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About 1,660,077 results

Olaparib for Metastatic Breast Cancer in Patients with a Germline BRCA Mutation.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1706450
The New England Journal of Medicine; Robson M, Im SA et. al.

Jun 5th, 2017 - Olaparib is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that has promising antitumor activity in patients with metastatic breast cancer and a germline BRCA mutation. We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial in which olaparib monotherapy was compared with standard therapy in patients with a germline BRCA mutation and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (...

Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30132-7
The Lancet. HIV; Hoornenborg E, Prins M et. al.

Sep 18th, 2017 - Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consi...

Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1716948
The New England Journal of Medicine; Socinski MA, Jotte RM et. al.

Jun 4th, 2018 - The cancer-cell-killing property of atezolizumab may be enhanced by the blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated immunosuppression with bevacizumab. This open-label, phase 3 study evaluated atezolizumab plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had not previously received chemotherapy. We randomly assigned pa...

FXR is a molecular target for the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4016120
Nature Ryan KK, Tremaroli V et. al.

Mar 28th, 2014 - Bariatric surgical procedures, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are at present the most effective therapy for the treatment of obesity, and are associated with considerable improvements in co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to these benefits remain largely undetermined, despite offering the potential to reveal new targe...

Randomized trial of posaconazole and benznidazole for chronic Chagas' disease.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1313122
The New England Journal of Medicine; Molina I, Gómez i Prat J et. al.

May 15th, 2014 - Current therapeutic options for Chagas' disease are limited to benznidazole and nifurtimox, which have been associated with low cure rates in the chronic stage of the disease and which have considerable toxicity. Posaconazole has shown trypanocidal activity in murine models. We performed a prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of posaconazole as compared with ...

Molecular tracing of the emergence, diversification, and transmission of S. aureus sequ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020051
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Uhlemann AC, Dordel J et. al.

Apr 22nd, 2014 - During the last 2 decades, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have dramatically increased the global burden of S. aureus infections. The pandemic sequence type (ST)8/pulsed-field gel type USA300 is the dominant CA-MRSA clone in the United States, but its evolutionary history and basis for biological success are incompletely understood. Here, we us...

Sofosbuvir and ribavirin in HCV genotypes 2 and 3.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1316145
The New England Journal of Medicine; Zeuzem S, Dusheiko GM et. al.

May 5th, 2014 - In clinical trials, treatment with a combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the antiviral drug ribavirin was associated with high response rates among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 infection, with lower response rates among patients with HCV genotype 3 infection. We conducted a study involving patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection, some of who...

A genetic basis for infectious mononucleosis: evidence from a family study of hospitali...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu204
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Rostgaard K, Wohlfahrt J et. al.

Apr 3rd, 2014 - Circumstantial evidence from genome-wide association and family studies of various Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases suggests a substantial genetic component in infectious mononucleosis (IM) etiology. However, familial aggregation of IM has scarcely been studied. We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study rate ratios ...

Clinical review: Central hypothyroidism: pathogenic, diagnostic, and therapeutic challe...
https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-1616
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; Persani L

Aug 1st, 2012 - Central hypothyroidism (CH) is a particular hypothyroid condition due to an insufficient stimulation by TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. This condition raises several challenges for clinicians; therefore, a review of the most relevant findings on CH epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical management has been performed. The relevant papers were selected by a PubMed search using appropr...

Association between efavirenz as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection and increased risk...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204642
Annals of Internal Medicine; Mollan KR, Smurzynski M et. al.

Jun 30th, 2014 - The relationship between efavirenz use and suicidality is not well-defined. To compare time to suicidality with efavirenz-containing versus efavirenz-free antiretroviral regimens for initial treatment of HIV. Participant-level data were analyzed from 4 AIDS Clinical Trials Group, antiretroviral-naive studies conducted from 2001 to 2010. Within each study, participants were randomly assigned to ...

Daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis reduces herpes...
https://doi.org/10.7326/M13-2471
Annals of Internal Medicine; Celum C, Morrow RA et. al.

Jun 30th, 2014 - Daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or in combination with emtricitabine (FTC-TDF) reduces the risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Tenofovir has in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). To assess the efficacy of daily oral PrEP with tenofovir and FTC-TDF in the prevention of HSV-2 acquisition. Subgroup analys...

Panitumumab versus cetuximab in patients with chemotherapy-refractory wild-type KRAS ex...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70118-4
The Lancet. Oncology; Price TJ, Peeters M et. al.

Apr 17th, 2014 - The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab are effective in patients with chemotherapy-refractory wild-type KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer. We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of panitumumab versus cetuximab in these patients. For this randomised, open-label, phase 3 head-to-head study, we enrolled patients (from centres in North America, South America, Europe, As...

Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134948
The New England Journal of Medicine; Wilson MR, Naccache SN et. al.

Jun 4th, 2014 - A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 se...

Mutant adenosine deaminase 2 in a polyarteritis nodosa vasculopathy.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1307362
The New England Journal of Medicine; Navon Elkan P, Pierce SB et. al.

Feb 20th, 2014 - Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with a pathogenesis that is poorly understood. We identified six families with multiple cases of systemic and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. In most cases, onset of the disease occurred during childhood. We carried out exome sequencing in persons from multiply affected families of Georgia...

Simeprevir with pegylated interferon alfa 2a plus ribavirin in treatment-naive patients...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60494-3
Lancet (London, England); Jacobson IM, Dore GJ et. al.

Jun 7th, 2014 - Although the addition of the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir to pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alfa plus ribavirin has improved sustained virological response (SVR) in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, the regimens have a high pill burden and are associated with increased rates and severity of adve...

Simeprevir with pegylated interferon alfa 2a or 2b plus ribavirin in treatment-naive pa...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60538-9
Lancet (London, England); Manns M, Marcellin P et. al.

Jun 7th, 2014 - Pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alfa 2a or 2b plus ribavirin regimens were the standard of care in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the sustained virological response can be suboptimum in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the combination of simeprevir, a one-pill, once-daily, oral HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor versus place...

Assessment of second-line antiretroviral regimens for HIV therapy in Africa.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1311274
The New England Journal of Medicine; Paton NI, Kityo C et. al.

Jul 11th, 2014 - The efficacy and toxic effects of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are uncertain when these agents are used with a protease inhibitor in second-line therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in resource-limited settings. Removing the NRTIs or replacing them with raltegravir may provide a benefit. In this open-label trial in sub-Saharan Africa, we randomly assig...

Spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4143591
The New England Journal of Medicine; Ashley EA, Dhorda M et. al.

Jul 30th, 2014 - Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in Southeast Asia and now poses a threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Mapping the geographic extent of resistance is essential for planning containment and elimination strategies. Between May 2011 and April 2013, we enrolled 1241 adults and children with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an open-label trial at 15...

Antiretroviral-free HIV-1 remission and viral rebound after allogeneic stem cell transp...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4236912
Annals of Internal Medicine; Henrich TJ, Hanhauser E et. al.

Jul 22nd, 2014 - It is unknown whether the reduction in HIV-1 reservoirs seen after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with susceptible donor cells is sufficient to achieve sustained HIV-1 remission. To characterize HIV-1 reservoirs in blood and tissues and perform analytic antiretroviral treatment interruptions to determine the potential for allogeneic HSCT to lead to sustained, antiretr...

Simeprevir plus sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, to treat chronic infection with ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61036-9
Lancet (London, England); Lawitz E, Sulkowski MS et. al.

Jul 31st, 2014 - Interferon-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We investigated the efficacy of combined simeprevir and sofosbuvir. We enrolled patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections who had previously not responded to pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin or were treatment naive. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1:2:1 ratio to receive 150 mg simepre...