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About 266,114 results

Effect of Meropenem-Vaborbactam vs Piperacillin-Tazobactam on Clinical Cure or Improvem...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5838656
JAMA Kaye KS, Bhowmick T et. al.

Feb 27th, 2018 - Meropenem-vaborbactam is a combination carbapenem/beta-lactamase inhibitor and a potential treatment for severe drug-resistant gram-negative infections. To evaluate efficacy and adverse events of meropenem-vaborbactam in complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including acute pyelonephritis. Phase 3, multicenter, multinational, randomized clinical trial (TANGO I) conducted November 2014 to A...

Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30132-7
The Lancet. HIV; Hoornenborg E, Prins M et. al.

Sep 18th, 2017 - Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consi...

Empirical Antibiotic Treatment Does Not Improve Outcomes in Catheter-Associated Urinary...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix680
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Babich T, Zusman O et. al.

Oct 11th, 2017 - Catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common healthcare-associated acquired infection. We aimed to describe the short- and long-term survival of patients with CAUTI and the impact of the empirical antibiotic treatment on survival rates. In this prospective observational study we included consecutive adult patients with a chronic indwelling catheter-associated UTI and s...

Fecal microbiota transplant for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using a froze...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017893
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Youngster I, Sauk J et. al.

Apr 25th, 2014 - Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with poor response to standard antimicrobial therapy is a growing medical concern. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for relapsing CDI using a frozen suspension from unrelated donors, comparing colonoscopic and nasogastric tube (NGT) administration. Healthy volunteer donors were screened and a frozen fecal s...

FXR is a molecular target for the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4016120
Nature Ryan KK, Tremaroli V et. al.

Mar 28th, 2014 - Bariatric surgical procedures, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are at present the most effective therapy for the treatment of obesity, and are associated with considerable improvements in co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to these benefits remain largely undetermined, despite offering the potential to reveal new targe...

Molecular tracing of the emergence, diversification, and transmission of S. aureus sequ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020051
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Uhlemann AC, Dordel J et. al.

Apr 22nd, 2014 - During the last 2 decades, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have dramatically increased the global burden of S. aureus infections. The pandemic sequence type (ST)8/pulsed-field gel type USA300 is the dominant CA-MRSA clone in the United States, but its evolutionary history and basis for biological success are incompletely understood. Here, we us...

Hygiene strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017895
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Ellis MW, Schlett CD et. al.

Mar 18th, 2014 - Effective measures are needed to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in high-risk community settings. The study objective was to evaluate the effect of personal hygiene-based strategies on rates of overall SSTI and MRSA SSTI. We conducted a prospective, field-based, cluster-randomized trial in US Army Infantry trainees from May 2010...

Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to prevent gastric cancer in healthy asymptomat...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4027797
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.); Ford AC, Forman D et. al.

May 22nd, 2014 - To determine whether searching for Helicobacter pylori and treating with eradication therapy leads to a reduction in incidence of gastric cancer among healthy asymptomatic infected individuals. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials were searched through to December 2013. Conference proceedings...

Nonselective β blockers increase risk for hepatorenal syndrome and death in patients wi...
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.03.005
Gastroenterology Mandorfer M, Bota S et. al.

Mar 18th, 2014 - Nonselective β blockers (NSBBs) reduce portal pressure and the risk for variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. However, development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in these patients could preclude treatment with NSBBs because of their effects on the circulatory reserve. We investigated the effects of NSBBs in patients with cirrhosis and ascites with and without SBP. We perfo...

Single-dose oritavancin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1310422
The New England Journal of Medicine; Corey GR, Kabler H et. al.

Jun 4th, 2014 - Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria. Its concentration-dependent activity and prolonged half-life allow for single-dose treatment. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial in which adults with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections received either a single intravenous dose of 1200 mg of oritavancin or a regimen of intraven...

Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134948
The New England Journal of Medicine; Wilson MR, Naccache SN et. al.

