About 417,958 results

The shape-shifting blobs that shook up cell biology.
Nature Dolgin E

Nov 4th, 2022 - The shape-shifting blobs that shook up cell biology.|2022|Dolgin E,|trends,cytology,

A cross-sectional study evidences regulations of leukocytes in the colostrum of mothers...
BMC Medicine; Piñeiro-Salvador R, Vazquez-Garza E et. al.

Nov 2nd, 2022 - Breastmilk is a dynamic fluid whose initial function is to provide the most adapted nutrition to the neonate. Additional attributes have been recently ascribed to breastmilk, with the evidence of a specific microbiota and the presence of various components of the immune system, such as cytokines and leukocytes. The composition of breastmilk varies through time, according to the health status of...

Functional antibodies exhibit light chain coherence.
Nature Jaffe DB, Shahi P et. al.

Oct 27th, 2022 - The vertebrate adaptive immune system modifies the genome of individual B cells to encode antibodies that bind particular antigens1. In most mammals, antibodies are composed of heavy and light chains that are generated sequentially by recombination of V, D (for heavy chains), J and C gene segments. Each chain contains three complementarity-determining regions (CDR1-CDR3), which contr...

HRG-9 homologues regulate haem trafficking from haem-enriched compartments.
Nature Sun F, Zhao Z et. al.

Oct 20th, 2022 - Haem is an iron-containing tetrapyrrole that is critical for a variety of cellular and physiological processes1-3. Haem binding proteins are present in almost all cellular compartments, but the molecular mechanisms that regulate the transport and use of haem within the cell remain poorly understood2,3. Here we show that haem-responsive gene 9 (HRG-9) (also known as transport and Golgi organizat...

Prostaglandin production selectively in brain endothelial cells is both necessary and s...
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Shionoya K, Eskilsson A et. al.

Oct 18th, 2022 - Fever is known to be elicited by prostaglandin E2 acting on the brain, but its origin has remained disputed. We show in mice that selective deletion of prostaglandin synthesis in brain endothelial cells, but not in neural cells or myeloid cells, abolished fever induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide and that selective rescue of prostaglandin synthesis in brain endothelial c...

Maturation and circuit integration of transplanted human cortical organoids.
Nature Revah O, Gore F et. al.

Oct 13th, 2022 - Self-organizing neural organoids represent a promising in vitro platform with which to model human development and disease1-5. However, organoids lack the connectivity that exists in vivo, which limits maturation and makes integration with other circuits that control behaviour impossible. Here we show that human stem cell-derived cortical organoids transplanted into the somatosensory cortex of ...

Movement is governed by rotational neural dynamics in spinal motor networks.
Nature Lindén H, Petersen PC et. al.

Oct 13th, 2022 - Although the generation of movements is a fundamental function of the nervous system, the underlying neural principles remain unclear. As flexor and extensor muscle activities alternate during rhythmic movements such as walking, it is often assumed that the responsible neural circuitry is similarly exhibiting alternating activity1. Here we present ensemble recordings of neurons in the lumbar sp...

Antibiotic combinations reduce Staphylococcus aureus clearance.
Nature Lázár V, Snitser O et. al.

Oct 6th, 2022 - The spread of antibiotic resistance is attracting increased attention to combination-based treatments. Although drug combinations have been studied extensively for their effects on bacterial growth1-11, much less is known about their effects on bacterial long-term clearance, especially at cidal, clinically relevant concentrations12-14. Here, using en masse microplating and automated image analy...

Programmable RNA sensing for cell monitoring and manipulation.
Nature Qian Y, Li J et. al.

Oct 6th, 2022 - RNA is a central and universal mediator of genetic information underlying the diversity of cell types and cell states, which together shape tissue organization and organismal function across species and lifespans. Despite numerous advances in RNA sequencing technologies and the massive accumulation of transcriptome datasets across the life sciences1,2, the dearth of technologies that use RNAs t...

Blockades of effector T cell senescence and exhaustion synergistically enhance antitumo...
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer; Liu X, Si F et. al.

Oct 4th, 2022 - Current immunotherapies still have limited successful rates among cancers. It is now recognized that T cell functional state in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a key determinant for effective antitumor immunity and immunotherapy. In addition to exhaustion, cellular senescence in tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs) has recently been identified as an important T cell dysfunctional state induced...

