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About 2,039,648 results

Alectinib versus crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (J...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30565-2
Lancet (London, England); Hida T, Nokihara H et. al.

May 15th, 2017 - Alectinib, a potent, highly selective, CNS-active inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), showed promising efficacy and tolerability in the single-arm phase 1/2 AF-001JP trial in Japanese patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Given those promising results, we did a phase 3 trial to directly compare the efficacy and safety of alectinib and crizotinib. J-ALEX was a randomi...

Systematic review with meta-analysis: enteral nutrition therapy for the induction of re...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798240
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics; Swaminath A, Feathers A et. al.

Aug 17th, 2017 - Despite potential adverse-events in a paediatric population, corticosteroids are used to induce remission in paediatric Crohn's disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition also induces remission, but is infrequently used in the USA because corticosteroids are considered the superior therapy. New data have become available since the publication of the most recent meta-analysis in 2007. To see if curren...

FXR is a molecular target for the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4016120
Nature Ryan KK, Tremaroli V et. al.

Mar 28th, 2014 - Bariatric surgical procedures, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are at present the most effective therapy for the treatment of obesity, and are associated with considerable improvements in co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to these benefits remain largely undetermined, despite offering the potential to reveal new targe...

Randomised clinical trial: The beneficial effects of VSL#3 in obese children with non-a...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4046270
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics; Alisi A, Bedogni G et. al.

Apr 17th, 2014 - Gut microbiota modifiers may have beneficial effects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but randomised controlled trials (RCT) are lacking in children. To perform a double-blind RCT of VSL#3 vs. placebo in obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Of 48 randomised children, 44 (22 VSL#3 and 22 placebo) completed the study. The main outcome was the change in fatty liver severity at 4 mo...

Outpatient glycemic control with a bionic pancreas in type 1 diabetes.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4183762
The New England Journal of Medicine; Russell SJ, El-Khatib FH et. al.

Jun 16th, 2014 - The safety and effectiveness of automated glycemic management have not been tested in multiday studies under unrestricted outpatient conditions. In two random-order, crossover studies with similar but distinct designs, we compared glycemic control with a wearable, bihormonal, automated, "bionic" pancreas (bionic-pancreas period) with glycemic control with an insulin pump (control period) for 5 ...

Mutant adenosine deaminase 2 in a polyarteritis nodosa vasculopathy.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1307362
The New England Journal of Medicine; Navon Elkan P, Pierce SB et. al.

Feb 20th, 2014 - Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with a pathogenesis that is poorly understood. We identified six families with multiple cases of systemic and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. In most cases, onset of the disease occurred during childhood. We carried out exome sequencing in persons from multiply affected families of Georgia...

Insulin pump treatment compared with multiple daily injections for treatment of type 2 ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61037-0
Lancet (London, England); Reznik Y, Cohen O et. al.

Jul 6th, 2014 - Many patients with advanced type 2 diabetes do not meet their glycated haemoglobin targets and randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of pump treatment and multiple daily injections for lowering glucose in insulin-treated patients have yielded inconclusive results. We aimed to resolve this uncertainty with a randomised controlled trial (OpT2mise). We did this multicentre, controll...

Once-weekly dulaglutide versus once-daily liraglutide in metformin-treated patients wit...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60976-4
Lancet (London, England); Dungan KM, Povedano ST et. al.

Jul 15th, 2014 - Dulaglutide and liraglutide, both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, improve glycaemic control and reduce weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a head-to-head trial, we compared the safety and efficacy of once-weekly dulaglutide with that of once-daily liraglutide in metformin-treated patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. We did a phase 3, randomised, open-label, par...

Inhibition of the mTORC pathway in the antiphospholipid syndrome.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1312890
The New England Journal of Medicine; Canaud G, Bienaimé F et. al.

Jul 23rd, 2014 - Although thrombosis is considered the cardinal feature of the antiphospholipid syndrome, chronic vascular lesions are common, particularly in patients with life-threatening complications. In patients who require transplantation, vascular lesions often recur. The molecular pathways involved in the vasculopathy of the antiphospholipid syndrome are unknown, and adequate therapies are lacking. We u...

An inflammatory biomarker as a differential predictor of outcome of depression treatmen...
https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14010094
The American Journal of Psychiatry; Uher R, Tansey KE et. al.

Jul 15th, 2014 - Major depressive disorder has been linked with inflammatory processes, but it is unclear whether individual differences in levels of inflammatory biomarkers could help match patients to treatments that are most likely to be beneficial. The authors tested the hypothesis that C-reactive protein (CRP), a commonly available marker of systemic inflammation, predicts differential response to escitalo...