Jun 4th, 2014 - A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 se...

Fecal microbiota transplant for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in immunoc...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5537742
The American Journal of Gastroenterology; Kelly CR, Ihunnah C et. al.

Jun 3rd, 2014 - Patients who are immunocompromised (IC) are at increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which has increased to epidemic proportions over the past decade. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears effective for the treatment of CDI, although there is concern that IC patients may be at increased risk of having adverse events (AEs) related to FMT. This study describes the mult...

Invasive pneumococcal disease after implementation of 13-valent conjugate vaccine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4187237
Pediatrics Iroh Tam PY, Madoff LC et. al.

Jul 8th, 2014 - To examine whether there is a different clinical profile and severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children caused by nonvaccine types in the era of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Observational study of childhood IPD in Massachusetts based on state public health surveillance data comparing pre-PCV13 (2007-2009) and post-PCV13 (2010-2012) eras. There were 168 pre-...

Alopecia and nail changes associated with voriconazole therapy.
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu275
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Malani AN, Kerr L et. al.

May 23rd, 2014 - Voriconazole was 1 of 2 antifungal agents recommended for treatment of fungal infections associated with injection of contaminated methylprednisolone. Alopecia and nail changes are not commonly reported side effects of voriconazole. Having noted increasing hair loss among our patients treated with voriconazole, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of alopecia associated wit...

Vancomycin exposure in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloods...
https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu398
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Lodise TP, Drusano GL et. al.

May 28th, 2014 - Contemporary vancomycin dosing schemes are designed to achieve an area under the curve (AUC) to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio of ≥400. However, scant clinical data exist to support this target and available data relied on pharmacokinetic formulas based on daily vancomycin dose and estimated renal function (demographic pharmacokinetic model) to estimate AUCs. A cohort study of hos...

Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnosing invasive fungal disease.
https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201403-0431OC
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Affolter K, Tamm M et. al.

Jul 9th, 2014 - Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We hypothesize that galactomannan (GM), a component of fungal cell wall, as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) might be a diagnostic adjunct in hematologic malignancies. A total of 568 hematologic cases undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy because of respiratory symptoms and/or sus...

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and culture conversion with bedaquiline.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1313865
The New England Journal of Medicine; Diacon AH, Pym A et. al.

Aug 20th, 2014 - Bedaquiline (Sirturo, TMC207), a diarylquinoline that inhibits mycobacterial ATP synthase, has been associated with accelerated sputum-culture conversion in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, when added to a preferred background regimen for 8 weeks. In this phase 2b trial, we randomly assigned 160 patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to re...

Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia akari in skin bi...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568984
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication Of... Denison AM, Amin BD et. al.

May 15th, 2014 - Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia akari are the most common causes of spotted fever group rickettsioses indigenous to the United States. Infected patients characteristically present with a maculopapular rash, often accompanied by an inoculation eschar. Skin biopsy specimens are often obtained from these lesions for diagnostic evaluation. However, a species-specific diagn...

Blood culture time to positivity in febrile infants with bacteremia.
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.895
JAMA Pediatrics; Biondi EA, Mischler M et. al.

Jul 22nd, 2014 - Blood cultures are often obtained as part of the evaluation of infants with fever and these infants are typically observed until their cultures are determined to have no growth. However, the time to positivity of blood culture results in this population is not known. To determine the time to positivity of blood culture results in febrile infants admitted to a general inpatient unit. Multicenter...

Identification of children and adolescents at risk for renal scarring after a first uri...
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.637
JAMA Pediatrics; Shaikh N, Craig JC et. al.

Aug 4th, 2014 - No studies have systematically examined the accuracy of clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables in detecting renal scarring in children and adolescents with a first urinary tract infection. To identify independent prognostic factors for the development of renal scarring and to combine these factors in prediction models that could be useful in clinical practice. MEDLINE and EMBASE. We includ...