPPX) antibody-associated encephalitis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass, and the antibody effects on DPPX/Kv4.2 potassium channels. A retrospective analysis of new patients and cases reported since 2013 was performed. IgG subclass and effects of antibodies on cultured neurons were determined with described techniques. Nine new ...

Screening Patients Undergoing Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty with Perioperative Urinaly...
https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2016.272
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology; Bailin S, Noiseux N et. al.

Nov 21st, 2016 - OBJECTIVE To identify predictors of treatment for urinary tract infections (UTI) among patients undergoing total hip (THA) or knee (TKA) arthroplasties and to assess an intervention based on these predictors. DESIGN We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 200 consecutive patients undergoing THA/TKA between February 21, 2011, and June 30, 2011, to identify predictors of treatment for UTI an...

Bioengineered human acellular vessels for dialysis access in patients with end-stage re...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915925
Lancet (London, England); Lawson JH, Glickman MH et. al.

May 20th, 2016 - For patients with end-stage renal disease who are not candidates for fistula, dialysis access grafts are the best option for chronic haemodialysis. However, polytetrafluoroethylene arteriovenous grafts are prone to thrombosis, infection, and intimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis. We developed and tested a bioengineered human acellular vessel as a potential solution to these limitations ...

Nociceptive sensory neurons drive interleukin-23-mediated psoriasiform skin inflammation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4127885
Nature Riol-Blanco L, Ordovas-Montanes J et. al.

Apr 24th, 2014 - The skin has a dual function as a barrier and a sensory interface between the body and the environment. To protect against invading pathogens, the skin harbours specialized immune cells, including dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) and interleukin (IL)-17-producing γδ T (γδT17) cells, the aberrant activation of which by IL-23 can provoke psoriasis-like inflammation. The skin is also innervated by a ...

Mechanisms underlying differential effectiveness of memantine and ketamine in rapid ant...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4060670
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Gideons ES, Kavalali ET et. al.

Jun 9th, 2014 - Ketamine is an NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist that elicits rapid antidepressant responses in patients with treatment-resistant depression. However, ketamine can also produce psychotomimetic effects that limit its utility as an antidepressant, raising the question of whether the clinically tolerated NMDAR antagonist memantine possesses antidepressant properties. Despite its similar potency to ...

Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area govern parental behaviour.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105201
Nature Wu Z, Autry AE et. al.

May 15th, 2014 - Mice display robust, stereotyped behaviours towards pups: virgin males typically attack pups, whereas virgin females and sexually experienced males and females display parental care. Here we show that virgin males genetically impaired in vomeronasal sensing do not attack pups and are parental. Furthermore, we uncover a subset of galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that...

Chronic variable stress activates hematopoietic stem cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4087061
Nature Medicine; Heidt T, Sager HB et. al.

Jun 23rd, 2014 - Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Although incompletely understood, interaction between the psyche and the immune system provides one potential mechanism linking stress and disease inception and progression. Known cross-talk between the brain and immune system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which centrally drives gl...

A molecular basis for classic blond hair color in Europeans.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704868
Nature Genetics; Guenther CA, Tasic B et. al.

Jun 1st, 2014 - Hair color differences are among the most obvious examples of phenotypic variation in humans. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated multiple loci in human pigment variation, the causative base-pair changes are still largely unknown. Here we dissect a regulatory region of the KITLG gene (encoding KIT ligand) that is significantly associated with common blond hair color ...

A spinal analog of memory reconsolidation enables reversal of hyperalgesia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4978538
Nature Neuroscience; Bonin RP, De Koninck Y

Jul 6th, 2014 - Hyperalgesia arising from sensitization of pain relays in the spinal dorsal horn shares many mechanistic and phenotypic parallels with memory formation. We discovered that mechanical hyperalgesia could be rendered labile and reversible in mice after reactivation of spinal pain pathways in a process analogous to memory reconsolidation. These findings reveal a previously unknown regulatory mechan...

Reproductive medicine: The power of three.
https://doi.org/10.1038/509414a
Nature Callaway E

May 22nd, 2014 - Reproductive medicine: The power of three.|2014|Callaway E,|metabolism,genetics,pathology,prevention & control,genetics,pathology,cytology,metabolism,pathology,methods,

Body mass index and basal androstenedione are independent risk factors for miscarriage ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245701
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E; Yang W, Yang R et. al.

Nov 20th, 2018 - There is limited literature investigating the effects of body mass index (BMI) and androgen level on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-antagonist protocol in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Androgen-related variation in the effect of body mass index (BMI) on IVF outcomes remains unknown. In this retrospective study, 583 infertile women with PCO...

Prognostic value of pretreatment peripheral blood markers in paranasal sinus cancer: Ne...
https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.24681
Head & Neck; Turri-Zanoni M, Salzano G et. al.

Dec 29th, 2016 - Pretreatment hematological markers have emerged as prognostic factors for several cancers. The purpose of this study was to present our investigation of the value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in predicting recurrence and mortality for patients with primary sinonasal cancers (SNCs). We carried out a retrospective review of patients with SNC who h...

Non-invasive prediction of recurrence in bladder cancer by detecting somatic TERT promo...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558690
British Journal of Cancer; Descotes F, Kara N et. al.

Jul 6th, 2017 - Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is characterised by a high risk of recurrence. Patient monitoring is currently based on iterative cystoscopy and on urine cytology with low sensitivity in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is frequently reactivated in UBC by promoter mutations. We studied whether detection of TERT mutation in urine could be a pred...

Sepsis mortality score for the prediction of mortality in septic patients.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.09.009
Journal of Critical Care; Shukeri WFWM, Ralib AM et. al.

Sep 13th, 2017 - To derive a prediction equation for 30-day mortality in sepsis using a multi-marker approach and compare its performance to the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. This study included 159 septic patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Leukocytes count, procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activities of PON-1 were assayed from...