Effect of tesamorelin on visceral fat and liver fat in HIV-infected patients with abdom...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4363137
JAMA Stanley TL, Feldpausch MN et. al.

Jul 19th, 2014 - Among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), visceral adiposity is associated with metabolic dysregulation and ectopic fat accumulation. Tesamorelin, a growth hormone-releasing hormone analog, specifically targets visceral fat reduction but its effects on liver fat are unknown. To investigate the effect of tesamorelin on visceral and liver fat. Double-blind, randomized, plac...

Comparative analysis of rosacea and cutaneous lupus erythematosus: histopathologic feat...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2014.01.892
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology; Brown TT, Choi EY et. al.

Mar 24th, 2014 - Distinction of rosacea and cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE) can be challenging because of significant clinical and histologic overlap. A controlled study comparing these conditions is lacking. We compared the histologic features, T-cell subsets, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in rosacea and LE. Biopsy specimens of rosacea (n = 27) and facial LE (n = 30) were retrospectively reviewed and rea...

Two clinical phenotypes in polycythemia vera.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211877
The New England Journal of Medicine; Spivak JL, Considine M et. al.

Aug 27th, 2014 - Polycythemia vera is the ultimate phenotypic consequence of the V617F mutation in Janus kinase 2 (encoded by JAK2), but the extent to which this mutation influences the behavior of the involved CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells is unknown. We analyzed gene expression in CD34+ peripheral-blood cells from 19 patients with polycythemia vera, using oligonucleotide microarray technology after correctin...

Loss of mTOR-dependent macroautophagy causes autistic-like synaptic pruning deficits.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159743
Neuron Tang G, Gudsnuk K et. al.

Aug 26th, 2014 - Developmental alterations of excitatory synapses are implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we report increased dendritic spine density with reduced developmental spine pruning in layer V pyramidal neurons in postmortem ASD temporal lobe. These spine deficits correlate with hyperactivated mTOR and impaired autophagy. In Tsc2 ± ASD mice where mTOR is constitutively overactive, we ...

Targetable kinase-activating lesions in Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4191900
The New England Journal of Medicine; Roberts KG, Li Y et. al.

Sep 10th, 2014 - Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by a gene-expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, alterations of lymphoid transcription factor genes, and a poor outcome. The frequency and spectrum of genetic alterations in Ph-like ALL and its responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibition are undefined, especially in adolescents and ad...

Topical corticosteroid reduces inflammation without compromising the efficacy of photod...
https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.13284
The British Journal of Dermatology; Wiegell SR, Petersen B et. al.

Jul 25th, 2014 - Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and established treatment for actinic keratoses (AK) and nonmelanoma skin cancer. The main side-effects of PDT are post-treatment erythema and oedema, and pain during illumination. Severe erythema after PDT enhances the down time associated with the treatment. To evaluate in a randomized intraindividual study whether use of a topical corticosteroid jus...

Arterial imaging outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors in recently menopausal women:...
https://doi.org/10.7326/M14-0353
Annals of Internal Medicine; Harman SM, Black DM et. al.

Jul 29th, 2014 - Whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) protects against cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. To assess atherosclerosis progression and CVD risk factors after MHT initiated in early menopause. Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00154180). Nine U.S. academic centers. Healthy menopausal women aged 42 to 58 years between 6 and 36 months from last menses without prior C...

Alopecia areata is driven by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is reversed by JAK inhibition.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362521
Nature Medicine; Xing L, Dai Z et. al.

Aug 18th, 2014 - Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease resulting from damage of the hair follicle by T cells. The immune pathways required for autoreactive T cell activation in AA are not defined limiting clinical development of rational targeted therapies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicated ligands for the NKG2D receptor (product of the KLRK1 gene) in disease pathogenesis. Here, we...

Reticular erythematous mucinosis: histopathological and immunohistochemical features of...
https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.12654
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venere... Cinotti E, Merlo V et. al.

Aug 4th, 2014 - Reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) and lupus erythematosus tumidus (LET) share similarities. However, to our knowledge no study extensively compared the histological features of these two conditions. The aim of this study is to compare the histological and immunohistochemical features of REM and LET. We evaluated epidermal thickness, hyperkeratosis, dermo-epidermal junction changes, interst...

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults is associated with IgG4 and not mediated by IgE.
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.05.036
Gastroenterology Clayton F, Fang JC et. al.

Jun 7th, 2014 - Eosinophilic esophagitis is usually triggered by foods, by unclear mechanisms. We evaluated the roles of IgE and IgG4 in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adults with eosinophilic esophagitis given an antibody against IgE (omalizumab, n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) every 2-4 weeks for 16 weeks, based on we...