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About 58,780 results

Hinge point emergence in mammalian spinal neurulation.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2117075119
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... de Goederen V, Vetter R et. al.

May 14th, 2022 - SignificanceSpinal neural tube folding shows a transition from medial to dorsolateral neural plate bending sites (hinge points) along the embryo's body axis. While hinge points are considered an important driving force in neural tube closure, their biomechanical origin is poorly understood. Here we use a computational model based on mouse and human embryo imaging data to show that the median hi...

Human shoulder development is adapted to obstetrical constraints.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2114935119
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Kawada M, Nakatsukasa M et. al.

Apr 13th, 2022 - SignificanceDuring human birth, the risk of complications is relatively high because of the comparatively large dimensions of the fetal head and shoulders relative to the maternal birth canal. Here we show that humans exhibit a developmental mode of the shoulders that likely contributes to mitigating obstetrical problems. Human shoulder growth is decelerated before birth but accelerated after b...

Single cell enhancer activity distinguishes GABAergic and cholinergic lineages in embry...
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2108760119
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Su-Feher L, Rubin AN et. al.

Apr 5th, 2022 - Enhancers integrate transcription factor signaling pathways that drive cell fate specification in the developing brain. We paired enhancer labeling and single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) to delineate and distinguish specification of neuronal lineages in mouse medial, lateral, and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE, LGE, and CGE) at embryonic day (E)11.5. We show that scRNA-seq clustering usin...

Recent advances in the developmental origin of neuroblastoma: an overview.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8915499
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR; Ponzoni M, Bachetti T et. al.

Mar 13th, 2022 - Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric tumor that originates from neural crest-derived cells undergoing a defective differentiation due to genomic and epigenetic impairments. Therefore, NB may arise at any final site reached by migrating neural crest cells (NCCs) and their progeny, preferentially in the adrenal medulla or in the para-spinal ganglia.NB shows a remarkable genetic heterogeneity includi...

Gain of gene regulatory network interconnectivity at the origin of vertebrates.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8931241
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Gil-Gálvez A, Jiménez-Gancedo S et. al.

Mar 10th, 2022 - SignificanceIn this manuscript, we address an essential question in developmental and evolutionary biology: How have changes in gene regulatory networks contributed to the invertebrate-to-vertebrate transition? To address this issue, we perturbed four signaling pathways critical for body plan formation in the cephalochordate amphioxus and in zebrafish and compared the effects of such perturbati...

Modeling protein dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that the PLK-1 grad...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8931239
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Barbieri S, Nurni Ravi A et. al.

Mar 9th, 2022 - SignificanceIntracellular gradients have essential roles in cell and developmental biology, but their formation is not fully understood. We have developed a computational approach facilitating interpretation of protein dynamics and gradient formation. We have combined this computational approach with experiments to understand how Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK-1) forms a cytoplasmic gradient in Caenor...

An Fgf-Shh positive feedback loop drives growth in developing unpaired fins.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8916008
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Hawkins MB, Jandzik D et. al.

Mar 4th, 2022 - The origin and diversification of appendage types is a central question in vertebrate evolution. Understanding the genetic mechanisms that underlie fin and limb development can reveal relationships between different appendages. Here we demonstrate, using chemical genetics, a mutually agonistic interaction between Fgf and Shh genes in the developing dorsal fin of the channel catfish, Ictalurus p...

A multiomic study uncovers a bZIP23-PER1A-mediated detoxification pathway to enhance se...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8892333
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Wang WQ, Xu DY et. al.

Feb 27th, 2022 - Seed vigor in crops is important in terms of improving grain quality and germplasm conservation; however, little is known about its regulatory mechanisms through the encoded proteome and gene network. Comparative analyses of transcriptome (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) and broadly targeted metabolic profiling of two subspecific rice cultivars with distinct seed vigor during accelerated aging reveal...

ERK signaling dissolves ERF repression condensates in living embryos.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8892517
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Weaver CJ, Patel AL et. al.

Feb 27th, 2022 - Phase separation underlies the organization of the nucleus, including the biogenesis of nucleoli and the packaging of heterochromatin. Here we explore the regulation of transcription factor condensates involved in gene repression by ERK signaling in gastrulating embryos of a simple proto-vertebrate (Ciona). ERK signaling induces nuclear export of the transcriptional repressor Ets-2 repressive f...

Developmental toxicity of bromoacetamide via the thyroid hormone receptors-mediated dis...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113334
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety; Wang W, Ma Q et. al.

Feb 25th, 2022 - Bromoacetamide (BAcAm) is a nitrogenous disinfection by-product. We previously found that BAcAm induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Since thyroid hormones (THs) homeostasis is crucial to development, we hypothesized that disruption of THs homeostasis may play a role in the developmental toxicity of BAcAm. In this study, we ...

Leg length and bristle density, both necessary for water surface locomotion, are geneti...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8892508
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Finet C, Decaras A et. al.

