About 418,388 results

Caveolin-1 is involved in fatty infiltration and bone-tendon healing of rotator cuff tear.
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.); Fang S, You M et. al.

Mar 16th, 2023 - Caveolin-1 has been predicted, based on RNA transcriptome sequencing, as a key gene in rotator cuff tear (RCT) and it is related to fatty infiltration. This study aims to elucidate the upstream and downstream mechanism of Caveolin-1 in fatty infiltration and bone-tendon healing after RCT in rat models. Differentially expressed genes related to RCT were screened, followed by functional enrichmen...

De novo mutations disturb early brain development more frequently than common variants ...
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychi... Itai T, Jia P et. al.

Mar 3rd, 2023 - Investigating functional, temporal, and cell-type expression features of mutations is important for understanding a complex disease. Here, we collected and analyzed common variants and de novo mutations (DNMs) in schizophrenia (SCZ). We collected 2,636 missense and loss-of-function (LoF) DNMs in 2,263 genes across 3,477 SCZ patients (SCZ-DNMs). We curated three gene lists: (a) SCZ-neuroGenes (1...

In Situ-Formed Fibrin Hydrogel Scaffold Loaded With Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal St...
Cell Transplantation; Hu L, Zhou J et. al.

Feb 26th, 2023 - Healing of full-thickness skin wounds remains a major challenge. Recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) were shown to possess an extraordinary potential to promote skin repair in clinical settings. However, their low survival rate after transplantation limits their therapeutic efficiency in treating full-thickness skin wounds. Hydrogels are considered an ideal cell tra...

Autoimmunity in Down's syndrome via cytokines, CD4 T cells and CD11c+ B cells.
Nature Malle L, Patel RS et. al.

Feb 23rd, 2023 - Down's syndrome (DS) presents with a constellation of cardiac, neurocognitive and growth impairments. Individuals with DS are also prone to severe infections and autoimmunity including thyroiditis, type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease and alopecia areata1,2. Here, to investigate the mechanisms underlying autoimmune susceptibility, we mapped the soluble and cellular immune landscape of individuals w...

Chemically defined cytokine-free expansion of human haematopoietic stem cells.
Nature Sakurai M, Ishitsuka K et. al.

Feb 23rd, 2023 - Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a rare cell type that reconstitute the entire blood and immune systems after transplantation and can be used as a curative cell therapy for a variety of haematological diseases1,2. However, the low number of HSCs in the body makes both biological analyses and clinical application difficult, and the limited extent to which human HSCs can be expanded ex vivo r...

Essential elements of radical pair magnetosensitivity in Drosophila.
Nature Bradlaugh AA, Fedele G et. al.

Feb 23rd, 2023 - Many animals use Earth's magnetic field (also known as the geomagnetic field) for navigation1. The favoured mechanism for magnetosensitivity involves a blue-light-activated electron-transfer reaction between flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and a chain of tryptophan residues within the photoreceptor protein CRYPTOCHROME (CRY). The spin-state of the resultant radical pair, and therefore the con...

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomal miR-30e-5p ameliorates high-glucose ...
Renal Failure; Lv J, Hao YN et. al.

Feb 17th, 2023 - The rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes has resulted in more cases of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may represent an alternative strategy to manage DKD. HK-2 cells were treated with 30 mM high glucose (HG). Bone marrow MSC-derived exosomes (BMSC-exos) were isolated and internalized into HK-2 cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-...

The cellular coding of temperature in the mammalian cortex.
Nature Vestergaard M, Carta M et. al.

Feb 10th, 2023 - Temperature is a fundamental sensory modality separate from touch, with dedicated receptor channels and primary afferent neurons for cool and warm1-3. Unlike for other modalities, however, the cortical encoding of temperature remains unknown, with very few cortical neurons reported that respond to non-painful temperature, and the presence of a 'thermal cortex' is debated4-8. Here, using widefie...

TET2 guards against unchecked BATF3-induced CAR T cell expansion.
Nature Jain N, Zhao Z et. al.

Feb 10th, 2023 - Further advances in cell engineering are needed to increase the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and other T cell-based therapies1-5. As T cell differentiation and functional states are associated with distinct epigenetic profiles6,7, we hypothesized that epigenetic programming may provide a means to improve CAR T cell performance. Targeting the gene that encodes the epigenetic regul...

Fast and scarless: Prx1+ fibroblasts turbocharge healing.
The Journal of Experimental Medicine; Kratofil RM, Naik S

Feb 7th, 2023 - Our oral cavity has evolved a capacity for rapid healing without scarring. In this issue of JEM, Ko et al. (2022. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20221350) identify a Prx1+ fibroblast progenitor that drives oral regeneration by summoning pro-healing TGFβ1+ macrophages.