Discovery of Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Blood and Development of Noninvasive Prena...

Sep 29th, 2022 - Discovery of Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Blood and Development of Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: 2022 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award.|2022|Lo YMD,|cytology,methods,blood,blood,history,methods,blood,methods,

PD-1-cis IL-2R agonism yields better effectors from stem-like CD8+ T cells.
Nature Codarri Deak L, Nicolini V et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Expansion and differentiation of antigen-experienced PD-1+TCF-1+ stem-like CD8+ T cells into effector cells is critical for the success of immunotherapies based on PD-1 blockade1-4. Hashimoto et al. have shown that, in chronic infections, administration of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-2 triggers an alternative differentiation path of stem-like T cells towards a distinct population of 'better e...

Prenatal immune stress blunts microglia reactivity, impairing neurocircuitry.
Nature Hayes LN, An K et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Recent studies suggested that microglia, the primary brain immune cells, can affect circuit connectivity and neuronal function1,2. Microglia infiltrate the neuroepithelium early in embryonic development and are maintained in the brain throughout adulthood3,4. Several maternal environmental factors-such as an aberrant microbiome, immune activation and poor nutrition-can influence prenatal brain ...

PD-1 combination therapy with IL-2 modifies CD8+ T cell exhaustion program.
Nature Hashimoto M, Araki K et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Combination therapy with PD-1 blockade and IL-2 is highly effective during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection1. Here we examine the underlying basis for this synergy. We show that PD-1 + IL-2 combination therapy, in contrast to PD-1 monotherapy, substantially changes the differentiation program of the PD-1+TCF1+ stem-like CD8+ T cells and results in the generation of transcrip...

An LKB1-mitochondria axis controls TH17 effector function.
Nature Baixauli F, Piletic K et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - CD4+ T cell differentiation requires metabolic reprogramming to fulfil the bioenergetic demands of proliferation and effector function, and enforce specific transcriptional programmes1-3. Mitochondrial membrane dynamics sustains mitochondrial processes4, including respiration and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism5, but whether mitochondrial membrane remodelling orchestrates CD4+ T cell ...

Visualizing translation dynamics at atomic detail inside a bacterial cell.
Nature Xue L, Lenz S et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Translation is the fundamental process of protein synthesis and is catalysed by the ribosome in all living cells1. Here we use advances in cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram analysis2,3 to visualize the structural dynamics of translation inside the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. To interpret the functional states in detail, we first obtain a high-resolution in-cell average map of all t...

CRISPR screens in Drosophila cells identify Vsg as a Tc toxin receptor.
Nature Xu Y, Viswanatha R et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Entomopathogenic nematodes are widely used as biopesticides1,2. Their insecticidal activity depends on symbiotic bacteria such as Photorhabdus luminescens, which produces toxin complex (Tc) toxins as major virulence factors3-6. No protein receptors are known for any Tc toxins, which limits our understanding of their specificity and pathogenesis. Here we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knoc...

Generation of mega brown adipose tissue in adults by controlling brown adipocyte differ...
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Du Q, Wu J et. al.

Sep 27th, 2022 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly specialized adipose tissue in its immobile location and size during the entire adulthood. In response to cold exposure and other β3-adrenoreceptor stimuli, BAT commits energy consumption by nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). However, the molecular machinery in controlling the BAT mass in adults is unknown. Here, we show our surprising findings that the BAT ...

Redox status regulates autophagy in thymic stromal cells and promotes T cell tolerance.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Semwal MK, Hester AK et. al.

Sep 27th, 2022 - Thymic stromal cells (TSCs) are critical regulators of T cell tolerance, but their basic biology has remained under-characterized because they are relatively rare and difficult to isolate. Recent work has revealed that constitutive autophagy in TSCs is required for self-antigen presentation and central T cell tolerance induction; however, the mechanisms regulating constitutive autophagy in TSCs...

Long-primed germinal centres with enduring affinity maturation and clonal migration.
Nature Lee JH, Sutton HJ et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Germinal centres are the engines of antibody evolution. Here, using human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Env protein immunogen priming in rhesus monkeys followed by a long period without further immunization, we demonstrate germinal centre B (BGC) cells that last for at least 6 months. A 186-fold increase in BGC cells was present by week 10 compared with conventional immunization. Single-cell tra...