Feb 24th, 2022 - Access to hitherto unexploited ecological opportunities is associated with phenotypic evolution and often results in significant lineage diversification. Yet our understanding of the mechanisms underlying such adaptive traits remains limited. Water striders have been able to exploit the water-air interface, primarily facilitated by changes in the density of hydrophobic bristles and a significan...

Topographic map formation and the effects of NMDA receptor blockade in the developing v...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8872792
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Li VJ, Schohl A et. al.

Feb 24th, 2022 - The development of functional topography in the developing brain follows a progression from initially coarse to more precisely organized maps. To examine the emergence of topographically organized maps in the retinotectal system, we performed longitudinal visual receptive field mapping by calcium imaging in the optic tectum of GCaMP6-expressing transgenic Xenopus laevis tadpoles. At stage 42, j...

Brain-wide visual habituation networks in wild type and fmr1 zebrafish.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8850451
Nature Communications; Marquez-Legorreta E, Constantin L et. al.

Feb 18th, 2022 - Habituation is a form of learning during which animals stop responding to repetitive stimuli, and deficits in habituation are characteristic of several psychiatric disorders. Due to technical challenges, the brain-wide networks mediating habituation are poorly understood. Here we report brain-wide calcium imaging during larval zebrafish habituation to repeated visual looming stimuli. We show th...

HSL1 and BAM1/2 impact epidermal cell development by sensing distinct signaling peptides.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8847575
Nature Communications; Roman AO, Jimenez-Sandoval P et. al.

Feb 17th, 2022 - The membrane receptor kinases HAESA and HSL2 recognize a family of IDA/IDL signaling peptides to control cell separation processes in different plant organs. The homologous HSL1 has been reported to regulate epidermal cell patterning by interacting with a different class of signaling peptides from the CLE family. Here we demonstrate that HSL1 binds IDA/IDL peptides with high, and CLE peptides w...

Butterfly eyespots evolved via cooption of an ancestral gene-regulatory network that al...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8872758
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Murugesan SN, Connahs H et. al.

Feb 17th, 2022 - Butterfly eyespots are beautiful novel traits with an unknown developmental origin. Here we show that eyespots likely originated via cooption of parts of an ancestral appendage gene-regulatory network (GRN) to novel locations on the wing. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we show that eyespots cluster most closely with antennae, relative to multiple other tissues. Furthermore, three gen...

Dynamic FMR1 granule phase switch instructed by m6A modification contributes to materna...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8844045
Nature Communications; Zhang G, Xu Y et. al.

Feb 16th, 2022 - Maternal RNA degradation is critical for embryogenesis and is tightly controlled by maternal RNA-binding proteins. Fragile X mental-retardation protein (FMR1) binds target mRNAs to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes/granules that control various biological processes, including early embryogenesis. However, how FMR1 recognizes target mRNAs and how FMR1-RNP granule assembly/disassembly regula...

A diffusion MRI-based spatiotemporal continuum of the embryonic mouse brain for probing...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8851557
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Wu D, Richards LJ et. al.

Feb 16th, 2022 - The embryonic mouse brain undergoes drastic changes in establishing basic anatomical compartments and laying out major axonal connections of the developing brain. Correlating anatomical changes with gene-expression patterns is an essential step toward understanding the mechanisms regulating brain development. Traditionally, this is done in a cross-sectional manner, but the dynamic nature of dev...

Rear traction forces drive adherent tissue migration in vivo.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8868490
Nature Cell Biology; Yamaguchi N, Zhang Z et. al.

Feb 16th, 2022 - During animal embryogenesis, homeostasis and disease, tissues push and pull on their surroundings to move forward. Although the force-generating machinery is known, it is unknown how tissues exert physical stresses on their substrate to generate motion in vivo. Here, we identify the force transmission machinery, the substrate and the stresses that a tissue, the zebrafish posterior lateral line ...

miR-9a regulates levels of both rhomboid mRNA and protein in the early Drosophila melan...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8982436
G3 (Bethesda, Md.); Gallicchio L, Griffiths-Jones S et. al.

Feb 11th, 2022 - MicroRNAs can have subtle and combinatorial effects on the levels of the targets and pathways they act on. Studying the consequences of a single microRNA knockout often proves difficult as many such knockouts exhibit phenotypes only under stress conditions. This has often led to the hypothesis that microRNAs buffer the effects of intrinsic and environmental stochasticity on gene expression. Obs...

Optimizing environmental safety and cell-killing potential of oncolytic Newcastle Disea...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8827430
PloS One; de Graaf JF, van Nieuwkoop S et. al.

Feb 10th, 2022 - Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is an avian RNA virus, which was shown to be effective and safe for use in oncolytic viral therapy for several tumour malignancies. The presence of a multi basic cleavage site (MBCS) in the fusion protein improved its oncolytic efficacy in vitro and in vivo. However, NDV with a MBCS can be virulent in poultry. We aimed to develop an NDV with a MBCS but with reduced...