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About 284,046 results

Fecal microbiota transplant for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using a froze...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017893
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Youngster I, Sauk J et. al.

Apr 25th, 2014 - Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with poor response to standard antimicrobial therapy is a growing medical concern. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for relapsing CDI using a frozen suspension from unrelated donors, comparing colonoscopic and nasogastric tube (NGT) administration. Healthy volunteer donors were screened and a frozen fecal s...

Randomized trial of posaconazole and benznidazole for chronic Chagas' disease.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1313122
The New England Journal of Medicine; Molina I, Gómez i Prat J et. al.

May 15th, 2014 - Current therapeutic options for Chagas' disease are limited to benznidazole and nifurtimox, which have been associated with low cure rates in the chronic stage of the disease and which have considerable toxicity. Posaconazole has shown trypanocidal activity in murine models. We performed a prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of posaconazole as compared with ...

Molecular tracing of the emergence, diversification, and transmission of S. aureus sequ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020051
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Uhlemann AC, Dordel J et. al.

Apr 22nd, 2014 - During the last 2 decades, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have dramatically increased the global burden of S. aureus infections. The pandemic sequence type (ST)8/pulsed-field gel type USA300 is the dominant CA-MRSA clone in the United States, but its evolutionary history and basis for biological success are incompletely understood. Here, we us...

Hygiene strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017895
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Ellis MW, Schlett CD et. al.

Mar 18th, 2014 - Effective measures are needed to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in high-risk community settings. The study objective was to evaluate the effect of personal hygiene-based strategies on rates of overall SSTI and MRSA SSTI. We conducted a prospective, field-based, cluster-randomized trial in US Army Infantry trainees from May 2010...

Tobacco smoking increases the risk for death from pneumococcal pneumonia.
https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.13-2853
Chest Bello S, Menéndez R et. al.

May 8th, 2014 - Active smoking increases the risk of developing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and invasive pneumococcal disease, although its impact on mortality in pneumococcal CAP outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of current smoking status on pneumococcal CAP mortality. We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study in 4,288 hospitalize...

Sofosbuvir and ribavirin in HCV genotypes 2 and 3.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1316145
The New England Journal of Medicine; Zeuzem S, Dusheiko GM et. al.

May 5th, 2014 - In clinical trials, treatment with a combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the antiviral drug ribavirin was associated with high response rates among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 infection, with lower response rates among patients with HCV genotype 3 infection. We conducted a study involving patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection, some of who...

Association between efavirenz as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection and increased risk...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204642
Annals of Internal Medicine; Mollan KR, Smurzynski M et. al.

Jun 30th, 2014 - The relationship between efavirenz use and suicidality is not well-defined. To compare time to suicidality with efavirenz-containing versus efavirenz-free antiretroviral regimens for initial treatment of HIV. Participant-level data were analyzed from 4 AIDS Clinical Trials Group, antiretroviral-naive studies conducted from 2001 to 2010. Within each study, participants were randomly assigned to ...

Prevention of vertical transmission of hepatitis B: an observational study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4086733
Annals of Internal Medicine; Kubo A, Shlager L et. al.

May 27th, 2014 - For mothers with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends immunoprophylaxis to decrease perinatal transmission. However, its effectiveness and risk factors for failure have not been well-studied in community practice. To investigate the effectiveness of a contemporary immunoprophylaxis protocol. Observational study. An HBV perinatal im...

Single-dose oritavancin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1310422
The New England Journal of Medicine; Corey GR, Kabler H et. al.

Jun 4th, 2014 - Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria. Its concentration-dependent activity and prolonged half-life allow for single-dose treatment. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial in which adults with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections received either a single intravenous dose of 1200 mg of oritavancin or a regimen of intraven...

Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134948
The New England Journal of Medicine; Wilson MR, Naccache SN et. al.

Jun 4th, 2014 - A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 se...

Invasive group A Streptococcus infections associated with liposuction surgery at outpat...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.1875
JAMA Internal Medicine; Beaudoin AL, Torso L et. al.

