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About 219,863 results

Bacterial chitinases: genetics, engineering and applications.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-022-03444-9
World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology; Kumar M, Chakdar H et. al.

Nov 2nd, 2022 - Chitinases are a group of enzymes that catalyze chitin hydrolysis and are present in all domains of life. Chitinases belong to different glycosyl hydrolase families with great diversity in their sequences. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi produce chitinases for nutrition, and energy, and to parasitize the chitinous hosts. But chitinases from bacteria are of special interest due to thei...

Dephospho-Coenzyme A Kinase Is an Exploitable Drug Target against Plasmodium falciparum...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9664868
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; Nurkanto A, Imamura R et. al.

Nov 1st, 2022 - Malaria is a mosquito-borne fatal infectious disease that affects humans and is caused by Plasmodium parasites, primarily Plasmodium falciparum. Widespread drug resistance compels us to discover novel compounds and alternative drug discovery targets. The coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis pathway is essential for the malaria parasite P. falciparum. The last enzyme in CoA biosynthesis, dephospho-CoA ...

Adenylate cyclase activity of TIR1/AFB auxin receptors in plants.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05369-7
Nature Qi L, Kwiatkowski M et. al.

Oct 27th, 2022 - The phytohormone auxin is the major coordinative signal in plant development1, mediating transcriptional reprogramming by a well-established canonical signalling pathway. TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 (TIR1)/AUXIN-SIGNALING F-BOX (AFB) auxin receptors are F-box subunits of ubiquitin ligase complexes. In response to auxin, they associate with Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and target them f...

Non-canonical β-adrenergic activation of ERK at endosomes.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05343-3
Nature Kwon Y, Mehta S et. al.

Oct 27th, 2022 - G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of signalling receptors, as well as important drug targets, are known to activate extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-a master regulator of cell proliferation and survival1. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie GPCR-mediated ERK activation are not clearly understood2-4. Here we investigated how spatially organized β2-adren...

Structure of the Ebola virus polymerase complex.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9517992
Nature Yuan B, Peng Q et. al.

Sep 29th, 2022 - Filoviruses, including Ebola virus, pose an increasing threat to the public health. Although two therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been approved to treat the Ebola virus disease1,2, there are no approved broadly reactive drugs to control diverse filovirus infection. Filovirus has a large polymerase (L) protein and the cofactor viral protein 35 (VP35), which constitute the basic functional ...

Modulation of receptor-like transmembrane kinase 1 nuclear localization by DA1 peptidas...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9546594
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Gu B, Dong H et. al.

Sep 27th, 2022 - The cleavage of intracellular domains of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) has an important functional role in the transduction of signals from the cell surface to the nucleus in many organisms. However, the peptidases that catalyze protein cleavage during signal transduction remain poorly understood despite their crucial roles in diverse signaling processes. Here, we report in the flowering plant A...

Metabolic novelty originating from horizontal gene transfer is essential for leaf beetl...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9546569
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Kirsch R, Okamura Y et. al.

Sep 27th, 2022 - Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) provides an evolutionary shortcut for recipient organisms to gain novel functions. Although reports of HGT in higher eukaryotes are rapidly accumulating, in most cases the evolutionary trajectory, metabolic integration, and ecological relevance of acquired genes remain unclear. Plant cell wall degradation by HGT-derived enzymes is widespread in herbivorous insect ...

Extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity promotes a carbon concentration mechanism in ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9546546
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Matt AS, Chang WW et. al.

Sep 27th, 2022 - Many calcifying organisms utilize metabolic CO2 to generate CaCO3 minerals to harden their shells and skeletons. Carbonic anhydrases are evolutionary ancient enzymes that have been proposed to play a key role in the calcification process, with the underlying mechanisms being little understood. Here, we used the calcifying primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) of sea urchin larva to study the role of ...

Relationship between Salivary Amylase and Xerostomia in Intensity-Modulated Radiation T...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9497840
Current Oncology (Toronto, Ont.); De Felice F, Scarabelli MG et. al.

Sep 23rd, 2022 - A single-institution prospective pilot study was conducted to the assess correlation between salivary amylase and xerostomia in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Serum saliva amylase, clinician-reported xerostomia (using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events), and patient-reported xerostomia (using 8-item s...

SIRT1 inactivation switches reactive astrocytes to an antiinflammatory phenotype in CNS...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9663155
The Journal of Clinical Investigation; Zhang W, Xiao D et. al.

Sep 23rd, 2022 - Astrocytes are highly heterogeneous in their phenotype and function, which contributes to CNS disease, repair, and aging; however, the molecular mechanism of their functional states remains largely unknown. Here, we show that activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a protein deacetylase, played an important role in the detrimental actions of reactive astrocytes, whereas its inactivation conferred thes...