Generation of Natural Killer Cells from Human Expanded Potential Stem Cells.
Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE; Yu Ching P, Wang C et. al.

Jan 31st, 2023 - The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells from human pluripotent stem cells allows for research on and the manufacture of clinical-grade cellular products for immunotherapy. Described here is a two-phase protocol that uses a serum-free commercial medium and a cocktail of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-7, IL-15, stem cell factor [SCF], and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand [Ftl3L]) to ...

Exosomal miR-205-5p derived from periodontal ligament stem cells attenuates the inflamm...
Immunity, Inflammation and Disease; Kang L, Miao Y et. al.

Jan 28th, 2023 - Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an inflammatory periodontal disease with high incidence and complex pathology. This research is aimed to investigate the function of exosomal miR-205-5p (Exo-miR-205-5p) in CP and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Exo-miR-205-5p was isolated from miR-205-5p mimics-transfected periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and subsequently cocultured with lipopolysacc...

Brainstem astrocytes control homeostatic regulation of caloric intake.
The Journal of Physiology; Clyburn C, Carson KE et. al.

Jan 26th, 2023 - Prolonged high-fat diet (HFD) exposure is associated with hyperphagia, excess caloric intake and weight gain. After initial exposure to a HFD, a brief (24-48 h) period of hyperphagia is followed by the regulation of caloric intake and restoration of energy balance within an acute (3-5 day) period. Previous studies have demonstrated this occurs via a vagally mediated signalling cascade that incr...

A Prox1 enhancer represses haematopoiesis in the lymphatic vasculature.
Nature Kazenwadel J, Venugopal P et. al.

Jan 26th, 2023 - Transcriptional enhancer elements are responsible for orchestrating the temporal and spatial control over gene expression that is crucial for programming cell identity during development1-3. Here we describe a novel enhancer element that is important for regulating the expression of Prox1 in lymphatic endothelial cells. This evolutionarily conserved enhancer is bound by key lymphatic transcript...

Tissue CD14+CD8+ T cells reprogrammed by myeloid cells and modulated by LPS.
Nature Pallett LJ, Swadling L et. al.

Jan 26th, 2023 - The liver is bathed in bacterial products, including lipopolysaccharide transported from the intestinal portal vasculature, but maintains a state of tolerance that is exploited by persistent pathogens and tumours1-4. The cellular basis mediating this tolerance, yet allowing a switch to immunity or immunopathology, needs to be better understood for successful immunotherapy of liver diseases. Her...

Live births from urine derived cells.
PloS One; Olsson PO, Yeonwoo J et. al.

Jan 26th, 2023 - Here we report urine-derived cell (UDC) culture and subsequent use for cloning which resulted in the successful development of cloned canine pups, which have remained healthy into adulthood. Bovine UDCs were used in vitro to establish comparative differences between cell sources. UDCs were chosen as a readily available and noninvasive source for obtaining cells. We analyzed the viability of cel...

Pituitary Stem Cell Regulation by Zeb2 and BMP Signaling.
Endocrinology Winningham AH, Camper SA

Jan 24th, 2023 - Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for many developing organs, and for wound healing, fibrosis, and cancer. Pituitary stem cells undergo an EMT-like process as they migrate and initiate differentiation, but little is known about the input of signaling pathways or the genetic hierarchy of the transcriptional cascade. Prop1 mutant stem cells fail to undergo changes in cellula...

Functional T cells are capable of supernumerary cell division and longevity.
Nature Soerens AG, Künzli M et. al.

Jan 19th, 2023 - Differentiated somatic mammalian cells putatively exhibit species-specific division limits that impede cancer but may constrain lifespans1-3. To provide immunity, transiently stimulated CD8+ T cells undergo unusually rapid bursts of numerous cell divisions, and then form quiescent long-lived memory cells that remain poised to reproliferate following subsequent immunological challenges. Here we ...

Coronin 2B Regulates Neuronal Migration via Rac1-Dependent Multipolar-Bipolar Transition.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of The... Chen Y, Xu Z et. al.

Jan 15th, 2023 - In the developing cortex, excitatory neurons migrate along the radial fibers to their final destinations and build up synaptic connection with each other to form functional circuitry. The shaping of neuronal morphologies by actin cytoskeleton dynamics is crucial for neuronal migration. However, it is largely unknown how the distribution and assembly of the F-actin cytoskeleton are coordinated. ...

Changes in PRC1 activity during interphase modulate lineage transition in pluripotent c...
Nature Communications; Asenjo HG, Alcazar-Fabra M et. al.

Jan 13th, 2023 - The potential of pluripotent cells to respond to developmental cues and trigger cell differentiation is enhanced during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Variations in polycomb activity during interphase progression have been hypothesized to regulate the cell-cycle-phase-dependent transcriptional activation of differentiation genes duri...