May 27th, 2014 - Liposuction is one of the most common cosmetic surgery procedures in the United States. Tumescent liposuction, in which crystalloid fluids, lidocaine, and epinephrine are infused subcutaneously before cannula-assisted aspiration of fat, can be performed without intravenous or general anesthesia, often at outpatient facilities. However, some of these facilities are not subject to state or federa...

Effectiveness of clindamycin and intravenous immunoglobulin, and risk of disease in con...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu304
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Carapetis JR, Jacoby P et. al.

May 2nd, 2014 - The use of clindamycin and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treatment of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infection, and the need for prophylactic antibiotics in close contacts, remains contentious. Controlled trials are unlikely to be conducted, so prospective, observational studies provide the best data to inform practice. We conducted population-based, prospective, active surveillan...

Spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4143591
The New England Journal of Medicine; Ashley EA, Dhorda M et. al.

Jul 30th, 2014 - Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in Southeast Asia and now poses a threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Mapping the geographic extent of resistance is essential for planning containment and elimination strategies. Between May 2011 and April 2013, we enrolled 1241 adults and children with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an open-label trial at 15...

Antiretroviral-free HIV-1 remission and viral rebound after allogeneic stem cell transp...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4236912
Annals of Internal Medicine; Henrich TJ, Hanhauser E et. al.

Jul 22nd, 2014 - It is unknown whether the reduction in HIV-1 reservoirs seen after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with susceptible donor cells is sufficient to achieve sustained HIV-1 remission. To characterize HIV-1 reservoirs in blood and tissues and perform analytic antiretroviral treatment interruptions to determine the potential for allogeneic HSCT to lead to sustained, antiretr...

Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnosing invasive fungal disease.
https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201403-0431OC
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Affolter K, Tamm M et. al.

Jul 9th, 2014 - Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We hypothesize that galactomannan (GM), a component of fungal cell wall, as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) might be a diagnostic adjunct in hematologic malignancies. A total of 568 hematologic cases undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy because of respiratory symptoms and/or sus...

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and culture conversion with bedaquiline.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1313865
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diacon AH, Pym A et. al.

Aug 20th, 2014 - Bedaquiline (Sirturo, TMC207), a diarylquinoline that inhibits mycobacterial ATP synthase, has been associated with accelerated sputum-culture conversion in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, when added to a preferred background regimen for 8 weeks. In this phase 2b trial, we randomly assigned 160 patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to re...

Transmission of MERS-coronavirus in household contacts.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1405858
The New England Journal of Medicine; Drosten C, Meyer B et. al.

Aug 27th, 2014 - Strategies to contain the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) depend on knowledge of the rate of human-to-human transmission, including subclinical infections. A lack of serologic tools has hindered targeted studies of transmission. We studied 26 index patients with MERS-CoV infection and their 280 household contacts. The median time from the onset of symptoms in index patie...

Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia akari in skin bi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568984
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Denison AM, Amin BD et. al.

May 15th, 2014 - Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia akari are the most common causes of spotted fever group rickettsioses indigenous to the United States. Infected patients characteristically present with a maculopapular rash, often accompanied by an inoculation eschar. Skin biopsy specimens are often obtained from these lesions for diagnostic evaluation. However, a species-specific diagn...

Four-month moxifloxacin-based regimens for drug-sensitive tuberculosis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4277680
The New England Journal of Medicine; Gillespie SH, Crook AM et. al.

Sep 9th, 2014 - Early-phase and preclinical studies suggest that moxifloxacin-containing regimens could allow for effective 4-month treatment of uncomplicated, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to test the noninferiority of two moxifloxacin-containing regimens as compared with a control regimen. One group of patients received isoni...

Reflexive culture in adolescents and adults with group A streptococcal pharyngitis.
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu400
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Dingle TC, Abbott AN et. al.

May 28th, 2014 - Guidelines currently provide conflicting recommendations regarding the diagnosis of group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in adults. Clinical guidelines state that negative rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) do not require confirmation by a backup method in adults, whereas laboratory-based guidelines mandate confirmation of a negative RADT in patients of all ages. The objective of this stu...