Structural basis for directional chitin biosynthesis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9556331
Nature Chen W, Cao P et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Chitin, the most abundant aminopolysaccharide in nature, is an extracellular polymer consisting of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) units1. The key reactions of chitin biosynthesis are catalysed by chitin synthase2-4, a membrane-integrated glycosyltransferase that transfers GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to a growing chitin chain. However, the precise mechanism of this process has yet to be elucidated. Her...

Plant receptor-like protein activation by a microbial glycoside hydrolase.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05214-x
Nature Sun Y, Wang Y et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Plants rely on cell-surface-localized pattern recognition receptors to detect pathogen- or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response1-6. Receptor-like proteins (RLPs) with a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain constitute a subgroup of pattern recognition receptors and play a critical role in plant immunity1-3. Mechanisms underlying ligand recognition and activation of LRR-RLPs...

The AAA+ ATPase RavA and its binding partner ViaA modulate E. coli aminoglycoside sensi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9489729
Nature Communications; Felix J, Bumba L et. al.

Sep 21st, 2022 - Enteric bacteria have to adapt to environmental stresses in the human gastrointestinal tract such as acid and nutrient stress, oxygen limitation and exposure to antibiotics. Membrane lipid composition has recently emerged as a key factor for stress adaptation. The E. coli ravA-viaA operon is essential for aminoglycoside bactericidal activity under anaerobiosis but its mechanism of action is unc...

Lysosomal cathepsin D mediates endogenous mucin glycodomain catabolism in mammals.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9522329
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Pedram K, Laqtom NN et. al.

Sep 20th, 2022 - Mucins are functionally implicated in a range of human pathologies, including cystic fibrosis, influenza, bacterial endocarditis, gut dysbiosis, and cancer. These observations have motivated the study of mucin biosynthesis as well as the development of strategies for inhibition of mucin glycosylation. Mammalian pathways for mucin catabolism, however, have remained underexplored. The canonical v...

Self-sacrificial tyrosine cleavage by an Fe:Mn oxygenase for the biosynthesis of para-a...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9522330
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Manley OM, Phan HN et. al.

Sep 20th, 2022 - Chlamydia protein associating with death domains (CADD) is involved in the biosynthesis of para-aminobenzoate (pABA), an essential component of the folate cofactor that is required for the survival and proliferation of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. The pathway used by Chlamydiae for pABA synthesis differs from the canonical multi-enzyme pathway used by most bacteria that relies on c...

Enterovirus 3C Protease Cleaves TRIM7 To Dampen Its Antiviral Activity.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9555159
Journal of Virology; Fan W, McDougal MB et. al.

Sep 16th, 2022 - Mammalian TRIM7 is an antiviral protein that inhibits multiple human enteroviruses by degrading the viral 2BC protein. Whether TRIM7 is reciprocally targeted by enteroviruses is not known. Here, we report that the 3C protease (3Cpro) from two enteroviruses, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus, targets TRIM7 for cleavage. CVB3 3Cpro cleaves TRIM7 at glutamine 24 (Q24), resulting in a truncat...

Glucose-driven TOR-FIE-PRC2 signalling controls plant development.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9530021
Nature Ye R, Wang M et. al.

Sep 15th, 2022 - Nutrients and energy have emerged as central modulators of developmental programmes in plants and animals1-3. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a master integrator of nutrient and energy signalling that controls growth. Despite its key regulatory roles in translation, proliferation, metabolism and autophagy2-5, little is known about how TOR shapes developmental tr...

The destructive power of PROTACs could tackle prostate cancer.
https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-02860-z
Nature Makin S

Sep 15th, 2022 - The destructive power of PROTACs could tackle prostate cancer.|2022|Makin S,|drug therapy,enzymology,metabolism,drug effects,metabolism,

A universal coupling mechanism of respiratory complex I.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05199-7
Nature Kravchuk V, Petrova O et. al.

Sep 15th, 2022 - Complex I is the first enzyme in the respiratory chain, which is responsible for energy production in mitochondria and bacteria1. Complex I couples the transfer of two electrons from NADH to quinone and the translocation of four protons across the membrane2, but the coupling mechanism remains contentious. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of Escherichia coli complex I (EcCI) i...

Deletion of a previously uncharacterized lipoprotein lirL confers resistance to an inhi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9499571
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Huang KJ, Pantua H et. al.

Sep 14th, 2022 - Acinetobacter baumannii is a clinically important, predominantly health care-associated gram-negative bacterium with high rates of emerging resistance worldwide. Given the urgent need for novel antibacterial therapies against A. baumannii, we focused on inhibiting lipoprotein biosynthesis, a pathway that is essential for envelope biogenesis in gram-negative bacteria. The natural product globomy...